Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw.

by McCalley, Carmody K., Wehr, Richard A., Saleska, Scott R., Woodcroft, Ben J., Mondav, Rhiannon, Tyson, Gene W., Hodgkins, Suzanne B., Chanton, Jeffrey P., Kim, Eun-Hae, Rich, Virginia I., Crill, Patrick M. [2014-10-23]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Permafrost contains about 50% of the global soil carbon. It is thought that the thawing of permafrost can lead to a loss of soil carbon in the form of methane and carbon dioxide emissions. The magnitude of the resulting positive climate feedback of such greenhouse gas emissions is still unknown and may to a large extent depend on the poorly understood role of microbial community composition in regulating the metabolic processes that drive such ecosystem-scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we show that changes in vegetation and increasing methane emissions with permafrost thaw are associated with a switch from hydrogenotrophic to partly acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulting in a large shift in the δ13C signature (10-15‰) of emitted methane. We used a natural landscape gradient of permafrost thaw in northern Sweden as a model to investigate the role of microbial communities in regulating methane cycling, and to test whether a knowledge of community dynamics could improve predictions of carbon emissions under loss of permafrost. Abundance of the methanogen Candidatus 'Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis' is a key predictor of the shifts in methane isotopes, which in turn predicts the proportions of carbon emitted as methane and as carbon dioxide, an important factor for simulating the climate feedback associated with permafrost thaw in global models. By showing that the abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, we establish a basis for scaling changing microbial communities to ecosystem isotope dynamics. Our findings indicate that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Celebrating science.

by Carmody, John [2001-07-26]

Academic Journal

pages 1

Ponders on scientists' lack of emotional honesty in writing their research activities. Opinion of Sir Peter Medawar on scientific publications; Information on scientists' approach in writing scientific papers; Description of Herbert Moran's writing in his book `In My Fashion.'


Lymphocytes have a role in protection, but not in pathogenesis, during La Crosse Virus infection in mice.

by Winkler, Clayton W., Myers, Lara M., Woods, Tyson A., Carmody, Aaron B., Taylor, Katherine G., Peterson, Karin E. [2017-03-24]

Academic Journal

pages 14

Background: La Crosse Virus (LACV) is a primary cause of pediatric viral encephalitis in the USA and can result in severe clinical outcomes. Almost all cases of LACV encephalitis occur in children 16 years or younger, indicating an age-related susceptibility. This susceptibility is recapitulated in a mouse model where weanling (3 weeks old or younger) mice are susceptible to LACV-induced disease, and adults (greater than 6 weeks) are resistant. Disease in mice and humans is associated with infiltrating leukocytes to the CNS. However, what cell types are infiltrating into the brain during virus infection and how these cells influence pathogenesis remain unknown.Methods: In the current study, we analyzed lymphocytes recruited to the CNS during LACV-infection in clinical mice, using flow cytometry. We analyzed the contribution of these lymphocytes to LACV pathogenesis in weanling mice using knockout mice or antibody depletion. Additionally, we studied at the potential role of these lymphocytes in preventing LACV neurological disease in resistant adult mice.Results: In susceptible weanling mice, disease was associated with infiltrating lymphocytes in the CNS, including NK cells, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells. Surprisingly, depletion of these cells did not impact neurological disease, suggesting these cells do not contribute to virus-mediated damage. In contrast, in disease-resistant adult animals, depletion of both CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells or depletion of B cells increased neurological disease, with higher levels of virus in the brain.Conclusions: Our current results indicate that lymphocytes do not influence neurological disease in young mice, but they have a critical role protecting adult animals from LACV pathogenesis. Although LACV is an acute virus infection, these studies indicate that the innate immune response in adults is not sufficient for protection and that components of the adaptive immune response are necessary to prevent virus from invading the CNS. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Fcγ-receptor IIa-mediated Src Signaling Pathway is Essential for the Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection.

by Furuyama, Wakako, Marzi, Andrea, Carmody, Aaron B., Maruyama, Junki, Kuroda, Makoto, Miyamoto, Hiroko, Nanbo, Asuka, Manzoor, Rashid, Yoshida, Reiko, Igarashi, Manabu, Feldmann, Heinz, Takada, Ayato [2016-12-30]

Academic Journal

pages 22

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection has been demonstrated in vitro, raising concerns about the detrimental potential of some anti-EBOV antibodies. ADE has been described for many viruses and mostly depends on the cross-linking of virus-antibody complexes to cell surface Fc receptors, leading to enhanced infection. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Here we show that Fcγ-receptor IIa (FcγRIIa)-mediated intracellular signaling through Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is required for ADE of EBOV infection. We found that deletion of the FcγRIIa cytoplasmic tail abolished EBOV ADE due to decreased virus uptake into cellular endosomes. Furthermore, EBOV ADE, but not non-ADE infection, was significantly reduced by inhibition of the Src family protein PTK pathway, which was also found to be important to promote phagocytosis/macropinocytosis for viral uptake into endosomes. We further confirmed a significant increase of the Src phosphorylation mediated by ADE. These data suggest that antibody-EBOV complexes bound to the cell surface FcγRIIa activate the Src signaling pathway that leads to enhanced viral entry into cells, providing a novel perspective for the general understanding of ADE of virus infection. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Reading the Bible Intertextually.

by Carmody, Timothy R. [2010-07-01]

Review

pages 3

The article reviews the book "Reading the Bible Intertextually," edited by Richard B. Hays, Stefan Alkier, and Leroy A. Huizenga.


Review

pages 3

The article reviews the book "Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns," by Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn and Curtis W. Johnson.


Balloon-Occlusion Technique for Managing Portal Vein Hemorrhage in Liver Transplantation.

by Seal, John B., Bohorquez, Humberto, Battula, Naren, DeGregorio, Lucia, Bugeaud, Emily, Bruce, David S., Carmody, Ian C., Cohen, Ari J., Loss, George E. [2017-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

The article discusses the essential of careful preoperative planning and expectation of possible problems for safe and effective management of complex portal vein thrombosis (PVT) intraoperatively.


Age-related differences in neuroinflammatory responses associated with a distinct profile of regulatory markers on neonatal microglia.

by Christensen, Leah B., Woods, Tyson A., Carmody, Aaron B., Caughey, Byron, Peterson, Karin E. [2014-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 27

Background The perinatal period is one in which the mammalian brain is particularly vulnerable to immune-mediated damage. Early inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is linked with long-term impairment in learning and behavior, necessitating a better understanding of mediators of neuroinflammation. We therefore directly examined how age affected neuroinflammatory responses to pathogenic stimuli. Methods In mice, susceptibility to neurological damage changes dramatically during the first few weeks of life. Accordingly, we compared neuroinflammatory responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of neonatal (two day-old) and weanling (21 day-old) mice. Mice were inoculated intracerebrally with PAMPs and the cellular and molecular changes in the neuroinflammatory response were examined. Results Of the 12 cytokines detected in the CNS following toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, ten were significantly higher in neonates compared with weanling mice. A similar pattern of increased cytokines in neonates was also observed with TLR9 stimulation. Analysis of cellular responses indicated a difference in microglial activation markers in the CNS of neonatal mice and increased expression of proteins known to modulate cellular activation including CD11a, F4/80 and CD172a. We also identified a new marker on microglia, SLAMF7, which was expressed at higher levels in neonates compared with weanlings. Conclusions A unique neuroinflammatory profile, including higher expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and differential expression of microglial markers, was observed in brain tissue from neonates following TLR stimulation. This increased neuroinflammatory response to PAMPs may explain why the developing brain is particularly sensitive to infection and why infection or stress during this time can lead to long-term damage in the CNS. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Bcl-3 deficiency protects against dextran-sodium sulphate-induced colitis in the mouse.

by O'Carroll, C., Moloney, G., Hurley, G., Melgar, S., Brint, E., Nally, K., Nibbs, R. J., Shanahan, F., Carmody, R. J. [2013-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Bcl-3 is a member of the IκB family of proteins and is an essential negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-induced responses. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with reduced Bcl-3 gene expression has been identified as a potential risk factor for Crohn's disease. Here we report that in contrast to the predictions of single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP) analysis, patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis demonstrate elevated Bcl-3 mRNA expression relative to healthy individuals. To explore further the potential role of Bcl-3 in inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD), we used the dextran-sodium sulphate ( DSS)-induced model of colitis in Bcl-3−/− mice. We found that Bcl-3−/− mice were less sensitive to DSS-induced colitis compared to wild-type controls and demonstrated no significant weight loss following treatment. Histological analysis revealed similar levels of oedema and leucocyte infiltration between DSS-treated wild-type and Bcl-3−/− mice, but showed that Bcl-3−/− mice retained colonic tissue architecture which was absent in wild-type mice following DSS treatment. Analysis of the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin ( IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor ( TNF)-α and IL-6 revealed no significant differences between DSS-treated Bcl-3−/− and wild-type mice. Analysis of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation revealed enhanced proliferation in Bcl-3−/− mice, which correlated with preserved tissue architecture. Our results reveal that Bcl-3 has an important role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis which is distinct from its role as a negative regulator of inflammation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A novel mechanism of nuclear factor-κB regulation by adenoviral protein 14·7K.

by Carmody, Ruaidhrí J., Maguschak, Kimberly, Chen, Youhai H. [2006-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Viruses have evolved many different ways to evade immune attacks. The adenoviral E3 protein 14·7K effectively inhibits antiviral immunity and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect is unclear. Here we show that 14·7K is a potent inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcriptional activity following Toll-like receptor (TLR) or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signalling. The inhibition of the NF-κB activity occurs downstream of IκBα degradation and NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Analysis of NF-κB DNA binding reveals that 14·7K specifically inhibits p50 homodimer DNA binding and that this inhibition is mediated through the interaction of 14·7K with p50. We propose that 14·7K inhibits NF-κB activity through directly blocking p50 binding to DNA and that this is the basis for its anti-inflammatory properties. Our data also indicate a role for p50 homodimer-dependent transcription in inflammation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Regulation of NF-κB Subunits by Phosphorylation.

by Christian, Frank, Smith, Emma L., Carmody, Ruaidhrí J. [2016-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 19

The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it an important factor in determining health and disease. The importance of NF-κB in tissue homeostasis and immunity has frustrated therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, significant research efforts have revealed the crucial contribution of NF-κB phosphorylation to controlling NF-κB directed transactivation. Importantly, NF-κB phosphorylation controls transcription in a gene-specific manner, offering new opportunities to selectively target NF-κB for therapeutic benefit. This review will focus on the phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits and the impact on NF-κB function. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Ubiquitination of NF-κB Subunits in the Control of Transcription.

by Collins, Patricia E., Mitxitorena, Izaskun, Carmody, Ruaidhrí J. [2016-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 27

Nuclear factor (NF)-κB has evolved as a latent, inducible family of transcription factors fundamental in the control of the inflammatory response. The transcription of hundreds of genes involved in inflammation and immune homeostasis require NF-κB, necessitating the need for its strict control. The inducible ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the cytoplasmic inhibitor of κB (IκB) proteins promotes the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. More recently, an additional role for ubiquitination in the regulation of NF-κB activity has been identified. In this case, the ubiquitination and degradation of the NF-κB subunits themselves plays a critical role in the termination of NF-κB activity and the associated transcriptional response. While there is still much to discover, a number of NF-κB ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases have now been identified which coordinate to regulate the NF-κB transcriptional response. This review will focus the regulation of NF-κB subunits by ubiquitination, the key regulatory components and their impact on NF-κB directed transcription. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


ATLANTIC DIP: The prevalence of pre-diabetes/ type 2 diabetes in an Irish population with gestational diabetes mellitus 1-5 years post index pregnancy.

by Crowe, C., Noctor, E., Carmody, L. A., Wickham, B., Avalos, G., Gaffney, G., O'Shea, P., Dunne, F. [2012-01-05]

Academic Journal

pages 1

An abstract of the article "ATLANTIC DIP: The prevalence of pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes in an Irish population with gestational diabetes mellitus 1-5 years post index pregnancy," by C. Crowe, E. Noctor, L. A. Carmody, B. Wickham, G. Avalos, G. Gaffney, P. O'Shea, and F. Dunne is presented.


Smoking intensity and severity of specific symptom clusters in posttraumatic stress disorder.

by Joseph, Anne M., McFall, Miles, Saxon, Andrew J., Chow, Bruce K., Leskela, Jennie, Dieperink, Michael E., Carmody, Timothy P., Beckham, Jean C. [2012-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Smoking prevalence among patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is over 40%. Baseline data from the VA Cooperative Studies Program trial of integrated versus usual care for smoking cessation in veterans with PTSD ( N = 863) were used in multivariate analyses of PTSD and depression severity, and 4 measures of smoking intensity: cigarettes per day (CPD), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), time to first cigarette, and expired carbon monoxide. Multivariate regression analysis showed the following significant associations: CPD with race ( B = −7.16), age ( B = 0.11), and emotional numbing ( B =0 .16); FTND with race ( B = −0.94), education ( B = −0.34), emotional numbing ( B = 0.04), significant distress ( B = −0.12), and PHQ-9 ( B = 0.04); time to first cigarette with education ( B = 0.41), emotional numbing ( B = −0.03), significant distress ( B = 0.09), and PHQ-9 ( B = −0.03); and expired carbon monoxide with race ( B = −9.40). Findings suggest that among veterans with PTSD, White race and emotional numbing were most consistently related to increased smoking intensity and had more explanatory power than total PTSD symptom score. Results suggest specific PTSD symptom clusters are important to understanding smoking behavior in patients with PTSD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Validation of a diabetes risk score in identifying patients at risk of progression to abnormal glucose tolerance post partum.

by Crowe, C., Noctor, E., Carmody, L. A., Wickham, B., Avalos, G., Gaffney, G., O'Shea, P., Dunne, F. [2012-01-05]

Academic Journal

pages 1

An abstract of the article "Validation of a diabetes risk score in identifying patients at risk of progression to abnormal glucose tolerance post partum," by C. Crowe, E. Noctor, L. A. Carmody, B. Wickham, G. Avalos, G. Gaffney, P. O'Shea, and F. Dunne is presented.


The prevalence of metabolic syndrome up to 5 years post-partum in patients with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

by Crowe, C., Noctor, E., Carmody, L. A., Wickham, B., Avalos, G., Gaffney, G., O'Shea, P., Dunne, F. [2012-01-05]

Academic Journal

pages 1

An abstract of the article "The prevalence of metabolic syndrome up to 5 years post-partum in patients with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus," by C. Crowe, E. Noctor, L. A. Carmody, B. Wickham, G. Avalos, G. Gaffney, P. O'Shea, and F. Dunne is presented.


Impact of Tellurium Precipitates in CdZnTe Substrates on MBE HgCdTe Deposition.

by Benson, J., Bubulac, L., Smith, P., Jacobs, R., Markunas, J., Jaime-Vasquez, M., Almeida, L., Stoltz, A., Wijewarnasuriya, P., Brill, G., Chen, Y., Peterson, J., Reddy, M., Vilela, M., Johnson, S., Lofgreen, D., Yulius, A., Bostrup, G., Carmody, M., Lee, D. [2014-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

State-of-the-art (112)B CdZnTe substrates were examined for near-surface tellurium precipitate-related defects. The Te precipitate density was observed to be fairly uniform throughout the bulk of the wafer, including the near-surface region. After a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) preparation etch, exposed Te precipitates, small pits, and bumps on the (112)B surface of the CdZnTe wafer were observed. From near-infrared and dark field microscopy, the bumps and small pits on the CdZnTe surface are associated with strings of Te precipitates. Raised bumps are Te precipitates near the surface of the (112)B CdZnTe where the MBE preparation etch has not yet exposed the Te precipitate(s). An exposed Te precipitate sticking above the etched CdZnTe surface plane occurs when the MBE preparation etch rapidly undercuts a Te precipitate. Shallow surface pits are formed when the Te precipitate is completely undercut from the surrounding (112)B surface plane. The Te precipitate that was previously located at the center of the pit is liberated by the MBE preparation etch process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Middenbury Current Affairs.

by Carmody, Kevin [1988-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages unknown

The article presents a speech by Kevin Carmody delivered for the A. B. C. News Commentary Programme in September 10, 1987. He comments, as one of Aborigines, on the Bicentennial celebration in Australia wherein he refers himself as Murris. He stresses on the colonization of Europeans on their homeland without recompense or recognition of our sovereignty.


As-Received CdZnTe Substrate Contamination.

by Benson, J., Bubulac, L., Jaime-Vasquez, M., Lennon, C., Smith, P., Jacobs, R., Markunas, J., Almeida, L., Stoltz, A., Arias, J., Wijewarnasuriya, P., Peterson, J., Reddy, M., Vilela, M., Johnson, S., Lofgreen, D., Yulius, A., Carmody, M., Hirsch, R., Fiala, J. [2015-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

State-of-the-art as-received (112)B CdZnTe substrates were examined for surface impurity contamination, polishing damage, and tellurium precipitates/inclusions. A maximum surface impurity concentration of Al = 7.5 × 10, Si = 3.7 × 10, Cl = 3.12 × 10, S = 1.7 × 10, P = 7.1 × 10, Fe = 1.0 × 10, Br = 1.9 × 10, and Cu = 4 × 10 atoms cm was observed on an as-received 6 × 6 cm wafer. As-received CdZnTe substrates have scratches and residual polishing grit on the (112)B surface. Polishing scratches are 0.3 nm in depth and 0.1 μm wide. The polishing grit density was observed to vary from wafer-to-wafer from ∼5 × 10 to 2 × 10 cm. Te precipitate/inclusion size and density was determined by near-infrared automated microscopy. A Te precipitate/inclusion diameter histogram was obtained for the near-surface (top ~140 μm) of a 6 × 6 cm substrate. The average areal Te precipitate/inclusion density was observed to be fairly uniform. However, there was a large density of Te precipitates/inclusions with a diameter significantly greater than the mean. Te precipitate/inclusion density >10 μm diameter = 2.8 × 10 cm. The large Te precipitates/inclusions are laterally non-uniformly distributed across the wafer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Pedagogy for Inter-Religious Education.

by Carmody, Brendan [2013-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Inter-religious education has become a major concern as globalization proceeds. To develop a satisfactory model for it remains a challenge. This article proposes a paradigm based on the notion of self-transcendence as articulated by the philosopher-theologian, Bernard Lonergan. The approach provides a standpoint where the learner achieves a level of freedom by which he/she is enabled to decide responsibly what religious or non-religious viewpoint to adopt. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Surface Structure of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (211)B HgCdTe.

by Benson, J. D., Almeida, L. A., Carmody, M. W. [2007-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

The as-grown molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) (211)B HgCdTe surface has variable surface topography, which is primarily dependent on substrate temperature and substrate/epilayer mismatch. Nano-ripple formation and cross-hatch patterning are the predominant structural features observed. Nano-ripples preferentially form parallel to the [1̄11] and are from 0 Å to 100 Å in height with a wavelength between 0.1 µm and 0.8 µm. Cross-hatch patterns result from slip dislocations in the three {111} planes intersecting the (211) growth surface. The cross-hatch step height is 4 ± 1 Å (limited data set). This indicates that only a bi-layer slip (Hg/Cd + Te) in the {111} slip plane occurs. For the deposition of MBE (211)B HgCdTe/CdTe/Si, the reorientation of multiple nano-ripples coalesced into "packets" forms cross-hatch patterns. The as-grown MBE (211)B CdTe/Si surface is highly variable but displays nanoripples and no cross-hatch pattern. Three types of defects were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM): needle, void/hillock, and voids. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Maternal Childhood Sexual Trauma and Child Conduct Problems.

by Zvara, B., Mills-Koonce, R., Carmody, K., Cox, M. [2017-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

This study examines multiple pathways by which maternal childhood sexual trauma may be related to the behavioral development of children. Propensity score matching procedures were used to create matched groups (total n = 204) of mothers who retroactively did and did not self-report childhood sexual trauma in a longitudinal sample of families living in poor, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, maternal characteristics and behaviors were examined as potential mediators of the relationship between maternal histories of childhood sexual trauma and children's conduct problems. After controlling for numerous socio-demographic factors, analyses indicate that maternal depressive symptoms, intimate partner violence, and maternal parenting were significant mediators and highlight the lasting impact of childhood sexual trauma on victims and their children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Spatial variation of the current in grain boundary Josephson junctions.

by Carmody, M., Moeckly, B. H., Merkle, K. L. [2000-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Direct methods were used to determine the spatial variation of the current across the boundary in several YBa2Cu3O7-x grain boundary Josephson junctions. The positional critical current density was calculated from critical current versus applied magnetic field measurements using a phase retrieval algorithm.


Recent Progress in MBE Growth of CdTe and HgCdTe on (211)B GaAs Substrates.

by Carmody, M., Yulius, A., Edwall, D., Lee, D., Piquette, E., Jacobs, R., Benson, D., Stoltz, A., Markunas, J., Almeida, A., Arias, J. [2012-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Alternate substrates for molecular beam epitaxy growth of HgCdTe including Si, Ge, and GaAs have been under development for more than a decade. MBE growth of HgCdTe on GaAs substrates was pioneered by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) in the 1980s. However, recent improvements in the layer crystal quality including improvements in both the CdTe buffer layer and the HgCdTe layer growth have resulted in GaAs emerging as a strong candidate for replacement of bulk CdZnTe substrates for certain infrared imaging applications. In this paper the current state of the art in CdTe and HgCdTe MBE growth on (211)B GaAs and (211) Si at TIS is reviewed. Recent improvements in the CdTe buffer layer quality (double crystal rocking curve full-width at half-maximum ≈ 30 arcsec) with HgCdTe dislocation densities of ≤10 cm are discussed and comparisons are made with historical HgCdTe on bulk CdZnTe and alternate substrate data at TIS. Material properties including the HgCdTe majority carrier mobility and dislocation density are presented as a function of the CdTe buffer layer quality. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Good Will Funding.

by BRYNKO, BARBARA [2012-12-01]

Periodical

pages 4

The article focuses on philanthropic library initiatives. It comments on the international development initiative Lubuto Library Project, which built two libraries in Zambia to serve the most vulnerable children and mentions the importance of a digital infrastructure in creating a sustainable program. It talks about library information solutions company Gale which is providing discounted digital resources to rural libraries. It mentions the nonprofit computer library service OCLC's initiatives.