The Chemistry of Love (Book).

by Adelman, George [1983-03-15]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'The Chemistry of Love,' by Michael R. Liebowitz.


The Emergence of Life (Book).

by Reiser, Frank, Rawlinson, Nora [1988-06-15]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'The Emergence of Life: Darwinian Evolution From the Inside,' by Sidney Fox.


Computer visualization.

by Nathan, Tracy L. [1990-05-01]

Periodical

pages 3

Discusses how computer visualization is changing the way we see the universe and think as presented in the book "Visualization: The Second Computer Revolution," by Richard Mark Friedhoff and William Benzon. Capabilities of computer visualization; Applications; Effect of the technology on biochemistry; Computer aided design for cars, buildings, aerospace; Combination of image processing, graphics, holography and simulation.


Chemistry -- the key to life.

by Rouvray, Dennis [2013-08-01]

Review

pages 2

The article reviews the book "What Is Life? How Chemistry Becomes Biology," by Addy Pross.


A history of biochemistry (Book).

by Underwood, E. Ashworth [1975-01-01]

Review

pages 3

Reviews the book 'A History of Biochemistry. Parts I and II,' by Marcel Florkin.


ChemInform Abstract: An Introduction to Food Biochemistry.

by Yada, Rickey Y., Bryksa, Brian, Nip, Wai‐kit [2013-07-16]

Academic Journal

pages 1

Review: 86 refs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Una introducción a la mecanobiología computacional.

by Landinez Parra, Nancy, Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A., Narváez Tovar, Carlos Alberto [2011-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 22


Assessment of Diabetes Related Knowledge Amongst Pre-Clinical Medical & Dental Students of IMDC.

by Haroon, Sadia, Usman, Mohammad, Hafeez, Maryam [2016-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Background: Assessment of the knowledge of patho-physiology, diagnosis, treatment and care of the patients with diabetes mellitus among medical students in preclinical years is important since majority of patient admitted to hospital have underlying diabetes which could lead to adverse clinical outcome if not managed efficiently. Objective: Purpose of study was to evaluate knowledge related to etiology risk factors, diagnosis and management of different complications of diabetes among medical and dental student at IMDC where an integrated hybrid PBL curriculum is running as pretest before introduction of biochemistry of diabetes mellitus endocrinology module. Methods: A validated self administered questionnaire was used related to diabetes awareness was used. Result: In this study 73 second year 51 female and 22 male and 29 BDS students comprising of 22 female and 2 male students. Majority of students (n=56 /102) obtained average (between 14-19/24) diabetic knowledge score, (n=31/102) got poor score (less than 14/24) and only few of them got good score 14/102 students they belong to MBBS. Conclusion: As there is no prior studies in our setting, evaluating knowledge related to diabetes mellitus diagnosis and management among medical students. This study has importance, based on these results, foundation of knowledge can be filled through medical and clinical education to improve future delivery of diabetic care. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Error identification in a high-volume clinical chemistry laboratory: Five-year experience.

by Jafri, Lena, Khan, Aysha Habib, Ghani, Farooq, Shakeel, Shahid, Raheem, Ahmed, Siddiqui, Imran [2015-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

Introduction. Quality indicators for assessing the performance of a laboratory require a systematic and continuous approach in collecting and analyzing data. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of errors utilizing the quality indicators in a clinical chemistry laboratory and to convert errors to the Sigma scale. Materials and methods. Five-year quality indicator data of a clinical chemistry laboratory was evaluated to describe the frequency of errors. An 'error' was defined as a defect during the entire testing process from the time requisition was raised and phlebotomy was done until the result dispatch. An indicator with a Sigma value of 4 was considered good but a process for which the Sigma value was 5 (i.e. 99.977% error-free) was considered well controlled. Results. In the five-year period, a total of 6,792,020 specimens were received in the laboratory. Among a total of 17,631,834 analyses, 15.5% were from within hospital. Total error rate was 0.45% and of all the quality indicators used in this study the average Sigma level was 5.2. Three indicators - visible hemolysis, failure of proficiency testing and delay in stat tests - were below 5 on the Sigma scale and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these processes. Conclusions. Using Six Sigma metrics quality in a clinical laboratory can be monitored more effectively and it can set benchmarks for improving efficiency. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Identification and binding mode of a novel Leishmania Trypanothione reductase inhibitor from high throughput screening.

by Turcano, Lorenzo, Torrente, Esther, Missineo, Antonino, Andreini, Matteo, Gramiccia, Marina, Di Muccio, Trentina, Genovese, Ilaria, Fiorillo, Annarita, Harper, Steven, Bresciani, Alberto, Colotti, Gianni, Ilari, Andrea [2018-11-26]

Academic Journal

pages 21

Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered to be one of the best targets to find new drugs against Leishmaniasis. This enzyme is fundamental for parasite survival in the host since it reduces trypanothione, a molecule used by the tryparedoxin/tryparedoxin peroxidase system of Leishmania to neutralize hydrogen peroxide produced by host macrophages during infection. In order to identify new lead compounds against Leishmania we developed and validated a new luminescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that allowed us to screen a library of 120,000 compounds. We identified a novel chemical class of TR inhibitors, able to kill parasites with an IC50 in the low micromolar range. The X-ray crystal structure of TR in complex with a compound from this class (compound 3) allowed the identification of its binding site in a pocket at the entrance of the NADPH binding site. Since the binding site of compound 3 identified by the X-ray structure is unique, and is not present in human homologs such as glutathione reductase (hGR), it represents a new target for drug discovery efforts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

by Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C., Schoeman, Johan P., Hooijberg, Emma H., Heinrich, Sonja K., Tordiffe, Adrian S. W. [2016-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 207

This article provides an assessment of the occurrence of immune-system-related hormetic-like biphasic dose-response relationships. Such dose-response relationships are extensive, with over 90 different immune response-related endpoints reported, induced by over 70 endogenous agonists, over 100 drugs, and over 40 environmental contaminants. Such hormetic responses were reported in over 30 animal models, over a dozen mammalian and human cell lines. These findings demonstrate that immune-system-related hormetic-like biphasic dose-response relationships are common and highly generalizable according to model, endpoint, and chemical class. The quantitative features of the dose response are generally consistent with previously published examples of hormetic dose responses for other biological endpoints. These findings were generally recognized and explicitly discussed by the original authors, often with consideration given to possible mechanistic foundations as well as numerous clinical implications. Despite the recognition by individual authors of the hormetic nature of these observed responses, the overall widespread nature of immune-related hormetic responses has been only little appreciated, with a general lack of insight into the highly generalizable nature of this phenomenon as well as the complex regulatory networks affecting biological switching mechanisms that result in the hormetic responses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 17

This paper presents the basis of DNA genealogy, a new field of science, which is currently emerging as an unusual blend of biochemistry, history, linguistics, and chemical kinetics. The methodology of the new approach is comprised of chemical (biological) kinetics applied to a pattern of mutations in non-recombinant fragments of DNA (Y chromosome and mtDNA, the latter not being considered in this overview). The goal of the analysis is to translate DNA mutation patterns into time spans to the most recent common ancestors of a given population or tribe and to the dating of ancient migration routes. To illustrate this approach, time spans to the common ancestors are calculated for ethnic Russians, that is Eastern Slavs (R1a1 tribe), Western Slavs (I1 and I2 tribes), and Northern (or Uralic) Slavs (N1c tribe), which were found to live around 4600 years before present (R1a1), 3650 ybp (I1), 3000 and 10,500 ybp (I2, two principal DNA lineages), and 3525 ybp (N1c) (confidence intervals are given in the main text). The data were compared with the respective dates for the nearest common ancestor of the R1a1 'Indo-European' population in India, who lived 4050 years before present, whose descendants represent the majority of the upper castes in India today (up to 72%). Furthermore, it was found that the haplotypes of ethnic Russians of the R1a1 haplogroup (up to 62% of the population in the Russian Federation) and those of the R1a1 Indians (more than 100 million today) are practically identical to each other, up to 67-marker haplotypes. This essentially solves a 200-year-old mystery of who were the Aryans who arrived in India around 3500 years before the present. Haplotypes and time spans to the ancient common ancestors were also compared for the ethnic Russians of haplogroups I1 and I2, on one hand, and the respective I1 and I2 populations in Eastern and Western Europe and Scandinavia, on the other. It is suggested that the approach described in this overview lays the foundation for 'molecular history', in which the principal tool is high-technology analysis of DNA molecules of both our contemporaries and excavated ancient DNA samples, along with their biological kinetics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

DNA

Ten quick tips for getting the most scientific value out of numerical data.

by Schwen, Lars Ole, Rueschenbaum, Sabrina [2018-10-11]

Academic Journal

pages 21

Most studies in the life sciences and other disciplines involve generating and analyzing numerical data of some type as the foundation for scientific findings. Working with numerical data involves multiple challenges. These include reproducible data acquisition, appropriate data storage, computationally correct data analysis, appropriate reporting and presentation of the results, and suitable data interpretation. Finding and correcting mistakes when analyzing and interpreting data can be frustrating and time-consuming. Presenting or publishing incorrect results is embarrassing but not uncommon. Particular sources of errors are inappropriate use of statistical methods and incorrect interpretation of data by software. To detect mistakes as early as possible, one should frequently check intermediate and final results for plausibility. Clearly documenting how quantities and results were obtained facilitates correcting mistakes. Properly understanding data is indispensable for reaching well-founded conclusions from experimental results. Units are needed to make sense of numbers, and uncertainty should be estimated to know how meaningful results are. Descriptive statistics and significance testing are useful tools for interpreting numerical results if applied correctly. However, blindly trusting in computed numbers can also be misleading, so it is worth thinking about how data should be summarized quantitatively to properly answer the question at hand. Finally, a suitable form of presentation is needed so that the data can properly support the interpretation and findings. By additionally sharing the relevant data, others can access, understand, and ultimately make use of the results. These quick tips are intended to provide guidelines for correctly interpreting, efficiently analyzing, and presenting numerical data in a useful way. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FAT BODIES OF THE POPULAR SILKWORM BREEDS / HYBRIDS AND FOUNDATION CROSSES.

by Begum, A. Naseema, Rakesh, B., Rao, P. Sudhakara, Mamatha, M. [2014-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

The changes in the chemical composition of fat body reflect tissue specific changes in different developmental stages of the silkworm pupae. The data on the difference in the protein content of the fat body among the parents and single hybrid and foundation crosses revealed variations in protein content. In case of the total protein estimation, when males and females are being compared the females always exhibited higher protein content than males. The data of the difference in the carbohydrate content in the fat body among the males of single hybrid, foundation cross and that of the parents revealed that the concentration of glycogen in the fat body was higher in case of parents than that of hybrids and observed to be more in the females. Statistical analysis has shown significant results among the parents, FC and the hybrids for carbohydrate content in fat bodies. Accordingly, no major differences were noticed in the total lipid content between the breeds was observed even though small quantity of increase in lipid content was exhibited by the females. Since silkworm pupae mainly consisted of tricyclglycenol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphati-dylcholine. Both of them contains approximately 40% of a-linolenic acid as the predominant fatty acid, silkworm pupae would be a good source of functional fatty acids in the diet. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

FAT

Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings.

by Amist, Nimisha, Singh, Narsingh Bahadur, Yadav, Kavita [2014-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1) and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2). Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS) by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


RESEARCHERS REINVENT TECH.

by Coffee, Peter [2005-12-01]

Periodical

pages 4

The article discusses upcoming information technology (IT) innovations and issues related to adopting such innovations. Biology and biochemistry may contribute to the creation of IT hardware. There are efforts among research centers toward more cost-effective processor and architectures, following the mantra of performance per watt that Intel has recently adopted, but that vendors including Advanced Micro Devices Inc. and Sun identified long ago as the future figure of merit for central processing units. There will be a continued critical and growing need for supercomputer-speed data access. Another key to building better software is the enablement of better team interaction, an area of research effort at both IBM and Intel--and an ongoing process of social change at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Cells and cell biochemistry.

by Farley, Alistair, Hendry, Charles, McLafferty, Ella [2012-07-18]

Periodical

pages 6

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, aims to promote understanding of the basic structure and function of cells. It assists healthcare professionals to appreciate the complex anatomy and physiology underpinning the functioning of the human body. Several introductory chemical concepts and terms are outlined. The basic building blocks of all matter, atoms, are examined and the way in which they may interact to form new compounds within the body is discussed. The basic structures and components that make up a typical cell are considered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 1

Biochemical properties retrieved from remote sensing data are crucial sources of information for many applications. However, leaf and canopy scattering processes must be accounted for to reliably estimate information on canopy biochemistry, carbon-cycle processes and energy exchange. A coupled leaf-canopy model based on spectral invariants theory has been proposed, that uses the so-called Directional Area Scattering Factor (DASF) to correct hyperspectral remote sensing data for canopy structural effects. In this study, the reliability of DASF to decouple canopy structure and biochemistry was empirically tested using simulated reflectance spectra modelled using a Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model. This approach allows all canopy and radiative properties to be specified a priori. Simulations were performed under idealised conditions of directional-hemispherical reflectance, isotropic Lambertian leaf reflectance and transmittance and sufficiently dense (high LAI) canopies with black soil where the impact of canopy background is negligible, and also departures from these conditions. It was shown that both DASF and total canopy scattering could be accurately extracted under idealised conditions using information from both the full 400–2500 nm spectral interval and the 710–790 nm interval alone, even given no prior knowledge of leaf optical properties. Departures from these idealised conditions: varying view geometry, bi-directional reflectance, LAI and soil effects, were tested. We demonstrate that total canopy scattering could be retrieved under conditions of varying view geometry and bi-directional reflectance, but LAI and soil effects were shown to reduce the accuracy with which the scattering can be modelled using the DASF approach. We show that canopy architecture, either homogeneous or heterogeneous 3D arrangements of canopy scattering elements, has important influences over DASF and consequently the accuracy of retrieval of total canopy scattering. Finally, although DASF and total canopy scattering could be retrieved to within 2.4% of the modelled total canopy scattering signal given no prior knowledge of leaf optical properties, spectral invariant parameters were not accurately retrieved from the simulated signal. This has important consequences since these parameters are quite widely used in canopy reflectance modelling and have the potential to help derive new, more accurate canopy biophysical information. Understanding and quantifying the limitations of the DASF approach as we have done here, is an important step in allowing the wider use of these methods for decoupling canopy structure and biochemistry. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND SIGNALING: THE NFE2L2/AP-1 PATHWAY.

by ZOLOTUKHIN, Peter V., BELANOVA, Anna A., BESEDA, Darya K., PRAZDNOVA, Evgeniya V., CHISTYAKOV, Vladimir A. [2018-01-02]

Academic Journal

pages 9


A Strong Impact of Soil Tetracycline on Physiology and Biochemistry of Pea Seedlings.

by Margas, Małgorzata, Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I., Michalczyk, Dariusz J., Głowacka, Katarzyna [2019-01-10]

Academic Journal

pages 14

Antibiotics are a new type of contaminants found in the environment. They are increasingly used in farm animal production systems and may accumulate in crops, limiting the plant growth rate and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tetracycline (TC) on physiological and biochemical properties of pea seedlings. The presence of TC in the soil during 24 hours did not result in any distinct changes of the seedlings. However, after five days (120 h) of soil TC action, the seedling appearance and metabolic activities were significantly affected. Leaves lost their green coloration as a result of a 38% degradation of their chlorophyll. Total protein was isolated from shoots of pea grown for 120 h in TC-supplemented perlite (250 mg × L−1) or perlite with no TC (control plants). The 2D electrophoretic maps of proteins from non-TC shoots contained 326 spots, whereas maps of shoot proteins from TC-treated seedlings contained only 316 spots. The identity of 26 proteins was determined. The intensity of most proteins (62%) increased. This was particularly visible with diphosphate kinase, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], peroxiredoxin, and glutathione S-transferase. A distinctly increased quantity of a protein involved in photosynthesis (photosystem II stability/assembly factor HCF136) was also noted. One protein was detected only in shoots of TC-treated plants (as opposed to controls); however, it could not be identified. Moreover, at the highest concentration of TC (250 mg × L−1 of perlite), a sharp increase in free-radical content was observed along with the amount of callose deposited in vascular bundles of leaves and roots and the occurrence of masses of dead cells in roots. It was found, therefore, that tetracycline which has been known for inhibiting predominantly the attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal acceptor in bacteria can disturb diverse metabolic pathways in plants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Enzyme activity as a method for soil biochemistry and microbiology research has a long history of more than 100 years that is not widely acknowledged in terms of adherence to strict assay protocols and the interpretation of results. However, in the recent past, there is a growing lack of recognition of the historic advancements among researchers that use soil enzymology. Today, many papers are being published that use methods that either do not follow exact protocols as originally vetted in the research literature or individual labs use their own method that has not been optimized for pH, co-factors, substrate concentrations, or other conditions. This is of particular concern for fluorogenic substrates and microplate methods. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding of the origin and location of a given enzyme being studied. Notably, regardless of the enzyme, it is too often assumed that enzyme activity equals microbial activity-which is not the case for most hydrolytic enzyme assays. Because as established by Douglas McLaren in the 1950s, a considerable amount of activity can come from catalytic enzymes stabilized in the soil matrix but that are no longer associated with viable cells (known as abiontic enzymes). In summary, today, many papers are using imperfect methods and/or misinterpret enzyme activity data that at a minimum confounds cross paper studies and meta-analysis. However, most importantly, lack of historical perspectives and ignoring strict protocols cause redundancy and fundamentally undermine the discipline and understanding of soil microbiology/biochemistry when enzymology methods are used. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Effect of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine on Liver Biochemistry and Quality of Life in Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis Treated with Ursodeoxycholic Acid. A Prospective, Open Label Pilot Study.

by Wunsch, Ewa, Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna, Barbier, Olivier, Milkiewicz, Malgorzata, Krawczyk, Marcin, Milkiewicz, Piotr [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background & Aims: Chronic liver disease induces an acquired deficiency of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) leading to impairment of detoxifying processes in the liver. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents the standard treatment in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). As both compounds exert their hepatoprotective effects by different mechanisms, it is conceivable that when used together their effect might be additive. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of SAMe supplementation on liver biochemistry and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with PBC, treated with UDCA. Methods. In this prospective pilot, proof of the principle, non-randomized and open label study we enrolled 24 patients with PBC treated with UDCA for at least 6 months. They had received both UDCA in a standard dose of 13-15 mg/kg b.w. and SAMe in the dose of 1200 mg daily over a period of 6 months. A group of 24 patients with PBC treated with UDCA served as control for liver biochemistry (Study registered on the platform ClinicalTrials.gov under ID: NCT02557360). Results. We observed a significant decrease of ALP, GGT and total cholesterol in non-cirrhotic patients treated with SAMe. There was also a significant improvement of fatigue and pruritus in PBC-40 questionnaire and amelioration of anxiety in STAI 2 questionnaire in the SAMe group. Treatment with SAMe neither increased sulfation capacity of the liver nor had an effect on fibroblast growth factor-19 serum levels. Conclusions. Our pilot study demonstrates a positive effect of adding SAMe to UDCA in non-cirrhotic patients with PBC. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

Objective: The study was designed to establish choline deficiency model (CDM) in broilers for evaluating efficacy of polyherbal formulation (PHF) in comparison with synthetic choline chloride (SCC). Methods: A total of 2,550 one-day-old Cobb 430 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to different groups in three experiments. In experiment 1, G1 and G2 served as normal controls and were fed a basal diet with 100% soybean meal (SBM) as a major protein source supplemented with and without SCC, respectively. In G3, G4, G5, and G6 groups, SBM was replaced at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by soy protein isolate (SPI) to induce a graded level of choline deficiency. In experiment 2, PHF (500 and 1,000 g/ton) in comparison with SCC (1,000 g/ton) were evaluated. In experiment 3, dose-response of PHF (200, 400, and 500 g/ton) with SCC (400 g/ton) was determined. Results: Replacement of SBM by SPI produced a linear decrease in body weight gain (BWG) with a poor feed conversion ratio (FCR). 25% SBM replacement by SPI yielded an optimum negative impact on BWG and FCR; hence, it is considered for further studies. In experiment 2, PHF (500 and 1,000 g/ton) and SCC (1,000 g/ton) showed a similar performance in BWG, FCR and relative liver weight. In experiment 3, PHF produced an optimum efficacy at 400 g/ton and was comparable to SCC in the restoration of serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, abdominal fat, breast muscle lipid content and liver histopathological abnormalities. Conclusion: Replacement of SBM by SPI caused choline deficiency characterised by worsening of BWG, FCR, elevation in liver enzymes and histopathological changes indicating fatty liver. CDM was found valid for evaluating SCC and PHF. It is concluded that PHF has the potential to mimic biological activities of SCC through the restoration of negative effects caused by CDM. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]