Academic Journal

pages 14

Pectin disassembly was examined in transgenic tomato fruit with reduced polygalacturonase (PG). Mature-green tomato fruit were stored at 5 and 12C for 21 days and subsequently transferred to 18C for an additional 5 days. Pericarp softened during storage at 12C and the softening rate increased after fruit were transferred to 18C. Firmness remained unchanged during storage at 5C but decreased after transfer of chilled fruit to 18C. Water-soluble pectins increased five- and ninefold during ripening of PG-antisense and wild-type fruit, respectively, while trans-1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid-soluble pectins increased only slightly. Solubilization of pectins was very restricted in fruit stored at 5C and upon subsequent transfer to 18C. Pectins exhibited a PG-mediated reduction in molecular mass during ripening at 12C, but no depolymerization was observed in chill-injured fruit. Chill-injured tomato fruit softened even though pectin solubilization and molecular mass distribution remained unchanged, suggesting that the softening mechanism differs in ripening and chill-injured tomato fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Chilling injury poses serious problems in the supply chain of sensitive commodities. Abnormal textural changes are one of the chilling-injury symptoms described in sensitive fruit, including tomato, but the mechanism for the accelerated softening rate and development of mealiness is not yet fully understood. Although ripening-related softening and pectin metabolism have been extensively characterized, the pectic metabolism in chill-injured fruit remains elusive. Transgenic plants with altered enzyme expression are excellent tools to test hypothesis regarding the physiological role of the enzymes. Because polygalacturonase (PG) expression is inhibited during low-temperature storage, it is possible that, at least in part, the differences in textural changes between chill-injured and normally ripening fruit are related to this enzyme. The data presented here indicate that PG plays an even smaller role in the softening of chilled fruit than in that of ripening fruit. Tomato can provide a model for the understanding of the relationships between cell wall metabolism and texture that applies to other chilling-sensitive fruit. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 13

This article presents a detailed Biology Code for storing, retrieving, and correlating chemical-biological data from the information resource and service being offered by the Chemical-Biological Coordination Center of the U.S. The Center acts as a bibliographic service for research workers by attempting to answer specific questions concerning the effects of chemicals on living systems. Some of the basic features of the Biology Code and its history have been described by R.L. Beard, who played a large part in preparing the first draft. The so-called Detailed Biology Code is essentially a 100-page code dictionary, plus a 130-page explanatory key, arranged according to 32 fields of information. The sequence of fields in the code corresponds exactly to the linear sequence of the fields on the code sheets containing the written abstracts and on the punch cards, developed by International Business Machines Corp. The information fields, suggestively, may be broadly grouped in the following categories: Descriptive and Qualifying Fields, Numerical Expression Fields, Classification Fields, and Interpretive, or Evaluation Fields.


Sequence Studies on Bence Jones Proteins.

by Alescio-Zonta, Lucilla, Baglioni, Corrado [1970-08-15]

Academic Journal

pages 14

One Bence Jones protein and two Bence Jones fragments (fragmentary chains) of K type, and one Bence Jones protein and two fragments of L type have been analyzed. These proteins have been aminoethylated and digested with proteolytic enzymes. The resulting peptides were separated by different procedures. The peptides obtained were analyzed and could be located in most. cases in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein by homology with published sequences. These tentative sequences were particularly satisfactory in the case of the three K type proteins. These belonged to subtype ICE and showed considerable homologies with other KI proteins. It was more difficult to position peptides of the three L type proteins on the basis of homology with published sequences. Several peptides of one protein (BJ 98) which were completely sequenced by Edman degradation combined with proteolytic digestion could not be positioned. Amino acid analysis of peptides obtained from Bence Jones fragments confirmed that these correspond to the N-terminal variable region of Bence Jones proteins for K type fragments, whereas they extend for three residues over the C-terminal constant region for some L type fragments. In any case, no peptide from the constant region of light chains has been isolated from tryptic digests of Bence Jones fragments. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment.

by Mateo, Rafael, Baos, Ana R., Vidal, Dolors, Camarero, Pablo R., Martinez-Haro, Monica, Taggart, Mark A. [2011-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Background: The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 μg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 mg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 μg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance: Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A Conserved Family of Enzymes That Phosphorylate Inositol Hexakisphosphate.

by Mulugu, Sashidhar, Wenti Bai, Fridy, Peter C., Bastidas, Robert J., Otto, James C., Dollins, D. Eric, Haystead, Timothy A., Ribeiro, Anthony A., York, John D. [2007-04-06]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Inositol pyrophosphates are a diverse group of high-energy signaling molecules whose cellular roles remain an active area of study. We report a previously uncharacterized class of inositol pyrophosphate synthase and find it is identical to yeast Vip1 and Asp1 proteins, regulators of actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP 2/3) complexes. Vip1 and Asp1 acted as enzymes that encode inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) kinase activities. Alterations in kinase activity led to defects in cell growth, morphology, and interactions with ARP complex members. The functionality of Asp1 and Vip1 may provide cells with increased signaling capacity through metabolism of IP6. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp) and deltamethrin (Del) and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw), group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw), group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each), group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw), group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw) and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results: Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion: Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly better activity as compared to quercetin. The combination of both antioxidants offered more protection compared to each one alone. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Mass production of vermicompost using suitable species of earthworms and selecting target organic waste materials has appeared to be a great development in the realm of biotechnological research for the sustainable eco-management. Although, for the bioconversion of organic wastes to vermicompost, suitable earthworm species play major roles, a hoard of bacterial assemblages by virtue of production of different enzymes facilitate the process of vermicomposting. The present study has documented the roles of vermicompost associated bacteria in combating, preventing, and controlling of cancer so as to open a new vista not only in the field of vermitechnology but also on biomedical research. Earthworms’ associated bacterial metabolic products having their unique physicochemical excellence have gained importance due to their roles as a facilitator of apoptosis (programed cell death in a MCF-7 cell line). The antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethyl acetate extracts’ of vermicompost associated bacterium Bacillus anthracis were undertaken by antioxidant assay which revealed maximum DPPH radical scavenging effect (75.79 ± 5.41%) of the extracts’ at 9 00 μg ml-1. Furthermore, the crude extracts obtained from the same bacteria were found to decrease the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) with the increase in doses. MTT assay showed potent cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) with the IC50 value of 46.64 ± 0.79 μg ml-1. It was further confirmed through Hoechst 33258 staining of nuclear fragmentation assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Western blotting test has confirmed a downregulation of Akt upon application of crude extracts. Increase of SOD activity along with decrease of Akt level reflects that the mode of action is entirely PI-3K dependent. This study tends to indicate that B. anthracis isolated from vermicompost could be potentially explored for the development of new therapeutic agents, especially against cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

DNA

Changes in the Structure, Composition and Function of Sarcoplasmic-Reticulum Membrane during Development.

by Sarzala, M. Gabriella, Pilarska, Maria, Zubrzycka, Elzbieta, Michalak, Marek [1975-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

The structure, chemical composition and function of the microsomal fraction, isolated by differential centrifugation and purified on sucrose gradients, from muscle of fetal, newborn and young rabbits were characterized and compared with those of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from adult muscle. Negative staining shows that the microsomal vesicles isolated from muscles of embryos and newborn animals are smooth, in contrast to vesicles obtained from adult muscle which contain 4-nm particles on their surface. The particles appear first in the microsomal vesicles from muscles of 5-8-day-old rabbits. Their number increases with the age of the animals. Ca2+-pump protein, with molecular weight about 100 000, accounts for 10% of the total protein content in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, isolated at the earliest stages of development analysed. Its amount increases continuously with the rabbit's age to the adult value of about 70% of total sarcoplasmic reticulum protein. The low amount of 100 000-dalton protein and lack of 4-nm surface particles in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles obtained from fetal and newborn rabbits are strictly correlated with the low activity of Ca2+-dependent ATPase and the ability to take up Ca2+. These activities rise in parallel with the age of the rabbits. On the other hand, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity is very high at the early stages of development and declines continuously to a low value in sarcoplasmic reticulum from adult muscle. The sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane from fetal and newborn rabbits contains a higher amount of lipids as compared with the membrane present in the muscle of adult animals. The ratio of both phospholipid to protein and neutral lipid to protein decreases with the age of the rabbits. The composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum phospholipids also changes during development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Occurrence and Abundance of Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Rivers, Canal and near Drug Formulation Facilities – A Study in Pakistan.

by Khan, Ghazanfar Ali, Berglund, Björn, Khan, Kashif Maqbool, Lindgren, Per-Eric, Fick, Jerker [2013-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global phenomenon that has severe epidemiological ramifications world-wide. It has been suggested that antibiotics that have been discharged into the natural aquatic environments after usage or manufacture can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). These environmental ARGs could serve as a reservoir and be horizontally transferred to human-associated bacteria and thus contribute to AR proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropogenic load of antibiotics in Northern Pakistan and study the occurrence of ARGs in selected samples from this region. 19 sampling sites were selected; including six rivers, one dam, one canal, one sewage drain and four drug formulation facilities. Our results show that five of the rivers have antibiotic levels comparable to surface water measurements in unpolluted sites in Europe and the US. However, high levels of antibiotics could be detected in the downstream river in close vicinity of the 10 million city Lahore, 1100, 1700 and 2700 ng L−1 for oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Highest detected levels were at one of the drug formulation facilities, with the measured levels of 1100, 4100, 6200, 7300, 8000, 27000, 28000 and 49000 ng L−1 of erythromycin, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole respectively. ARGs were also detected at the sites and the highest levels of ARGs detected, sulI and dfrA1, were directly associated with the antibiotics detected at the highest concentrations, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Highest levels of both antibiotics and ARGs were seen at a drug formulation facility, within an industrial estate with a low number of local residents and no hospitals in the vicinity, which indicates that the levels of ARGs at this site were associated with the environmental levels of antibiotics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Metabolic heterogeneity of the normal human brain: multivariate analysis of H MRS in vivo spectra acquired at 3T.

by Skorupa, Agnieszka, Boguszewicz, Łukasz, Kijonka, Marek, Sokół, Maria [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Introduction: In recent years multivariate projection techniques of data analysis (PCA, PLS-DA) have been increasingly used for detection of complex H MRS derived metabolic signatures in pathologic conditions. However, these techniques have not been applied in the studies of metabolic heterogeneity of the normal human brain. Objective: In this work we extended current knowledge about regional distribution of metabolites by multivariate analysis of metabolite levels obtained from various cortical and subcortical regions. Methods: The studied group consisted of 71 volunteers with no neurological disorders. The metabolite levels obtained from short echo time H MRS in vivo spectra were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The major variance direction in the dataset was dominated by glutamine + glutamate, creatine, myo-inositol and was successful in differentiation of the cortical grey matter and cerebellar vermis from the cortical white matter, pons, basal ganglia, hippocampus and thalamus. The projection plane formed by the second and third variance directions was dominated by N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, choline and glutamine + glutamate variation not explained by the first direction. This plane revealed a huge metabolic contrast between the pons and basal ganglia, differentiation between the cortical grey matter regions and cerebellar vermis as well as biochemical heterogeneity between the regions such as: thalamus, basal ganglia and hippocampus. Conclusion: Multivariate approach to H MRS data analysis provides an insight into the normal brain biochemistry and is helpful in understanding the regional heterogeneity of the normal brain. Such knowledge is crucial for a proper interpretation of altered metabolic pathways in diseases. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


INFLUENCE OF HOME PREPARATION METHODS OF BLACK TEA BEVERAGE ON THE MINERALS CONTENT.

by EL-SAEIDY, M. EL-SAIED, EL-HAKIM, H. I. ABD, EL BAZ, S. M. S. [2017-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Tea as a non-alcoholic beverage, is the most popular beverage in Egypt. It contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. This study aimed to determine chemical composition and mineral, (Zinc, Iron, Copper, Lead, Aluminum, manganese, and Cadmium, Sodium and Potassium) content before and after home preparation for three types of black tea (Indian, Malawian and Kenyan). Tea drinks were prepared using three traditional methods of different black tea as following (T1) black tea added to cold distilled water, then heated to boil for 2 minutes, (T2) black tea added to hot distilled water and then boiling continued for 2 minutes and (T3) black tea added to boiled distilled water and stand for infusion for 2 minutes. All prepared samples of tea drink were cooled at room temperature and consequently subjected to analysis. Among the metals analyzed, potassium was the most abundant, and ranging from 1492.14 to 1723.8 μg/g of different black tea types before preparing drinks of Indian and Kenyan sample, followed by Sodium with 99.3 μg/g in Malawian black tea. From the results, it was clear, that toxic heavy metals (Lead) had the lowest concentration in all samples with a concentration ranged from 1.34 to 2.11 μg/kg in Kenyan and Malawian black tea. Cadmium was not detected both in samples or treatments. The black tea samples were analyzed for Al and Zn concentration of dust tea and tea drinks. The results showed an average concentration of Al and Zn in dust tea, ranged from 1.57 to 17.18 and 7.5 to 15.2 μg/kg respectively. It could be concluded that mineral concentration in black tea drink show reduction in all samples, specially, heavy metal for (T1) and (T3). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Plant Biochemistry.

by Cadogan, Alan [2009-05-01]

Review

pages unknown

The article reviews the book "Plant Biochemistry," by Caroline Bowsher, Martin Steer and Alyson Tobin Taylor.


British Biochemistry--Past and Present (Book).

by Watkins, John [1971-07-01]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book "British Biochemistry: Past and Present," edited by T. W. Goodwin.


Review

pages 1

Reviews the book "Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry," by J.B. Harborne.


Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'The Biochemistry of Schizophrenia and Addiction,' edited by Gwynneth Hemmings.


Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'A Documentary History of Biochemistry 1770—1940,' edited by M. Teich with D.M. Needham.


Essays in biochemistry (Book).

by Reynolds, Tony [2001-12-01]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book "Essays in Biochemistry," vol. 36, edited by P. Bernstein.


Review

pages 1

Reviews the book "Lipid Biochemistry: An Introduction," edited by Michael I. Gurr, John L. Harwood and Keith N. Frayn.


Review

pages 1

Reviews the book "Annual Review of Biochemistry," vol. 72, edited by Charles C. Richardson, Roger D. Kornberg, Christian R. H. Raetz, and Jeremy W. Thorner.


Clinical Biochemistry.

by Rogić, Dunja [2007-11-01]

Review

pages 2

The article reviews the book "Clinical Biochemistry," 3rd edition, by Allan Gaw, Michael J. Murphy, Robert A. Cowan, Denis St. J. O’Reilly, Michael J.Stewart and James Shepherd.


Review

pages 1

The article reviews the book "Exercise Biochemistry," by V. Mougios.


Comprehensive Biochemistry (Book).

by Consden, R. [1969-03-01]

Review

pages 2

Reviews the book "Comprehensive Biochemistry," by M. Florkin and E.H. Stotz.


Chromatin and Disease: Subcellular Biochemistry.

by Mishra, Rakesh K., Roy, Siddhartha [2009-07-25]

Review

pages 2

The article reviews the book "Chromatin and Disease: Subcellular Biochemistry," edited by Tapas Kundu and Dipak Dasgupta.


Review

pages 2

Reviews the books "Defence and Recognition: IIA—Cellular Aspects International Review of Biochemistry," Volume 22 and "Defence and Recognition: IIB—Structural Aspects International Review of Biochemistry," Volume 23, edited by E. S. Lennox.