A Conserved Family of Enzymes That Phosphorylate Inositol Hexakisphosphate.

by Mulugu, Sashidhar, Wenti Bai, Fridy, Peter C., Bastidas, Robert J., Otto, James C., Dollins, D. Eric, Haystead, Timothy A., Ribeiro, Anthony A., York, John D. [2007-04-06]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Inositol pyrophosphates are a diverse group of high-energy signaling molecules whose cellular roles remain an active area of study. We report a previously uncharacterized class of inositol pyrophosphate synthase and find it is identical to yeast Vip1 and Asp1 proteins, regulators of actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP 2/3) complexes. Vip1 and Asp1 acted as enzymes that encode inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) kinase activities. Alterations in kinase activity led to defects in cell growth, morphology, and interactions with ARP complex members. The functionality of Asp1 and Vip1 may provide cells with increased signaling capacity through metabolism of IP6. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp) and deltamethrin (Del) and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw), group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw), group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each), group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw), group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw) and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results: Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion: Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly better activity as compared to quercetin. The combination of both antioxidants offered more protection compared to each one alone. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Mass production of vermicompost using suitable species of earthworms and selecting target organic waste materials has appeared to be a great development in the realm of biotechnological research for the sustainable eco-management. Although, for the bioconversion of organic wastes to vermicompost, suitable earthworm species play major roles, a hoard of bacterial assemblages by virtue of production of different enzymes facilitate the process of vermicomposting. The present study has documented the roles of vermicompost associated bacteria in combating, preventing, and controlling of cancer so as to open a new vista not only in the field of vermitechnology but also on biomedical research. Earthworms’ associated bacterial metabolic products having their unique physicochemical excellence have gained importance due to their roles as a facilitator of apoptosis (programed cell death in a MCF-7 cell line). The antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethyl acetate extracts’ of vermicompost associated bacterium Bacillus anthracis were undertaken by antioxidant assay which revealed maximum DPPH radical scavenging effect (75.79 ± 5.41%) of the extracts’ at 9 00 μg ml-1. Furthermore, the crude extracts obtained from the same bacteria were found to decrease the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) with the increase in doses. MTT assay showed potent cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) with the IC50 value of 46.64 ± 0.79 μg ml-1. It was further confirmed through Hoechst 33258 staining of nuclear fragmentation assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Western blotting test has confirmed a downregulation of Akt upon application of crude extracts. Increase of SOD activity along with decrease of Akt level reflects that the mode of action is entirely PI-3K dependent. This study tends to indicate that B. anthracis isolated from vermicompost could be potentially explored for the development of new therapeutic agents, especially against cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

DNA

Changes in the Structure, Composition and Function of Sarcoplasmic-Reticulum Membrane during Development.

by Sarzala, M. Gabriella, Pilarska, Maria, Zubrzycka, Elzbieta, Michalak, Marek [1975-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

The structure, chemical composition and function of the microsomal fraction, isolated by differential centrifugation and purified on sucrose gradients, from muscle of fetal, newborn and young rabbits were characterized and compared with those of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from adult muscle. Negative staining shows that the microsomal vesicles isolated from muscles of embryos and newborn animals are smooth, in contrast to vesicles obtained from adult muscle which contain 4-nm particles on their surface. The particles appear first in the microsomal vesicles from muscles of 5-8-day-old rabbits. Their number increases with the age of the animals. Ca2+-pump protein, with molecular weight about 100 000, accounts for 10% of the total protein content in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, isolated at the earliest stages of development analysed. Its amount increases continuously with the rabbit's age to the adult value of about 70% of total sarcoplasmic reticulum protein. The low amount of 100 000-dalton protein and lack of 4-nm surface particles in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles obtained from fetal and newborn rabbits are strictly correlated with the low activity of Ca2+-dependent ATPase and the ability to take up Ca2+. These activities rise in parallel with the age of the rabbits. On the other hand, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity is very high at the early stages of development and declines continuously to a low value in sarcoplasmic reticulum from adult muscle. The sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane from fetal and newborn rabbits contains a higher amount of lipids as compared with the membrane present in the muscle of adult animals. The ratio of both phospholipid to protein and neutral lipid to protein decreases with the age of the rabbits. The composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum phospholipids also changes during development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Occurrence and Abundance of Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Rivers, Canal and near Drug Formulation Facilities – A Study in Pakistan.

by Khan, Ghazanfar Ali, Berglund, Björn, Khan, Kashif Maqbool, Lindgren, Per-Eric, Fick, Jerker [2013-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global phenomenon that has severe epidemiological ramifications world-wide. It has been suggested that antibiotics that have been discharged into the natural aquatic environments after usage or manufacture can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). These environmental ARGs could serve as a reservoir and be horizontally transferred to human-associated bacteria and thus contribute to AR proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropogenic load of antibiotics in Northern Pakistan and study the occurrence of ARGs in selected samples from this region. 19 sampling sites were selected; including six rivers, one dam, one canal, one sewage drain and four drug formulation facilities. Our results show that five of the rivers have antibiotic levels comparable to surface water measurements in unpolluted sites in Europe and the US. However, high levels of antibiotics could be detected in the downstream river in close vicinity of the 10 million city Lahore, 1100, 1700 and 2700 ng L−1 for oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Highest detected levels were at one of the drug formulation facilities, with the measured levels of 1100, 4100, 6200, 7300, 8000, 27000, 28000 and 49000 ng L−1 of erythromycin, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole respectively. ARGs were also detected at the sites and the highest levels of ARGs detected, sulI and dfrA1, were directly associated with the antibiotics detected at the highest concentrations, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Highest levels of both antibiotics and ARGs were seen at a drug formulation facility, within an industrial estate with a low number of local residents and no hospitals in the vicinity, which indicates that the levels of ARGs at this site were associated with the environmental levels of antibiotics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Metabolic heterogeneity of the normal human brain: multivariate analysis of H MRS in vivo spectra acquired at 3T.

by Skorupa, Agnieszka, Boguszewicz, Łukasz, Kijonka, Marek, Sokół, Maria [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Introduction: In recent years multivariate projection techniques of data analysis (PCA, PLS-DA) have been increasingly used for detection of complex H MRS derived metabolic signatures in pathologic conditions. However, these techniques have not been applied in the studies of metabolic heterogeneity of the normal human brain. Objective: In this work we extended current knowledge about regional distribution of metabolites by multivariate analysis of metabolite levels obtained from various cortical and subcortical regions. Methods: The studied group consisted of 71 volunteers with no neurological disorders. The metabolite levels obtained from short echo time H MRS in vivo spectra were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The major variance direction in the dataset was dominated by glutamine + glutamate, creatine, myo-inositol and was successful in differentiation of the cortical grey matter and cerebellar vermis from the cortical white matter, pons, basal ganglia, hippocampus and thalamus. The projection plane formed by the second and third variance directions was dominated by N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, choline and glutamine + glutamate variation not explained by the first direction. This plane revealed a huge metabolic contrast between the pons and basal ganglia, differentiation between the cortical grey matter regions and cerebellar vermis as well as biochemical heterogeneity between the regions such as: thalamus, basal ganglia and hippocampus. Conclusion: Multivariate approach to H MRS data analysis provides an insight into the normal brain biochemistry and is helpful in understanding the regional heterogeneity of the normal brain. Such knowledge is crucial for a proper interpretation of altered metabolic pathways in diseases. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


INFLUENCE OF HOME PREPARATION METHODS OF BLACK TEA BEVERAGE ON THE MINERALS CONTENT.

by EL-SAEIDY, M. EL-SAIED, EL-HAKIM, H. I. ABD, EL BAZ, S. M. S. [2017-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Tea as a non-alcoholic beverage, is the most popular beverage in Egypt. It contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. This study aimed to determine chemical composition and mineral, (Zinc, Iron, Copper, Lead, Aluminum, manganese, and Cadmium, Sodium and Potassium) content before and after home preparation for three types of black tea (Indian, Malawian and Kenyan). Tea drinks were prepared using three traditional methods of different black tea as following (T1) black tea added to cold distilled water, then heated to boil for 2 minutes, (T2) black tea added to hot distilled water and then boiling continued for 2 minutes and (T3) black tea added to boiled distilled water and stand for infusion for 2 minutes. All prepared samples of tea drink were cooled at room temperature and consequently subjected to analysis. Among the metals analyzed, potassium was the most abundant, and ranging from 1492.14 to 1723.8 μg/g of different black tea types before preparing drinks of Indian and Kenyan sample, followed by Sodium with 99.3 μg/g in Malawian black tea. From the results, it was clear, that toxic heavy metals (Lead) had the lowest concentration in all samples with a concentration ranged from 1.34 to 2.11 μg/kg in Kenyan and Malawian black tea. Cadmium was not detected both in samples or treatments. The black tea samples were analyzed for Al and Zn concentration of dust tea and tea drinks. The results showed an average concentration of Al and Zn in dust tea, ranged from 1.57 to 17.18 and 7.5 to 15.2 μg/kg respectively. It could be concluded that mineral concentration in black tea drink show reduction in all samples, specially, heavy metal for (T1) and (T3). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Plant Biochemistry.

by Cadogan, Alan [2009-05-01]

Review

pages unknown

The article reviews the book "Plant Biochemistry," by Caroline Bowsher, Martin Steer and Alyson Tobin Taylor.


British Biochemistry--Past and Present (Book).

by Watkins, John [1971-07-01]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book "British Biochemistry: Past and Present," edited by T. W. Goodwin.


Review

pages 1

Reviews the book "Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry," by J.B. Harborne.


Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'The Biochemistry of Schizophrenia and Addiction,' edited by Gwynneth Hemmings.


Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'A Documentary History of Biochemistry 1770—1940,' edited by M. Teich with D.M. Needham.


Essays in biochemistry (Book).

by Reynolds, Tony [2001-12-01]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book "Essays in Biochemistry," vol. 36, edited by P. Bernstein.


Review

pages 1

Reviews the book "Lipid Biochemistry: An Introduction," edited by Michael I. Gurr, John L. Harwood and Keith N. Frayn.


Review

pages 1

Reviews the book "Annual Review of Biochemistry," vol. 72, edited by Charles C. Richardson, Roger D. Kornberg, Christian R. H. Raetz, and Jeremy W. Thorner.


Clinical Biochemistry.

by Rogić, Dunja [2007-11-01]

Review

pages 2

The article reviews the book "Clinical Biochemistry," 3rd edition, by Allan Gaw, Michael J. Murphy, Robert A. Cowan, Denis St. J. O’Reilly, Michael J.Stewart and James Shepherd.


Review

pages 1

The article reviews the book "Exercise Biochemistry," by V. Mougios.


Comprehensive Biochemistry (Book).

by Consden, R. [1969-03-01]

Review

pages 2

Reviews the book "Comprehensive Biochemistry," by M. Florkin and E.H. Stotz.


Chromatin and Disease: Subcellular Biochemistry.

by Mishra, Rakesh K., Roy, Siddhartha [2009-07-25]

Review

pages 2

The article reviews the book "Chromatin and Disease: Subcellular Biochemistry," edited by Tapas Kundu and Dipak Dasgupta.


Review

pages 2

Reviews the books "Defence and Recognition: IIA—Cellular Aspects International Review of Biochemistry," Volume 22 and "Defence and Recognition: IIB—Structural Aspects International Review of Biochemistry," Volume 23, edited by E. S. Lennox.


An Introduction to Computational Biochemistry (Book).

by Voit, Eberhard O. [2002-12-01]

Review

pages 2

Reviews the book 'An Introduction to Computational Biochemistry,' by C. Stan Tsai.


Biochemistry Collections (Book).

by Rollins, Eleanor [1982-04-01]

Review

pages unknown

Reviews the book 'Biochemistry Collections: A Cross-Disciplinary Survey of the Literature,' edited by Bernard S. Schlessinger.


From medical chemistry to biochemistry (Book Review)

by Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. [1984-08-01]

Review

pages 3

Reviews the book 'From Medical Chemistry to Biochemistry: The Making of a Biomedical Discipline,' by R.E. Kohler.