by Stouch, Terry
The future of the advancement as well as the reputation of computer-aided drug design will be guided by a more thorough understanding of the domain of applicability of our methods and the errors and confidence intervals of their results. The implications of error in current force fields applied to drug design are given are given as an example. Even as our science advances and our hardware become increasingly more capable, our software will be perhaps the most important aspect in this realization. Some recommendations for the future are provided. Education of users is essential for proper use and interpretation of computational results in the future. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ahuja, Sumedha, Kumar, Mahesh, Kumar, Pankaj, Gupta, V., Singhal, R., Yadav, Achchelal, Singh, Bhupinder
Applications involving radioisotopes and radiations reveal a great promise particularly for the welfare of the society. However, in the event of a nuclear accident, the direct and indirect effect of radionuclide and radiation transfers in soil-plant-air environment are envisaged on almost all the components of the food chain. It also assumes significance as we often overlook the fact that radiations, emitted by any radioisotope although cannot be seen or felt, interacts with matter and could alter its biochemical, biophysical and biological characteristics. The interaction of ionizing radiation with human body and consequent biological effects are well characterized and quantified using data derived from the radiation workers and/or the nuclear accidents around the world. However, radiation impact on agriculture viz a viz economic productivity are not well understood and available data is scanty, scattered and inconclusive. At the plant level the effects could be visualized at morphological, biochemical, physiological and/or biophysical levels, where the magnitude of the effected change depends heavily on the exposure dose, soil, farm management and other environmental variables. This review attempts to collate and critically analyze the available researches on how the ionizing radiation might interact with crops at the whole plant or tissue or cell level to affect economic yield under various edaphic variables where not only the productivity but also the quality of the agri-produce may become vulnerable. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Alexeyev, M. F., Venediktova, N., Pastukh, V., Shokolenko, I., Bonilla, G., Wilson, G. L.
Mitochondrial diseases are not uncommon, and may result from mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). At present, only palliative therapies are available for these disorders, and interest in the development of efficient treatment protocols is high. Here, we demonstrate that in cells heteroplasmic for the T8993G mutation, which is a cause for the NARP and MILS syndromes, infection with an adenovirus, which encodes the mitochondrially targeted R.XmaI restriction endonuclease, leads to selective destruction of mutant mtDNA. This destruction proceeds in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in cells with significantly increased rates of oxygen consumption and ATP production. The delivery of R.XmaI to mitochondria is accompanied by improvement in the ability to utilize galactose as the sole carbon source, which is a surrogate indicator of the proficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Concurrently, the rate of lactic acid production by these cells, which is a marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, decreases. We further demonstrate that levels of phosphorylated P53 and γH2ax proteins, markers of nuclear DNA damage, do not change in response to infection with recombinant adenovirus indicating the absence of nuclear DNA damage and the relative safety of the technique. Finally, some advantages and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.Gene Therapy (2008) 15, 516–523; doi:10.1038/gt.2008.11; published online 7 February 2008 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Boudreau, Scott P., McElvain, James S., Martin, Lisa D., Dowiing, Thomas, Fields, Steven M.
The article informs that the validation of analytical methods is an essential but time consuming activity for most analytical development laboratories in the pharmaceutical industry. As such, it is a topic of considerable interest in the literature and at pharmaceutical conferences. The examination of method validation practices is driven by several factors, including the desire to conduct the right science at the right time with optimal resources while maintaining the ability to rapidly implement change during the development process. Although performing validation in phases has clear benefits, it also must be noted that potential risk is associated with this approach. INSET: Purpose of analytical methods by phase of development.
by Dewu Ding, Yanrui Ding, Yujie Cai, Shouwen Chen, Wenbo Xu
The objective of this article is to obtain a more detailed insight into poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism through network-based metabolic pathway analysis. We employ extreme pathways to perform this study, because calculating and interpreting extreme pathways is a promising way for pathway analysis and metabolic engineering. After giving an in silico model of butanoate metabolism of Bacillus thuringiensis 97-27 (btk), extreme pathways were calculated and classified. Furthermore, the type I and II extreme pathways were further classified and analyzed in detail based on their structure and functional capabilities. Besides "historical" biochemical pathways, the results also suggest that there are some novel pathways. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Jianan Shi, Teng Huang, Shuaijie Chai, Yalu Guo, Jian Wei, Shijuan Dou, Liyun Li, Guozhen Liu
Reference proteins and biomarkers are important for the quantitative evaluation of protein abundance. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was grown under five stress conditions (dark, cold, heat, salt, and glucose supplementation), and the OD750 and total protein contents were evaluated on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 of culture. Antibodies for 20 candidate proteins were generated, and the protein expression patterns were examined by western blotting. Reference protein(s) for each treatment were identified by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) between target protein abundance and total protein content. Histone H3, beta tubulin 1 (TUB-1), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (RBCL), and mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase subunit 6 (ATPs-6) were the top reference proteins, because they were expressed stably under multiple stress conditions. The average relative-fold change (ARF) value of each protein was calculated to identify biomarkers. Heat shock protein 90B (HSP90B), flagellar associated protein (FAP127) and ATP synthase CF0 A subunit (ATPs-A) were suitable biomarkers for multiple treatments, while receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RCK1), biotin carboxylase (BCR1), mitochondrial phosphate carrier protein (MPC1), and rubisco large subunit N-methyltransferase (RMT1) were suitable biomarkers for the dark, cold, heat, and glucose treatments, respectively [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Koç, Ibrahim, Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo
The origin and natural history of molecular functions hold the key to the emergence of cellular organization and modern biochemistry. Here we use a genomic census of Gene Ontology (GO) terms to reconstruct phylogenies at the three highest (1, 2 and 3) and the lowest (terminal) levels of the hierarchy of molecular functions, which reflect the broadest and the most specific GO definitions, respectively. These phylogenies define evolutionary timelines of functional innovation. We analyzed 249 free-living organisms comprising the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Phylogenies indicate catalytic, binding and transport functions were the oldest, suggesting a ‘metabolism-first’ origin scenario for biochemistry. Metabolism made use of increasingly complicated organic chemistry. Primordial features of ancient molecular functions and functional recruitments were further distilled by studying the oldest child terms of the oldest level 1 GO definitions. Network analyses showed the existence of an hourglass pattern of enzyme recruitment in the molecular functions of the directed acyclic graph of molecular functions. Older high-level molecular functions were thoroughly recruited at younger lower levels, while very young high-level functions were used throughout the timeline. This pattern repeated in every one of the three mappings, which gave a criss-cross pattern. The timelines and their mappings were remarkable. They revealed the progressive evolutionary development of functional toolkits, starting with the early rise of metabolic activities, followed chronologically by the rise of macromolecular biosynthesis, the establishment of controlled interactions with the environment and self, adaptation to oxygen, and enzyme coordinated regulation, and ending with the rise of structural and cellular complexity. This historical account holds important clues for dissection of the emergence of biomcomplexity and life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Foster, Jacob G., Rzhetsky, Andrey, Evans, James A.
What factors affect a scientist’s choice of research problem? Qualitative research in the history and sociology of science suggests that this choice is patterned by an “essential tension” between productive tradition and risky innovation. We examine this tension through Bourdieu’s field theory of science, and we explore it empirically by analyzing millions of biomedical abstracts from MEDLINE. We represent the evolving state of chemical knowledge with networks extracted from these abstracts. We then develop a typology of research strategies on these networks. Scientists can introduce novel chemicals and chemical relationships (innovation) or delve deeper into known ones (tradition). They can consolidate knowledge clusters or bridge them. The aggregate distribution of published strategies remains remarkably stable. High-risk innovation strategies are rare and reflect a growing focus on established knowledge. An innovative publication is more likely to achieve high impact than a conservative one, but the additional reward does not compensate for the risk of failing to publish. By studying prizewinners in biomedicine and chemistry, we show that occasional gambles for extraordinary impact are a compelling explanation for observed levels of risky innovation. Our analysis of the essential tension identifies institutional forces that sustain tradition and suggests policy interventions to foster innovation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Stewart, L. I., Jabaji-Hare, S., Driscoll, B. T.
by Neeragunda Shivaraj, Yathisha, Barbara, Plancot, Gugi, Bruno, Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté, Driouich, Azeddine, Ramasandra Govind, Sharatchandra, Devaraja, Akash, Kambalagere, Yogendra
Resurrection plants possess a unique ability to counteract desiccation stress. Desiccation tolerance (DT) is a very complex multigenic and multifactorial process comprising a combination of physiological, morphological, cellular, genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic processes. Modification in the sugar composition of the hemicellulosic fraction of the cell wall is detected during dehydration. An important change is a decrease of glucose in the hemicellulosic fraction during dehydration that can reflect a modification of the xyloglucan structure. The expansins might also be involved in cell wall flexibility during drying and disrupt hydrogen bonds between polymers during rehydration of the cell wall. Cleavages by xyloglucan-modifying enzymes release the tightly bound xyloglucan-cellulose network, thus increasing cell wall flexibility required for cell wall folding upon desiccation. Changes in hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) such as arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are also observed during desiccation and rehydration processes. It has also been observed that significant alterations in the process of photosynthesis and photosystem (PS) II activity along with changes in the antioxidant enzyme system also increased the cell wall and membrane fluidity resulting in DT. Similarly, recent data show a major role of ABA, LEA proteins, and small regulatory RNA in regulating DT responses. Current progress in “-omic” technologies has enabled quantitative monitoring of the plethora of biological molecules in a high throughput routine, making it possible to compare their levels between desiccation-sensitive and DT species. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of structural, physiological, cellular, molecular, and global responses involved in desiccation tolerance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Thomas, Yann, Scott, Daniel C., Kristariyanto, Yosua Adi, Rinehart, Jesse, Clark, Kristopher, Cohen, Philip, Kurz, Thimo
The activity of Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRL) is regulated by NEDD8 modification. DCN-like proteins promote Cullin neddylation as scaffold-like E3s. One DCNL, DCNL5, is highly expressed in immune tissue. Here, we provide evidence that DCNL5 may be involved in innate immunity, as it is a direct substrate of the kinase IKKα during immune signalling. We find that upon activation of Toll-like receptors, DCNL5 gets rapidly and transiently phosphorylated on a specific N-terminal serine residue (S41). This phosphorylation event is specifically mediated by IKKα and not IKKβ. Our data for the first time provides evidence that DCNL proteins are post-translationally modified in an inducible manner. Our findings also provide the first example of a DCNL member as a kinase substrate in a signalling pathway, indicating that the activity of at least some DCNLs may be regulated. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by David, Marion, Lécorché, Pascaline, Masse, Maxime, Faucon, Aude, Abouzid, Karima, Gaudin, Nicolas, Varini, Karine, Gassiot, Fanny, Ferracci, Géraldine, Jacquot, Guillaume, Vlieghe, Patrick, Khrestchatisky, Michel
Insufficient membrane penetration of drugs, in particular biotherapeutics and/or low target specificity remain a major drawback in their efficacy. We propose here the rational characterization and optimization of peptides to be developed as vectors that target cells expressing specific receptors involved in endocytosis or transcytosis. Among receptors involved in receptor-mediated transport is the LDL receptor. Screening complex phage-displayed peptide libraries on the human LDLR (hLDLR) stably expressed in cell lines led to the characterization of a family of cyclic and linear peptides that specifically bind the hLDLR. The VH411 lead cyclic peptide allowed endocytosis of payloads such as the S-Tag peptide or antibodies into cells expressing the hLDLR. Size reduction and chemical optimization of this lead peptide-vector led to improved receptor affinity. The optimized peptide-vectors were successfully conjugated to cargos of different nature and size including small organic molecules, siRNAs, peptides or a protein moiety such as an Fc fragment. We show that in all cases, the peptide-vectors retain their binding affinity to the hLDLR and potential for endocytosis. Following i.v. administration in wild type or ldlr-/- mice, an Fc fragment chemically conjugated or fused in C-terminal to peptide-vectors showed significant biodistribution in LDLR-enriched organs. We have thus developed highly versatile peptide-vectors endowed with good affinity for the LDLR as a target receptor. These peptide-vectors have the potential to be further developed for efficient transport of therapeutic or imaging agents into cells -including pathological cells—or organs that express the LDLR. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article discusses the search for the origins of life by studying the complementarity of molecules in nature. Topics include the arrangement of cells into well-ordered chemical networks, the interconnectedness of living systems, which is composed of so-called interactomes, and research by the author and colleagues studying the link between molecular complementarity, which is the shape dependent interactions of compounds in living organisms, and the evolution of interactivity.
The article talks about ChemEngDayUK conference which was hosted by the University of Leeds in March 2018. The theme discussed included engineering on the microscale level and also how it can be used in manufacturing. Views of Ian Shott, a former president of IChemE on founding the company Arcinova is presented. Topics discussed include a panel discussion on biochemical and engineering skills and new trends in the chemical engineering curriculum.
by Mirali, Mahla, Purves, Randy W., Stonehouse, Rob, Song, Rui, Bett, Kirstin, Vandenberg, Albert
The zero-tannin trait in lentil is controlled by a single recessive gene (tan) that results in a phenotype characterized by green stems, white flowers, and thin, transparent, or translucent seed coats. Genes that result in zero-tannin characteristics are useful for studies of seed coat pigmentation and biochemical characters because they have altered pigmentation. In this study, one of the major groups of plant pigments, phenolic compounds, was compared among zero-tannin and normal phenotypes and genotypes of lentil. Biochemical data were obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Genomic sequencing was used to identify a candidate gene for the tan locus. Phenolic compound profiling revealed that myricetin, dihydromyricetin, flavan-3-ols, and proanthocyanidins are only detected in normal lentil phenotypes and not in zero-tannin types. The molecular analysis showed that the tan gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor, homologous to the A gene in pea. The results of this study suggest that tan as a bHLH transcription factor interacts with the regulatory genes in the biochemical pathway of phenolic compounds starting from flavonoid-3’,5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by DUAN, Xiaoyu, TANG, Min, WANG, Weishuang
[Objective] The study aimed to investigate the effects of silicon on physiology and biochemistry of Dendrobium, moniliforme plantlets under low temperature stress. [Method] By using Dendrobium moniliforme as the experimental material, different concentrations of Na2SiO3 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L) was added to the basic medium[1/2MS + 6-BA (0.1 mg/L) + NAA (1 mg/L) + agar (7.2 g/L) + sucrose (30 g/L)] for tissue culture; after hardening and transplanting, Dendrobium moniliforme plantlets were treated under low temperature stress at 4 °C for 0, 24 and 48 h, in order to investigate the physiological response of Dendrobium moniliforme leaves to different concentrations of Na2SiO3. [Result] Under low temperature stress at 4 °C, Dendrobium moniliforme leaves have certain osmotic regulation ability, and the three osmotic regulation substances show different variation trends at different stages. Appropriate concentration of Na2Si03 can increase the contents of free proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein to varying degrees, reduce MDA content and further improve the cold resistance of Dendrobium moniliforme plantlets. The order of the effects of Na2SiO3 on various physiological indicators is; free proline > MDA > soluble sugar (or soluble protein). According to the correlation analysis among various physiological indicators, free proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein and MDA contents can all be used as reference indicators to identify the cold resistance of Dendrobium moniliforme. [Conclusion] The addition of Na2SiO3 (0.4 mmol/L) can moderately decrease the thermal energy for normal growth of Dendrobium moniliforme, which is conducive to reducing the cost of cultivation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Presents developments related to the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-International Union of Biochemistry Joint Commission of Biochemical Nomenclature. Discussion of the numbering of residues in oligosaccharide chains; Presentation of the limits and numbering of nucleotide residues; Basis of the new recommendations on retinoid nomenclature.
by Moigradean, Diana, Bordean, Despina-Maria, Poiana, Mariana-Atena, Alda, Simion, Pet, Ioan
The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different mineral fertilization doses on the heavy metals bioaccumulation rates in tomato fruit grown in Romanian Western Plain area. The experience was done in a cambic cernosium soil, with low acidity reaction, very good content in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and the high natural fertility potential favorable vegetables cultivation. The studied area presented normal levels of heavy metals. The study was performed on control soil samples (without fertilizers) and soil samples after differentiated NPK fertilization in variable dozes: N30P30K30, N45P45K45, N60P60K60 and N120P60K60. The order of accumulation of heavy metals in soil samples was: Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > Co > Cd. Tomato showed the highest bioaccumulation rate a N30P30K30 fertilization doses for manganese (0.442%), cooper (15.00%) and zinc (6.494%), a N60P60K60 fertilization doses for iron (0.152%) and a control sample for nickel (1.048%). The order of heavy metals bioaccumulation rate in tomato fruit was: Cu > Zn > Ni > Fe > Mn. The different doses of mineral fertilizers were applied to tomato crop soil determined different bioaccumulation rate in tomato fruit. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Banzhaf, Wolfgang, Yamamoto, Lidia
An introduction to the fundamental concepts of the emerging field of Artificial Chemistries, covering both theory and practical applications.The field of Artificial Life (ALife) is now firmly established in the scientific world, but it has yet to achieve one of its original goals: an understanding of the emergence of life on Earth. The new field of Artificial Chemistries draws from chemistry, biology, computer science, mathematics, and other disciplines to work toward that goal. For if, as it has been argued, life emerged from primitive, prebiotic forms of self-organization, then studying models of chemical reaction systems could bring ALife closer to understanding the origins of life. In Artificial Chemistries (ACs), the emphasis is on creating new interactions rather than new materials. The results can be found both in the virtual world, in certain multiagent systems, and in the physical world, in new (artificial) reaction systems. This book offers an introduction to the fundamental concepts of ACs, covering both theory and practical applications.After a general overview of the field and its methodology, the book reviews important aspects of biology, including basic mechanisms of evolution; discusses examples of ACs drawn from the literature; considers fundamental questions of how order can emerge, emphasizing the concept of chemical organization (a closed and self-maintaining set of chemicals); and surveys a range of applications, which include computing, systems modeling in biology, and synthetic life. An appendix provides a Python toolkit for implementing ACs.
by Jennifer, Samson Jegan, Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas
Background: Lead is a heavy toxic metal element in biological systems and is one of the major pollutants as a result of its widespread use in industries. In spite of its negative roles the coordination chemistry of Pb(II) complexes is a matter of interest. The N,N'-bidentate aromatic bases such as BPY,4-BPY and PHEN (BPY = 2,2'bipyridine, 4-BPY = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, PHEN = 1,10-Phenanthroline) are widely used to build supramolecular architectures because of their excellent coordinating ability and large conjugated system that can easily form π-π interactions among their aromatic moieties. A series of novel Pb(II) complexes in concert with 5-CTPC, 5-BTPC (5-CTPC = 5-chlorothiophen-2-carboxylate, 5-BTPC = 5-bromothiophen-2-carboxylate) and corresponding bidentate chelating N.N' ligands have been synthesized and characterized. Results: Five new Pb (II) complexes [Pb(BPY)(5-CTPC)2] (1), [Pb(4-BPY)(5-CTPC)2] (2), [Pb2(PHEN)2(5-CTPC)4] (3), [Pb(4-BPY)(5-BTPC)2] (4) and [Pb2(PHEN)2(5-BTPC)2(ACE)2] (5) have been synthesized. Even though in all these complexes the molar ratio of Pb, carboxylate, N,N-chelating ligand are the same (1:2:1), there is a significant structural diversity. These complexes have been characterised and investigated by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR, TGA, and photoluminescence studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that complexes (1, 2) and (4) are mononuclear while (3 and 5) are dinuclear in nature which may result from the chelating nature of the ligands, various coordination modes of the carboxylates, and the coordination geometry of the Pb(II) ions. Conclusions: The observation of structures 2,4 and 3,5 show the structural changes made just chloro/bromo substituent of the thiophene ring. A detailed packing analysis has been undertaken to delineate the role of valuable non covalent interactions like X...π, H...X, (X = Cl/Br). A quadruple hydrogen bond linking the monomeric units and generating a supramolecular architecture is observed in (1). The metal bite unit comprised of PbN2C2 (i.e. Pb-N-C-C-N-Pb) is the repeating unit in all the five complexes and they have almost same geometrical parameters. This metal bite has been identified as the self assembly unit in complexes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Laghari, Mubeena, Shaikh, Fouzia, Murtaza, Shazia
Objectives: To determine the biochemical composition and biochemical types of childhood urolithiasis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration: Pediatric Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, and University of Sindh, Jamshoro over one year. Subjects & Methods: 30 pediatric cases urinary bladder urolithiasis were selected. Children of age few of ten years were selected. Any contamination form bladder stone was removed by washing them in distilled deionized water. Stones were dried for an overnight in an oven at temperature of 100 °C. Dried stones were smashed into pieces. Biochemical analysis was performed by the FTIR spectroscopy (Nicolet Avatar 330 FTIR spectrophotometer). Results were analyzed on the software SPSS 22.0 (95% confidence interval). Results: Mean age was 4.83 years (SD 2.81 years). Of 30 children, 80% (n=24) were male and 20% (n=6) were female children. Male to female ratio of 4:1 was noted. 16.6% (n=5) were pure stone and 83.3% (n=25) were mixed stones. (P=0.0001). Biochemical analysis showed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM)-ammonium hydrogen urate (AHU) was the most common urinary bladder stone. Conclusions: The pediatric urolithiasis shows the most common type of urinary bladder stone was the calcium oxalate monohydrate-ammonium hydrogen urate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Al-Beitawi, Nafez A., Momani Shaker, Mohamed, El-Shuraydeh, Khaled N., Bláha, Jan
The study objective was to investigate the effect of three levels of nanoclay minerals (1%, 1.5% and 2%) on growth performance, internal organs and blood biochemistry of broiler chickens compared to vaccines and antibiotics. An experiment of nine dietary treatments was conducted for over than 36 days. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were fed diet without nanoclay minerals and served as control group (positive with vaccines and antibiotics (C1), positive with vaccines only (C2) and negative without any of them (C3). Treatments groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed the same diet with the above-mentioned levels once a week or once in 2 weeks. 2% nanoclay minerals fed at the two intervals significantly improved broilers’ performance in terms of live body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to control groups. Concerning blood biochemistry, high-density lipoprotein which known to be beneficial for humans increased (P< .05) by feeding 1.5% nanoclay minerals at the two ages compared to control groups and other treatments. In conclusion, the present results indicate that nanoclay minerals in particular levels and doses improve the growth performance of broiler chickens. Nanotechnology as a new tool has the potential to improve broiler production. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
by Denli, Muzaffer, Blandon, Juan Carlos, Salado, Silvia, Guynot, Maria Elena, Pérez, Jose Francisco
The present study was conducted to determine the toxic dose response of a chronic dietary Zearalenone (ZEA) in weaned young rats. Sixty, 21-day-old, Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly allocated to five groups of four replicate cages containing three rats. Rats were fed diets with increasing amounts of ZEA (0, 0.5, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Daily feed intake was reduced (P