Academic Journal

pages 7

Mass production of vermicompost using suitable species of earthworms and selecting target organic waste materials has appeared to be a great development in the realm of biotechnological research for the sustainable eco-management. Although, for the bioconversion of organic wastes to vermicompost, suitable earthworm species play major roles, a hoard of bacterial assemblages by virtue of production of different enzymes facilitate the process of vermicomposting. The present study has documented the roles of vermicompost associated bacteria in combating, preventing, and controlling of cancer so as to open a new vista not only in the field of vermitechnology but also on biomedical research. Earthworms’ associated bacterial metabolic products having their unique physicochemical excellence have gained importance due to their roles as a facilitator of apoptosis (programed cell death in a MCF-7 cell line). The antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethyl acetate extracts’ of vermicompost associated bacterium Bacillus anthracis were undertaken by antioxidant assay which revealed maximum DPPH radical scavenging effect (75.79 ± 5.41%) of the extracts’ at 9 00 μg ml-1. Furthermore, the crude extracts obtained from the same bacteria were found to decrease the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) with the increase in doses. MTT assay showed potent cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) with the IC50 value of 46.64 ± 0.79 μg ml-1. It was further confirmed through Hoechst 33258 staining of nuclear fragmentation assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Western blotting test has confirmed a downregulation of Akt upon application of crude extracts. Increase of SOD activity along with decrease of Akt level reflects that the mode of action is entirely PI-3K dependent. This study tends to indicate that B. anthracis isolated from vermicompost could be potentially explored for the development of new therapeutic agents, especially against cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

DNA

Network-level allosteric effects are elucidated by detailing how ligand-binding events modulate utilization of catalytic potentials.

by Yurkovich, James T., Alcantar, Miguel A., Haiman, Zachary B., Palsson, Bernhard O. [2018-08-07]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Allosteric regulation has traditionally been described by mathematically-complex allosteric rate laws in the form of ratios of polynomials derived from the application of simplifying kinetic assumptions. Alternatively, an approach that explicitly describes all known ligand-binding events requires no simplifying assumptions while allowing for the computation of enzymatic states. Here, we employ such a modeling approach to examine the “catalytic potential” of an enzyme—an enzyme’s capacity to catalyze a biochemical reaction. The catalytic potential is the fundamental result of multiple ligand-binding events that represents a “tug of war” among the various regulators and substrates within the network. This formalism allows for the assessment of interacting allosteric enzymes and development of a network-level understanding of regulation. We first define the catalytic potential and use it to characterize the response of three key kinases (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase) in human red blood cell glycolysis to perturbations in ATP utilization. Next, we examine the sensitivity of the catalytic potential by using existing personalized models, finding that the catalytic potential allows for the identification of subtle but important differences in how individuals respond to such perturbations. Finally, we explore how the catalytic potential can help to elucidate how enzymes work in tandem to maintain a homeostatic state. Taken together, this work provides an interpretation and visualization of the dynamic interactions and network-level effects of interacting allosteric enzymes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Blood biochemistry of olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles foraging in northern Sinaloa, Mexico.

by Espinoza-Romo, B. A., Sainz-Hernández, J. C., Ley-Quiñónez, C. P., Hart, C. E., Leal-Moreno, R., Aguirre, A. A., Zavala-Norzagaray, A. A. [2018-07-25]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Blood parameters provide an excellent tool to evaluate the health status of wildlife. However, there are few studies about health parameters of sea turtles in Mexico. For olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), no information was available to establish the health baseline for the species. The objective of this study was to establish reference blood biochemistry values for olive ridley turtles in the northern Sinaloa foraging area. Between 2013 and 2015, 82 olive ridley turtles were captured. Body condition index (BCI) presented a mean of 1.46 ± 0.14 (1.17–2.02) that categorized the population with excellent body condition; in addition, 99% of the turtles captured had a good physical appearance. Blood was collected for biochemistry analysis from 60 turtles. Significantly higher values of total protein, albumin, A/G ratio (albumin/globulin) and PCV (packed cell volume or hematocrit) were observed in adult when compared to subadult turtles. On the other hand, no significant differences were found when females and males were compared. Based on the BCI, physical assessment, and blood parameters, and compared to other sea turtle species, olive ridley turtles in northern Sinaloa were considered in excellent health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish normal blood biochemistry values of foraging olive ridley turtles in northern Sinaloa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


In vitro–transcribed guide RNAs trigger an innate immune response via the RIG-I pathway.

by Wienert, Beeke, Shin, Jiyung, Zelin, Elena, Pestal, Kathleen, Corn, Jacob E. [2018-07-16]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing is revolutionizing fundamental research and has great potential for the treatment of many diseases. While editing of immortalized cell lines has become relatively easy, editing of therapeutically relevant primary cells and tissues can remain challenging. One recent advancement is the delivery of a Cas9 protein and an in vitro–transcribed (IVT) guide RNA (gRNA) as a precomplexed ribonucleoprotein (RNP). This approach allows editing of primary cells such as T cells and hematopoietic stem cells, but the consequences beyond genome editing of introducing foreign Cas9 RNPs into mammalian cells are not fully understood. Here, we show that the IVT gRNAs commonly used by many laboratories for RNP editing trigger a potent innate immune response that is similar to canonical immune-stimulating ligands. IVT gRNAs are recognized in the cytosol through the retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway but not the melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA5) pathway, thereby triggering a type I interferon response. Removal of the 5’-triphosphate from gRNAs ameliorates inflammatory signaling and prevents the loss of viability associated with genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells. The potential for Cas9 RNP editing to induce a potent antiviral response indicates that care must be taken when designing therapeutic strategies to edit primary cells. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Variation of Tensile Properties of High Silicon Ductile Iron.

by Hammersberg, Peter, Hamberg, Kenneth, Borgström, Henrik, Lindkvist, Joachim, Björkegren, Lars-Erik [2018-06-15]

Academic Journal

pages 8

The casting processes are characterized by complex relationships between predictors and responses. It is the fundamental understanding of these complex relationships that often involves hundreds of factors, which improves quality without losing productivity and raising cost. In this work, cast solid solution strengthened ferritic spheroidal graphite irons GJS-500-14 and GJS-600-10 (EN 1563:2012) have been evaluated. These materials offer stronger components with good machinability owing to their even hardness properties. In this case the predictors are chemical composition, gating layout, foundry set-up, testing procedure and equipment etc. and the responses are the tensile properties (Rp0.2, Rm, A5). Here 200 tensile specimens compiled from industrial foundry melts from over 30 years of research have created a state-of-the-art platform for statistical engineering in order to perform Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and data visualization. This statistical platform has provided new insight on how foundries should treat complex relationships between predictors and responses in order to identify sources of variation and interaction effects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


BOVINE MILK: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW BOVINE MILK IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR.

by Ullah, Shafqat, Mahsood, Naheed, Imtiaz, Ayesha, Hamza, Amir [2018-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Introduction: Milk and dairy products are consumed by the human on daily basis throughout the globe and constitute a huge business by the dairy farmers due to its high demand. The consumers of milk and milk products expect its high quality, free from the artificial preservatives and threatening agents. Objectives: To determine the chemical quality of raw bovine milk sold in open markets of district Peshawar. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 4 towns, Town 1(Sikandar Town and Gul Bahar), 2 (Shahi Bala, Methra and Pajjagi),3 (University Road and Hayatabad Area), 4 (Hazaekhawani and Badabair Area) of district Peshawar. Period: 6 months; from November 2016 to April 2017. Methodology: 158 samples were selected. All samples were analyzed for adulteration in the Public Health Laboratory phase 5 Hayatabad Peshawar. Study duration was 6 months; convenient sampling technique has been followed. Results: Among all 158 samples; 32.3% of the sample were adulterated with water. 8.9% of sample showed hydrogen per oxide adulteration. Starch, cane sugar and urea adulteration was in 7.6%, 2.5% and 1.9% samples respectively. Vegetable oil, formalin and synthetic milk adulteration was in 1.9%, 5.7% and 5.7% of samples respectively. We have Large Scale Vendors i.e. Rural Area 10% showing low and Urban Area 90% as high adulteration, Small Scale Vendors 30% low in rural Area and 70% high adulteration in urban area respectively. Conclusion: This study results provided a base line data of chemical composition of bovine milk used in Peshawar. Chemical were present and can play key role in alteration of milk which we use on daily basis. Water content was high, it means that most of the shop-keepers prefer to mix water in milk to increase the quantity of milk. Use of starch, Vegetable Oil and Formalin was minimal. Use of hydrogen peroxide, Urea and synthetic milk was very less in provided sample. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Rapid Characterization of Components in Bolbostemma paniculatum by UPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap MSn Analysis and Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Herb Discrimination.

by Zeng, Yanling, Lu, Yang, Chen, Zhao, Tan, Jiawei, Bai, Jie, Li, Pengyue, Wang, Zhixin, Du, Shouying [2018-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 1

Bolbostemma paniculatum is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) showed various therapeutic effects. Owing to its complex chemical composition, few investigations have acquired a comprehensive cognition for the chemical profiles of this herb and explicated the differences between samples collected from different places. In this study, a strategy based on UPLC tandem LTQ-Orbitrap MSn was established for characterizing chemical components of B. paniculatum. Through a systematic identification strategy, a total of 60 components in B. paniculatum were rapidly separated in 30 min and identified. Then based on peak intensities of all the characterized components, principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to classify 18 batches of B. paniculatum into four groups, which were highly consistent with the four climate types of their original places. And five compounds were finally screened out as chemical markers to discriminate the internal quality of B. paniculatum. As the first study to systematically characterize the chemical components of B. paniculatum by UPLC-MSn, the above results could offer essential data for its pharmacological research. And the current strategy could provide useful reference for future investigations on discovery of important chemical constituents in TCM, as well as establishment of quality control and evaluation method. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Decision making improves sperm chemotaxis in the presence of noise.

by Kromer, Justus A., Märcker, Steffen, Lange, Steffen, Baier, Christel, Friedrich, Benjamin M. [2018-04-19]

Academic Journal

pages 15

To navigate their surroundings, cells rely on sensory input that is corrupted by noise. In cells performing chemotaxis, such noise arises from the stochastic binding of signalling molecules at low chemoattractant concentrations. We reveal a fundamental relationship between the speed of chemotactic steering and the strength of directional fluctuations that result from the amplification of noise in a chemical input signal. This relation implies a trade-off between steering that is slow and reliable, and steering that is fast but less reliable. We show that dynamic switching between these two modes of steering can substantially increase the probability to find a target, such as an egg to be found by sperm cells. This decision making confers no advantage in the absence of noise, but is beneficial when chemical signals are detectable, yet characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios. The latter applies at intermediate distances from a target, where signalling molecules are diluted, thus defining a ‘noise zone’ that cells have to cross. Our results explain decision making observed in recent experiments on sea urchin sperm chemotaxis. More generally, our theory demonstrates how decision making enables chemotactic agents to cope with high levels of noise in gradient sensing by dynamically adjusting the persistence length of a biased random walk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp) and deltamethrin (Del) and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw), group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw), group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each), group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw), group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw) and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results: Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion: Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly better activity as compared to quercetin. The combination of both antioxidants offered more protection compared to each one alone. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 35

The year 2016 marked the 20th anniversary of the death of Marcelle Grenson and the 50th anniversary of her first publication on yeast amino acid transport, the topic to which, as Professor at the Free University of Brussels (ULB), she devoted the major part of her scientific career. M. Grenson was the first scientist in Belgium to introduce and apply genetic analysis in yeast to dissect the molecular mechanisms that were underlying complex problems in biology. Today, M. Grenson is recognized for the pioneering character of her work on the diversity and regulation of amino acid transporters in yeast. The aim of this tribute is to review the major milestones of her forty years of scientific research that were conducted between 1950 and 1990. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Whole-genome sequencing of Brassica oleracea var. capitata reveals new diversity of the mitogenome.

by Yang, Kiwoung, Nath, Ujjal Kumar, Biswas, Manosh Kumar, Kayum, Md Abdul, Yi, Go-eun, Lee, Jonghoon, Yang, Tae-Jin, Nou, Ill-Sup [2018-03-16]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA. No large repeats were found in the KU831325 assembly. However, KU831325 showed differences in the arrangement of bases at different regions compared to the previously reported mtDNAs. In the reference mtDNAs KJ820683 and AP012988, contig/fragment number 4 is partitioned into two contigs/fragments, 4a and 4b. However, contig/fragment number 4 was a single contig/fragment with 29,661 bp in KU831325. PCR and qRT-PCR using flanking markers from separate parts of contig/fragment number 4 confirmed it to be a single contig/fragment. In addition, genome re-alignment of the plastid genome and mtDNAs supported the presence of heteroplasmy and reverse arrangement of the heteroplasmic blocks within the other mtDNAs compared to KU831325 that might be one of the causal factors for its diversity. Our results thus confirm the existence of different mtDNAs in diverse B. oleracea subspecies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of Pycnocycla bashagardiana fruit's essential oil in animal models.

by Jahandar, Fatemeh, Asgarpanah, Jinous, Najafizadeh, Parvaneh, Mousavi, Zahra [2018-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Objective(s): Pycnocycla bashagardiana is an endemic species found only in Iran. Due to the presence of myristicin as the major component of the fruit's oil we were prompted to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of P. bashagardiana fruit's essential oil (PBFEO). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activities of PBFEO (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, IP) were studied by hot-plate and formalin tests in mice. Control and standard groups received vehicle and morphine (5 mg/kg, IP), respectively. The acute anti-inflammatory effect of PBFEO (200 and 400 mg/kg, IP) were assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema method in 30 min, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hr after carrageenan injection and the chronic anti-inflammatory effect of PBFEO (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP) were assessed by the cotton pellet-induced granuloma method in rats. Results: In hot-plate and formalin tests, the studied doses of PBFEO were not effective. However, in carrageenan test, all studied doses of PBFEO significantly reduced the paw edema in comparison to the control animals (P


Academic Journal

pages 8

Skin color in animals is richer than human beings and is determined by different types of pigments. Melanin is the key pigment responsible for the diverse pigmentation found in animal and human skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin pigment is synthesized by melanocytes and is consecutively transferred to adjacent keratinocytes; here, it acts as an internal sunscreen to defend from ultraviolet (UV) damage. Any defect in the process of melanocytes development and/or melanin synthesis results in esthetic problem of abnormal pigmentation. Clinically, abnormal pigmentation displays distinct increased or reduced pigment levels, known as hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation. These defects affect either the melanocyte number or its function. Herein, we discuss the fundamental aspects of melanocytes/melanin biology taken together the underlying cause of pigmentary disorders. The current chapter also gives an insight into the melanocyte stem cells biology, which in turn can facilitate the development of novel treatment regimens for dermatological disorders. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

by Low, Julia Y. Q., Lacy, Kathleen E., McBride, Robert L., Keast, Russell S. J. [2017-12-27]

Academic Journal

pages 20

Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate), and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose) (r = 0.94, P < 0.001). There were no significant correlations between the detection thresholds of the complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose) and the sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucralose, Rebaudioside A, erythritol) (all P > 0.05). However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48–0.61, P < 0.05). These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Chemical composition and sensory profiles of mulberry wines as fermented with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

by Yang Tao, Yilin Wang, Jun Yang, Qi Wang, Na Jiang, Dinh-Toi Chu, Yongbin Han, Jianzhong Zhou [2017-12-03]

Academic Journal

pages 16

The aim of this article was to study the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on the chemical composition and sensory properties of mulberry wines. For this purpose, three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, YJM 681 (isolated from raspberry), ySR 127 (commercial yeast) and Y1 (isolated from kefir fermented milk) were used for the alcoholic fermentation of mulberry juice. Yeast strains had deep influences on oenological, phenolic, amino acid, volatile and sensory profiles of resulting mulberry wines. Specifically, the beverages fermented with YJM 681 were characterised by relatively high volatile acidity and high contents of total flavonols, amino acids and some phenolic acids, including protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and veratric acid. Samples fermented with ySR 127 possessed higher cyanidin-3-O-glucoside content, whereas, total amino acid content was markedly lower than that of other samples. Furthermore, mulberry wines fermented with Y1 showed the lowest volatile acidity and the lowest contents of total anthocyanins and tartaric esters. The amounts of major aromatic compounds, including 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and ethyl acetate inside were also smaller than that of samples fermented with YJM 681 and ySR 127. Besides, the sensory results revealed that mulberry wines fermented with Y1 exhibited the lowest intensity of fruity aroma, while samples fermented with ySR 127 had the strongest sour and sweet tastes and aftertaste. These findings provide fundamental knowledge about the influence of yeast strains on the quality of mulberry wine. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Gene Prediction in Metagenomic Fragments with Deep Learning.

by Zhang, Shao-Wu, Jin, Xiang-Yang, Zhang, Teng [2017-11-08]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Next generation sequencing technologies used in metagenomics yield numerous sequencing fragments which come from thousands of different species. Accurately identifying genes from metagenomics fragments is one of the most fundamental issues in metagenomics. In this article, by fusing multifeatures (i.e., monocodon usage, monoamino acid usage, ORF length coverage, and Z-curve features) and using deep stacking networks learning model, we present a novel method (called Meta-MFDL) to predict the metagenomic genes. The results with 10 CV and independent tests show that Meta-MFDL is a powerful tool for identifying genes from metagenomic fragments. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Five Scrophularia L. Species from Turkey.

by Renda, Gülin, Kalaycı, Yalçın, Korkmaz, Büşra, Karaoglu, Sengül Alpay, Yaylı, Nurettin [2017-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

The essential oils of the five Scrophularia species; Scrophularia chrysantha Jaub. et Spach, Scrophularia kotschyana Benth., Scrophularia olympica Boiss., Scrophularia cinerascens Boiss. and Scrophularia zuvandica Grossh. were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) with a range of 0.10% to 0.16% yield and analazsed by GC-FID/MS. In the meantime, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of S. chrysantha, S. kotschyana, S. olympica, S. cinerascens and S. zuvandica were also identified with the technique of SPME GCFID/MS and the phytochemical results were evaluated. The experimental results of this study showed that the major compounds of essential oils which were taken by the hydrodistillation were carvacrol (52.4%), 2-pentadecanone (26.7%), 2-pentadecanone (12.2%), (Z)-2-nonenal (11.2%) and carvacrol (69.1%) respectively. Isovaleraldehyde (37.1%, 27.9%), eucalyptol (13.8%), 2-ethyl furan (14.8%) and 3(Z)-hexenol (91.3%) were respectively found as the main constituents of the five Scrophularia species with SPME method. Also antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of the five Scrophularia species were screened by using agar well diffusion method. It was identified that S. olympica, S.chrysantha, and S. kotschyana, have anti-tuberculosis activity, whereas, the essential oils gained from S. zuvandica and S. cinerascens have anti-fungal activity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME MOLLUSKS AND MUSSELS FROM BLACK SEA AND THE IMPORTANCE FOR NUTRITION.

by Rodica, Sîrbu, Emin, Cadar, Luiza, Erimia Cristina [2017-11-01]

Conference

pages 8

An marinegastropod mollusk or whelk is well-known Rapana venosa with the common name the veined rapa whelk or Asian rapa whelk. It is a species of large predatory sea snail, in the family Muricidae, the rock shells. This large sea snail has become an invasive species in many different localities around the world. In the area of the Romanian seaside is also found Rapana venosa. Bivalvia is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Most species of the family live in usually numerous colonies, creating genuine banks at varying depths. In general, they live free or they are set in rocks through byssus. The high content of nutritious biochemical compounds (proteins, sugars, and lipids), to which one can add the presence of vitamins and amino acids, outlines the high nutritious value of midia from the Romanian coast of the Black Sea, but also the possibility of using them for extracting active principles with medical uses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 14

The aims of the present study were to monitor the changes in gross chemical composition of individual dromedary camel milk over a 5-yr period, to provide reference values, and to determine the effect of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing camel milk composition under intensive management. A total of 1,528 lactating dromedary camels were included in the study. Animals were fed a constant diet and were milked twice a day in a herringbone parlor. Milk samples were collected at monthly intervals using a sampling device and then fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS), and solids-nonfat (SNF) concentrations of raw camel milk were determined with an automatic milk analyzer. For each milk sample, production parameters were recorded and quantities (grams) of milk constituents were calculated. The overall mean quantity and fat, protein, lactose, SNF, and TS concentrations of the morning milk were 4.0 kg, 2.58%, 2.95%, 4.19%, 8.08%, and 10.46%, respectively. Milk quantity showed a positive correlation with lactose and a negative correlation with all other components. Parity exerted a strong effect on all milk parameters. Primiparous dromedaries (n = 60) produced less milk with higher concentrations of components than did multiparous animals (n = 1,468). Milk composition varied among the 7 breeds tested, but none of the genotypes was found to be superior to the others in this respect. We detected a significant, yet small calf sex-biased difference in milk yield and composition. Stage of lactation and season strongly influenced milk yield and all milk components. We also found a significant interaction between month postpartum (mPP) and month of the year. The concentration of all milk components decreased from 1 to 5 mPP. Later, lactose concentration and quantity continued to decrease parallel with decreasing milk production. The concentration of other components showed a temporary increase in mid-lactation, from 6 to 11 mPP, and in late lactation, from 18 to 23 mPP. Mean fat, protein, SNF, and TS concentrations showed a high seasonal variation (9.5 to 28.7%), with the lowest and highest values being measured during summer and winter, respectively. This seasonal variation was independent of nutrition and may reflect an endogenous circannual rhythm. We observed a noticeable variation among years. Dromedary camels could provide a useful in vivo model to study the homeorhetic regulation of mammary cell function by endogenous and environmental factors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


FUT8: from biochemistry to synthesis of core-fucosylated N-glycans.

by Calderon, Angie D., Lei Li, Wang, Peng G. [2017-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Glycosylation is a major posttranslational modification of proteins. Modification in structure on N-glycans leads to many diseases. One of such modifications is core α-1,6 fucosylation, which is only found in eukaryotes. For this reason, lots of research has been done on approaches to synthesize core-fucosylated N-glycans both chemically and enzymatically, in order to have well defined structures that can be used as probes for glycan analysis and identifying functions of glycan-binding proteins. This review will focus on FUT8, the enzyme responsible for core fucosylation in mammals and the strategies that have been developed for the synthesis of core fucosylated N-glycans have been synthesized so far. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Metabolic heterogeneity of the normal human brain: multivariate analysis of H MRS in vivo spectra acquired at 3T.

by Skorupa, Agnieszka, Boguszewicz, Łukasz, Kijonka, Marek, Sokół, Maria [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Introduction: In recent years multivariate projection techniques of data analysis (PCA, PLS-DA) have been increasingly used for detection of complex H MRS derived metabolic signatures in pathologic conditions. However, these techniques have not been applied in the studies of metabolic heterogeneity of the normal human brain. Objective: In this work we extended current knowledge about regional distribution of metabolites by multivariate analysis of metabolite levels obtained from various cortical and subcortical regions. Methods: The studied group consisted of 71 volunteers with no neurological disorders. The metabolite levels obtained from short echo time H MRS in vivo spectra were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The major variance direction in the dataset was dominated by glutamine + glutamate, creatine, myo-inositol and was successful in differentiation of the cortical grey matter and cerebellar vermis from the cortical white matter, pons, basal ganglia, hippocampus and thalamus. The projection plane formed by the second and third variance directions was dominated by N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, choline and glutamine + glutamate variation not explained by the first direction. This plane revealed a huge metabolic contrast between the pons and basal ganglia, differentiation between the cortical grey matter regions and cerebellar vermis as well as biochemical heterogeneity between the regions such as: thalamus, basal ganglia and hippocampus. Conclusion: Multivariate approach to H MRS data analysis provides an insight into the normal brain biochemistry and is helpful in understanding the regional heterogeneity of the normal brain. Such knowledge is crucial for a proper interpretation of altered metabolic pathways in diseases. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Relation between salt tolerance and biochemical changes in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

by Rebey, Iness Bettaieb, Bourgou, Soumaya, Rahali, Fatma Zohra, Msaada, Kamel, Ksouri, Riadh, Marzouk, Brahim [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

In this study, the effects of salinity on growth, fatty acid, essential oil, and phenolic composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds as well as the antioxidant activities of their extracts were investigated. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl treatment: 0, 50, 75, and 125 mmoL. Plant growth was significantly reduced with the severity of saline treatment. This also caused important reductions in the seed yield and yield components. Besides, NaCl treatments affected fatty acid composition. Petroselinic and linoleic acids proportions diminished consistently with the increase in NaCl concentration, whereas palmitic acid proportion increased. Furthermore, NaCl enhanced essential oil production in C. cyminum seeds and induced marked changes on the essential oil quality. Essential oil chemotype was modified from γ-terpinene/1-phenyl-1,2 ethanediol in control to γ-terpinene/β-pinene in salt stressed plants. Total polyphenol content was higher in treated seeds, and salinity improved the amount of individual phenolic compounds. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by four different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays. The highest antioxidant activities were reveled in severe stressed plants. In this case, cumin seeds produced under saline conditions may function as a potential source of essential oil and antioxidant compounds, which could support the utilization of this plant in a large field of applications such as food industry. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


INFLUENCE OF HOME PREPARATION METHODS OF BLACK TEA BEVERAGE ON THE MINERALS CONTENT.

by EL-SAEIDY, M. EL-SAIED, EL-HAKIM, H. I. ABD, EL BAZ, S. M. S. [2017-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Tea as a non-alcoholic beverage, is the most popular beverage in Egypt. It contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. This study aimed to determine chemical composition and mineral, (Zinc, Iron, Copper, Lead, Aluminum, manganese, and Cadmium, Sodium and Potassium) content before and after home preparation for three types of black tea (Indian, Malawian and Kenyan). Tea drinks were prepared using three traditional methods of different black tea as following (T1) black tea added to cold distilled water, then heated to boil for 2 minutes, (T2) black tea added to hot distilled water and then boiling continued for 2 minutes and (T3) black tea added to boiled distilled water and stand for infusion for 2 minutes. All prepared samples of tea drink were cooled at room temperature and consequently subjected to analysis. Among the metals analyzed, potassium was the most abundant, and ranging from 1492.14 to 1723.8 μg/g of different black tea types before preparing drinks of Indian and Kenyan sample, followed by Sodium with 99.3 μg/g in Malawian black tea. From the results, it was clear, that toxic heavy metals (Lead) had the lowest concentration in all samples with a concentration ranged from 1.34 to 2.11 μg/kg in Kenyan and Malawian black tea. Cadmium was not detected both in samples or treatments. The black tea samples were analyzed for Al and Zn concentration of dust tea and tea drinks. The results showed an average concentration of Al and Zn in dust tea, ranged from 1.57 to 17.18 and 7.5 to 15.2 μg/kg respectively. It could be concluded that mineral concentration in black tea drink show reduction in all samples, specially, heavy metal for (T1) and (T3). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Anticariogenic and Antimycobacterial Activities of the Essential Oil of Siparuna guianensis Aublet (Siparunaceae).

by de Melo, Daiana Caetano, Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas, Ferreira Júnior, Walnir Gomes, de Andrade, Priscila Mileide, Alcoba, Ana Elisa Teixeira, de Souza Silva, Thayná, de Melo Cazal, Cristiane, Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes [2017-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Siparuna guianensis is a Brazilian plant with extensive ethnobotanical indication and identified as one of the priority species that should be preserved in the Brazilian Cerrado. This work aimed to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil from leaves of S. guianensis (SGEO) grown in southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens and mycobacteria. Anticariogenic and antimycobacterial activities of SG-EO were evaluated in terms of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The essential oil from leaves of S. guianensis was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty one compounds were identified, accounting for 92.7 % of the SG-EO composition. E,E-farnesol (18.0 %), ß-myrcene (16.0 %), germacrene-D (10.0 %) and siparunone (14.6 %) were the major SG-EO constituents. SG-EO showed the strongest anticariogenic activity against the aerobic bacterium Streptococcus mutans (MIC of 50 µg/mL). SG-EO was also evaluated for its antimycobacterial activity, and showed MIC values of 250 µg/mL against Mycobacterium avium and 500 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii. These results imply that S. guianensis may be a new alternative source of substances of medicinal interest. This is the first report of anticariogenic and antimycobacterial activities of essential oil of S. guianensis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]