A Strong Impact of Soil Tetracycline on Physiology and Biochemistry of Pea Seedlings.

by Margas, Małgorzata, Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I., Michalczyk, Dariusz J., Głowacka, Katarzyna [2019-01-10]

Academic Journal

pages 14

Antibiotics are a new type of contaminants found in the environment. They are increasingly used in farm animal production systems and may accumulate in crops, limiting the plant growth rate and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tetracycline (TC) on physiological and biochemical properties of pea seedlings. The presence of TC in the soil during 24 hours did not result in any distinct changes of the seedlings. However, after five days (120 h) of soil TC action, the seedling appearance and metabolic activities were significantly affected. Leaves lost their green coloration as a result of a 38% degradation of their chlorophyll. Total protein was isolated from shoots of pea grown for 120 h in TC-supplemented perlite (250 mg × L−1) or perlite with no TC (control plants). The 2D electrophoretic maps of proteins from non-TC shoots contained 326 spots, whereas maps of shoot proteins from TC-treated seedlings contained only 316 spots. The identity of 26 proteins was determined. The intensity of most proteins (62%) increased. This was particularly visible with diphosphate kinase, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], peroxiredoxin, and glutathione S-transferase. A distinctly increased quantity of a protein involved in photosynthesis (photosystem II stability/assembly factor HCF136) was also noted. One protein was detected only in shoots of TC-treated plants (as opposed to controls); however, it could not be identified. Moreover, at the highest concentration of TC (250 mg × L−1 of perlite), a sharp increase in free-radical content was observed along with the amount of callose deposited in vascular bundles of leaves and roots and the occurrence of masses of dead cells in roots. It was found, therefore, that tetracycline which has been known for inhibiting predominantly the attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal acceptor in bacteria can disturb diverse metabolic pathways in plants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 1

Biochemical properties retrieved from remote sensing data are crucial sources of information for many applications. However, leaf and canopy scattering processes must be accounted for to reliably estimate information on canopy biochemistry, carbon-cycle processes and energy exchange. A coupled leaf-canopy model based on spectral invariants theory has been proposed, that uses the so-called Directional Area Scattering Factor (DASF) to correct hyperspectral remote sensing data for canopy structural effects. In this study, the reliability of DASF to decouple canopy structure and biochemistry was empirically tested using simulated reflectance spectra modelled using a Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model. This approach allows all canopy and radiative properties to be specified a priori. Simulations were performed under idealised conditions of directional-hemispherical reflectance, isotropic Lambertian leaf reflectance and transmittance and sufficiently dense (high LAI) canopies with black soil where the impact of canopy background is negligible, and also departures from these conditions. It was shown that both DASF and total canopy scattering could be accurately extracted under idealised conditions using information from both the full 400–2500 nm spectral interval and the 710–790 nm interval alone, even given no prior knowledge of leaf optical properties. Departures from these idealised conditions: varying view geometry, bi-directional reflectance, LAI and soil effects, were tested. We demonstrate that total canopy scattering could be retrieved under conditions of varying view geometry and bi-directional reflectance, but LAI and soil effects were shown to reduce the accuracy with which the scattering can be modelled using the DASF approach. We show that canopy architecture, either homogeneous or heterogeneous 3D arrangements of canopy scattering elements, has important influences over DASF and consequently the accuracy of retrieval of total canopy scattering. Finally, although DASF and total canopy scattering could be retrieved to within 2.4% of the modelled total canopy scattering signal given no prior knowledge of leaf optical properties, spectral invariant parameters were not accurately retrieved from the simulated signal. This has important consequences since these parameters are quite widely used in canopy reflectance modelling and have the potential to help derive new, more accurate canopy biophysical information. Understanding and quantifying the limitations of the DASF approach as we have done here, is an important step in allowing the wider use of these methods for decoupling canopy structure and biochemistry. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 15

Herbicide Propanil is a toxicant that can adversely affect the health of fish. The present study was conducted to ascertain the toxicity effect of Propanil on hematology and serum biochemistry in Oreochromis niloticus juvenile. Fish specimens were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.0, 0.22, 0.44 and 0.87 mg/L) of Propanil derived from the 96hour Lethal concentration for eight weeks. Fish specimens were sampled for hematological and biochemical analysis at 2, 6 and 8 week's duration exposure. Significant changes and dose dependent decreases in red blood cell, pack cell volume, hemoglobin values were observed in Propanil exposed fish compared to the control. Progressive increase in white blood cell count and leukocyte differentials (neutrophils and lymphocytes) were found in Propanil exposed fish compared to the control. Significant increases in biochemical parameters (glucose, protein, triglycerides, glutamic oxalo-acetic transminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase) were observed in Propanil exposed fish groups compared to the control. However, cholesterol levels decreased significantly except for 8th week Propanil duration exposure. Findings of the present study revealed that Propanil adversely affected fish health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


EFFECT OF FEEDING ON GROWTH AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY OF MALE FALLOW DEER.

by Pavlik, Ales, Slama, Petr, Bures, Daniel, Kotrba, Radim [2018-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 3

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of the barley grain and lysine supplement in the diet of fattened fallow deer males on the growth intensity and biochemical parameters of the blood plasma. A total of 30 male fallow deer between 10 and 11 months of age were divided into three groups: G - grazing, B - grazing with barley supplement and BL - barley supplement with addition of LysiPearl™. Body weight, daily weight gain, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined at the end of fattening. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) body weight and weight gain were found in the group supplemented with barley and lysine in the diet. Supplement of grain and lysine increased significantly (p < 0.05) total protein, albumin and creatinine concentration in blood plasma of monitored animals. At the same time lower catalytic concentration of ALT (p < 0.05) and AST in supplemented groups was found. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Best Practices for QSAR Model Reporting: Physical and Chemical Properties, Ecotoxicity, Environmental Fate, Human Health, and Toxicokinetics Endpoints.

by Piir, Geven, Kahn, Iiris, García-Sosa, Alfonso T., Sild, Sulev, Ahte, Priit, Maran, Uko [2018-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 20

BACKGROUND: Quantitative and qualitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been used to understand chemical behavior for almost a century. The main source of QSAR models is the scientific literature, but the open question is how well these models are documented. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to critically analyze the publication practices of QSARs with regard to transparency, potential reproducibility, and independent verification. The focus was on the level of technical completeness of the published QSARs. METHODS: A total of 1,533 QSAR articles reporting 79 individual endpoints, mostly in environmental and health science, were reviewed. The QSAR parameters required for technical completeness were grouped into five categories: chemical structures, experimental endpoint values, descriptor values, mathematical representation of the model, and predicted endpoint values. The data were summarized and discussed using Circos plots. RESULTS: Altogether, 42.5% of the reviewed articles were found to be potentially reproducible. The potential reproducibility for different endpoint groups varied; the respective rates were 39% for physical and chemical properties, 52% for ecotoxicity, 56% for environmental fate, 30% for human health, and 32% for toxicokinetics. The reproducibility of QSARs is discussed and placed in the context of the reproducibility of the experimental methods. Included are 65 references to open QSAR datasets as examples of models restored from scientific articles. DISCUSSION: Strikingly poor documentation of QSARs was observed, which reduces the transparency, availability, and consequently, the application of research results in scientific, industrial, and regulatory areas. A list of the components needed to ensure the best practices for QSAR reporting is provided, allowing long-term use and preservation of the models. This list also allows an assessment of the reproducibility of models by interested parties such as journal editors, reviewers, regulators, evaluators, and potential users. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Identification and binding mode of a novel Leishmania Trypanothione reductase inhibitor from high throughput screening.

by Turcano, Lorenzo, Torrente, Esther, Missineo, Antonino, Andreini, Matteo, Gramiccia, Marina, Di Muccio, Trentina, Genovese, Ilaria, Fiorillo, Annarita, Harper, Steven, Bresciani, Alberto, Colotti, Gianni, Ilari, Andrea [2018-11-26]

Academic Journal

pages 21

Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered to be one of the best targets to find new drugs against Leishmaniasis. This enzyme is fundamental for parasite survival in the host since it reduces trypanothione, a molecule used by the tryparedoxin/tryparedoxin peroxidase system of Leishmania to neutralize hydrogen peroxide produced by host macrophages during infection. In order to identify new lead compounds against Leishmania we developed and validated a new luminescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that allowed us to screen a library of 120,000 compounds. We identified a novel chemical class of TR inhibitors, able to kill parasites with an IC50 in the low micromolar range. The X-ray crystal structure of TR in complex with a compound from this class (compound 3) allowed the identification of its binding site in a pocket at the entrance of the NADPH binding site. Since the binding site of compound 3 identified by the X-ray structure is unique, and is not present in human homologs such as glutathione reductase (hGR), it represents a new target for drug discovery efforts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

Objective: The study was designed to establish choline deficiency model (CDM) in broilers for evaluating efficacy of polyherbal formulation (PHF) in comparison with synthetic choline chloride (SCC). Methods: A total of 2,550 one-day-old Cobb 430 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to different groups in three experiments. In experiment 1, G1 and G2 served as normal controls and were fed a basal diet with 100% soybean meal (SBM) as a major protein source supplemented with and without SCC, respectively. In G3, G4, G5, and G6 groups, SBM was replaced at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by soy protein isolate (SPI) to induce a graded level of choline deficiency. In experiment 2, PHF (500 and 1,000 g/ton) in comparison with SCC (1,000 g/ton) were evaluated. In experiment 3, dose-response of PHF (200, 400, and 500 g/ton) with SCC (400 g/ton) was determined. Results: Replacement of SBM by SPI produced a linear decrease in body weight gain (BWG) with a poor feed conversion ratio (FCR). 25% SBM replacement by SPI yielded an optimum negative impact on BWG and FCR; hence, it is considered for further studies. In experiment 2, PHF (500 and 1,000 g/ton) and SCC (1,000 g/ton) showed a similar performance in BWG, FCR and relative liver weight. In experiment 3, PHF produced an optimum efficacy at 400 g/ton and was comparable to SCC in the restoration of serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, abdominal fat, breast muscle lipid content and liver histopathological abnormalities. Conclusion: Replacement of SBM by SPI caused choline deficiency characterised by worsening of BWG, FCR, elevation in liver enzymes and histopathological changes indicating fatty liver. CDM was found valid for evaluating SCC and PHF. It is concluded that PHF has the potential to mimic biological activities of SCC through the restoration of negative effects caused by CDM. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Agua y salud intestinal en aves sin antibióticos.

by Ruiz, Benjamín [2018-11-01]

Periodical

pages 1

The article focuses on the egg production without using antibiotics. Topics discussed include quality of water consumed by birds, their intestinal health, bacteriological and biochemical analysis of water and quality management of water. It further discusses challenges faced in managing quality of water.


Ten quick tips for getting the most scientific value out of numerical data.

by Schwen, Lars Ole, Rueschenbaum, Sabrina [2018-10-11]

Academic Journal

pages 21

Most studies in the life sciences and other disciplines involve generating and analyzing numerical data of some type as the foundation for scientific findings. Working with numerical data involves multiple challenges. These include reproducible data acquisition, appropriate data storage, computationally correct data analysis, appropriate reporting and presentation of the results, and suitable data interpretation. Finding and correcting mistakes when analyzing and interpreting data can be frustrating and time-consuming. Presenting or publishing incorrect results is embarrassing but not uncommon. Particular sources of errors are inappropriate use of statistical methods and incorrect interpretation of data by software. To detect mistakes as early as possible, one should frequently check intermediate and final results for plausibility. Clearly documenting how quantities and results were obtained facilitates correcting mistakes. Properly understanding data is indispensable for reaching well-founded conclusions from experimental results. Units are needed to make sense of numbers, and uncertainty should be estimated to know how meaningful results are. Descriptive statistics and significance testing are useful tools for interpreting numerical results if applied correctly. However, blindly trusting in computed numbers can also be misleading, so it is worth thinking about how data should be summarized quantitatively to properly answer the question at hand. Finally, a suitable form of presentation is needed so that the data can properly support the interpretation and findings. By additionally sharing the relevant data, others can access, understand, and ultimately make use of the results. These quick tips are intended to provide guidelines for correctly interpreting, efficiently analyzing, and presenting numerical data in a useful way. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


THE MILK INDEX, BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY STATUS AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL MALAYSIAN COW (Bos sundoicus) FED Arthrospira platensis SUPPLEMENT.

by SHAMSUDIN, LOKMAN, RASHID, SYARIFAH A. B., ABDULLAH, AZMAN NIRMAL, MOHAMED, WAN ZAHARI, LOKMAN, HAFIS HARRES [2018-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

An experimental feed trial was carried out for 40 days to assess and investigate the bio-physiological effect of locally isolated indigenous Arthrospira platensis on the growth performance, milk quality index of the local female Kelantan cattle bred type trait (Bos sundoicus). Sixteen healthy local Kelantan cows (68.6±8.12 kg, 1.21±0.26 years old) were randomly allotted into four groups, viz. one group fed standard diet and three groups with formulated diets with variable strength of A. platensis supplement. There were significant body weight increments and milk volume as shown by the treated cows (p


Effect of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine on Liver Biochemistry and Quality of Life in Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis Treated with Ursodeoxycholic Acid. A Prospective, Open Label Pilot Study.

by Wunsch, Ewa, Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna, Barbier, Olivier, Milkiewicz, Malgorzata, Krawczyk, Marcin, Milkiewicz, Piotr [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background & Aims: Chronic liver disease induces an acquired deficiency of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) leading to impairment of detoxifying processes in the liver. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents the standard treatment in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). As both compounds exert their hepatoprotective effects by different mechanisms, it is conceivable that when used together their effect might be additive. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of SAMe supplementation on liver biochemistry and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with PBC, treated with UDCA. Methods. In this prospective pilot, proof of the principle, non-randomized and open label study we enrolled 24 patients with PBC treated with UDCA for at least 6 months. They had received both UDCA in a standard dose of 13-15 mg/kg b.w. and SAMe in the dose of 1200 mg daily over a period of 6 months. A group of 24 patients with PBC treated with UDCA served as control for liver biochemistry (Study registered on the platform ClinicalTrials.gov under ID: NCT02557360). Results. We observed a significant decrease of ALP, GGT and total cholesterol in non-cirrhotic patients treated with SAMe. There was also a significant improvement of fatigue and pruritus in PBC-40 questionnaire and amelioration of anxiety in STAI 2 questionnaire in the SAMe group. Treatment with SAMe neither increased sulfation capacity of the liver nor had an effect on fibroblast growth factor-19 serum levels. Conclusions. Our pilot study demonstrates a positive effect of adding SAMe to UDCA in non-cirrhotic patients with PBC. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Mass production of vermicompost using suitable species of earthworms and selecting target organic waste materials has appeared to be a great development in the realm of biotechnological research for the sustainable eco-management. Although, for the bioconversion of organic wastes to vermicompost, suitable earthworm species play major roles, a hoard of bacterial assemblages by virtue of production of different enzymes facilitate the process of vermicomposting. The present study has documented the roles of vermicompost associated bacteria in combating, preventing, and controlling of cancer so as to open a new vista not only in the field of vermitechnology but also on biomedical research. Earthworms’ associated bacterial metabolic products having their unique physicochemical excellence have gained importance due to their roles as a facilitator of apoptosis (programed cell death in a MCF-7 cell line). The antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethyl acetate extracts’ of vermicompost associated bacterium Bacillus anthracis were undertaken by antioxidant assay which revealed maximum DPPH radical scavenging effect (75.79 ± 5.41%) of the extracts’ at 9 00 μg ml-1. Furthermore, the crude extracts obtained from the same bacteria were found to decrease the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) with the increase in doses. MTT assay showed potent cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) with the IC50 value of 46.64 ± 0.79 μg ml-1. It was further confirmed through Hoechst 33258 staining of nuclear fragmentation assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Western blotting test has confirmed a downregulation of Akt upon application of crude extracts. Increase of SOD activity along with decrease of Akt level reflects that the mode of action is entirely PI-3K dependent. This study tends to indicate that B. anthracis isolated from vermicompost could be potentially explored for the development of new therapeutic agents, especially against cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

DNA

Changes in Liver Gene Expression and Plasma Concentration of Rbp4, Fetuin-A, and Fgf21 in Sprague-Dawley Rats Subjected to Different Dietary Interventions and Bariatric Surgery.

by Stygar, Dominika, Pigłowski, Wojciech, Chełmecka, Elżbieta, Skrzep-Poloczek, Bronisława, Sawczyn, Tomasz, Garłowski, Wojciech, Jochem, Jerzy, Karcz, Konrad Wojciech [2018-08-16]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Purpose. To study the effect of duodenal-jejunal omega switch (DJOS) in combination with different dietary patterns on the retinol-binding protein (RBP4), fetuin-A, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plasma levels and their hepatic gene expressions in rats. Methods. A high-fat diet (HF) was given to 28 rats and 28 more were fed with a control diet (CD) for 2 months. After that, half of each group underwent either DJOS or SHAM surgery. For the next 2 months, half of the animals in each operation group were kept on the same diet as before and half of them had the diet changed. After 16 weeks of the experiment RBP4, fetuin-A, and FGF21 plasma levels as well as liver Rbp4, Ahsg, and Fgf21 gene expressions were measured. Results. DJOS had a reductive impact on plasma levels of RBP4, fetuin-A, and FGF21 and Rbp4, Ahsg, and Fgf21 relative gene expression in the liver when compared to SHAM. The HF/HF group expressed significantly higher RBP4 and fetuin-A plasma levels in comparison to the control. The HF diet used before and/or after surgery led to upregulation of Rbp4, Ahsg, and Fgf21 relative gene expression. The lowest levels of analyzed parameters were observed in the CD/CD group. Conclusions. The efficiency of DJOS surgery, measured by hepatokines’ plasma levels and their gene expressions in the liver, depends on the type of diet applied before and after surgery. Manipulation of dietary patterns can lead to marked improvements in metabolic profile after DJOS surgery. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Network-level allosteric effects are elucidated by detailing how ligand-binding events modulate utilization of catalytic potentials.

by Yurkovich, James T., Alcantar, Miguel A., Haiman, Zachary B., Palsson, Bernhard O. [2018-08-07]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Allosteric regulation has traditionally been described by mathematically-complex allosteric rate laws in the form of ratios of polynomials derived from the application of simplifying kinetic assumptions. Alternatively, an approach that explicitly describes all known ligand-binding events requires no simplifying assumptions while allowing for the computation of enzymatic states. Here, we employ such a modeling approach to examine the “catalytic potential” of an enzyme—an enzyme’s capacity to catalyze a biochemical reaction. The catalytic potential is the fundamental result of multiple ligand-binding events that represents a “tug of war” among the various regulators and substrates within the network. This formalism allows for the assessment of interacting allosteric enzymes and development of a network-level understanding of regulation. We first define the catalytic potential and use it to characterize the response of three key kinases (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase) in human red blood cell glycolysis to perturbations in ATP utilization. Next, we examine the sensitivity of the catalytic potential by using existing personalized models, finding that the catalytic potential allows for the identification of subtle but important differences in how individuals respond to such perturbations. Finally, we explore how the catalytic potential can help to elucidate how enzymes work in tandem to maintain a homeostatic state. Taken together, this work provides an interpretation and visualization of the dynamic interactions and network-level effects of interacting allosteric enzymes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Blood biochemistry of olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles foraging in northern Sinaloa, Mexico.

by Espinoza-Romo, B. A., Sainz-Hernández, J. C., Ley-Quiñónez, C. P., Hart, C. E., Leal-Moreno, R., Aguirre, A. A., Zavala-Norzagaray, A. A. [2018-07-25]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Blood parameters provide an excellent tool to evaluate the health status of wildlife. However, there are few studies about health parameters of sea turtles in Mexico. For olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), no information was available to establish the health baseline for the species. The objective of this study was to establish reference blood biochemistry values for olive ridley turtles in the northern Sinaloa foraging area. Between 2013 and 2015, 82 olive ridley turtles were captured. Body condition index (BCI) presented a mean of 1.46 ± 0.14 (1.17–2.02) that categorized the population with excellent body condition; in addition, 99% of the turtles captured had a good physical appearance. Blood was collected for biochemistry analysis from 60 turtles. Significantly higher values of total protein, albumin, A/G ratio (albumin/globulin) and PCV (packed cell volume or hematocrit) were observed in adult when compared to subadult turtles. On the other hand, no significant differences were found when females and males were compared. Based on the BCI, physical assessment, and blood parameters, and compared to other sea turtle species, olive ridley turtles in northern Sinaloa were considered in excellent health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish normal blood biochemistry values of foraging olive ridley turtles in northern Sinaloa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


In vitro–transcribed guide RNAs trigger an innate immune response via the RIG-I pathway.

by Wienert, Beeke, Shin, Jiyung, Zelin, Elena, Pestal, Kathleen, Corn, Jacob E. [2018-07-16]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing is revolutionizing fundamental research and has great potential for the treatment of many diseases. While editing of immortalized cell lines has become relatively easy, editing of therapeutically relevant primary cells and tissues can remain challenging. One recent advancement is the delivery of a Cas9 protein and an in vitro–transcribed (IVT) guide RNA (gRNA) as a precomplexed ribonucleoprotein (RNP). This approach allows editing of primary cells such as T cells and hematopoietic stem cells, but the consequences beyond genome editing of introducing foreign Cas9 RNPs into mammalian cells are not fully understood. Here, we show that the IVT gRNAs commonly used by many laboratories for RNP editing trigger a potent innate immune response that is similar to canonical immune-stimulating ligands. IVT gRNAs are recognized in the cytosol through the retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway but not the melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA5) pathway, thereby triggering a type I interferon response. Removal of the 5’-triphosphate from gRNAs ameliorates inflammatory signaling and prevents the loss of viability associated with genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells. The potential for Cas9 RNP editing to induce a potent antiviral response indicates that care must be taken when designing therapeutic strategies to edit primary cells. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Variation of Tensile Properties of High Silicon Ductile Iron.

by Hammersberg, Peter, Hamberg, Kenneth, Borgström, Henrik, Lindkvist, Joachim, Björkegren, Lars-Erik [2018-06-15]

Academic Journal

pages 8

The casting processes are characterized by complex relationships between predictors and responses. It is the fundamental understanding of these complex relationships that often involves hundreds of factors, which improves quality without losing productivity and raising cost. In this work, cast solid solution strengthened ferritic spheroidal graphite irons GJS-500-14 and GJS-600-10 (EN 1563:2012) have been evaluated. These materials offer stronger components with good machinability owing to their even hardness properties. In this case the predictors are chemical composition, gating layout, foundry set-up, testing procedure and equipment etc. and the responses are the tensile properties (Rp0.2, Rm, A5). Here 200 tensile specimens compiled from industrial foundry melts from over 30 years of research have created a state-of-the-art platform for statistical engineering in order to perform Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and data visualization. This statistical platform has provided new insight on how foundries should treat complex relationships between predictors and responses in order to identify sources of variation and interaction effects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


BOVINE MILK: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW BOVINE MILK IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR.

by Ullah, Shafqat, Mahsood, Naheed, Imtiaz, Ayesha, Hamza, Amir [2018-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Introduction: Milk and dairy products are consumed by the human on daily basis throughout the globe and constitute a huge business by the dairy farmers due to its high demand. The consumers of milk and milk products expect its high quality, free from the artificial preservatives and threatening agents. Objectives: To determine the chemical quality of raw bovine milk sold in open markets of district Peshawar. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 4 towns, Town 1(Sikandar Town and Gul Bahar), 2 (Shahi Bala, Methra and Pajjagi),3 (University Road and Hayatabad Area), 4 (Hazaekhawani and Badabair Area) of district Peshawar. Period: 6 months; from November 2016 to April 2017. Methodology: 158 samples were selected. All samples were analyzed for adulteration in the Public Health Laboratory phase 5 Hayatabad Peshawar. Study duration was 6 months; convenient sampling technique has been followed. Results: Among all 158 samples; 32.3% of the sample were adulterated with water. 8.9% of sample showed hydrogen per oxide adulteration. Starch, cane sugar and urea adulteration was in 7.6%, 2.5% and 1.9% samples respectively. Vegetable oil, formalin and synthetic milk adulteration was in 1.9%, 5.7% and 5.7% of samples respectively. We have Large Scale Vendors i.e. Rural Area 10% showing low and Urban Area 90% as high adulteration, Small Scale Vendors 30% low in rural Area and 70% high adulteration in urban area respectively. Conclusion: This study results provided a base line data of chemical composition of bovine milk used in Peshawar. Chemical were present and can play key role in alteration of milk which we use on daily basis. Water content was high, it means that most of the shop-keepers prefer to mix water in milk to increase the quantity of milk. Use of starch, Vegetable Oil and Formalin was minimal. Use of hydrogen peroxide, Urea and synthetic milk was very less in provided sample. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Rapid Characterization of Components in Bolbostemma paniculatum by UPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap MSn Analysis and Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Herb Discrimination.

by Zeng, Yanling, Lu, Yang, Chen, Zhao, Tan, Jiawei, Bai, Jie, Li, Pengyue, Wang, Zhixin, Du, Shouying [2018-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 1

Bolbostemma paniculatum is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) showed various therapeutic effects. Owing to its complex chemical composition, few investigations have acquired a comprehensive cognition for the chemical profiles of this herb and explicated the differences between samples collected from different places. In this study, a strategy based on UPLC tandem LTQ-Orbitrap MSn was established for characterizing chemical components of B. paniculatum. Through a systematic identification strategy, a total of 60 components in B. paniculatum were rapidly separated in 30 min and identified. Then based on peak intensities of all the characterized components, principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to classify 18 batches of B. paniculatum into four groups, which were highly consistent with the four climate types of their original places. And five compounds were finally screened out as chemical markers to discriminate the internal quality of B. paniculatum. As the first study to systematically characterize the chemical components of B. paniculatum by UPLC-MSn, the above results could offer essential data for its pharmacological research. And the current strategy could provide useful reference for future investigations on discovery of important chemical constituents in TCM, as well as establishment of quality control and evaluation method. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Decision making improves sperm chemotaxis in the presence of noise.

by Kromer, Justus A., Märcker, Steffen, Lange, Steffen, Baier, Christel, Friedrich, Benjamin M. [2018-04-19]

Academic Journal

pages 15

To navigate their surroundings, cells rely on sensory input that is corrupted by noise. In cells performing chemotaxis, such noise arises from the stochastic binding of signalling molecules at low chemoattractant concentrations. We reveal a fundamental relationship between the speed of chemotactic steering and the strength of directional fluctuations that result from the amplification of noise in a chemical input signal. This relation implies a trade-off between steering that is slow and reliable, and steering that is fast but less reliable. We show that dynamic switching between these two modes of steering can substantially increase the probability to find a target, such as an egg to be found by sperm cells. This decision making confers no advantage in the absence of noise, but is beneficial when chemical signals are detectable, yet characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios. The latter applies at intermediate distances from a target, where signalling molecules are diluted, thus defining a ‘noise zone’ that cells have to cross. Our results explain decision making observed in recent experiments on sea urchin sperm chemotaxis. More generally, our theory demonstrates how decision making enables chemotactic agents to cope with high levels of noise in gradient sensing by dynamically adjusting the persistence length of a biased random walk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp) and deltamethrin (Del) and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw), group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw), group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each), group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw), group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw) and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results: Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion: Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly better activity as compared to quercetin. The combination of both antioxidants offered more protection compared to each one alone. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 35

The year 2016 marked the 20th anniversary of the death of Marcelle Grenson and the 50th anniversary of her first publication on yeast amino acid transport, the topic to which, as Professor at the Free University of Brussels (ULB), she devoted the major part of her scientific career. M. Grenson was the first scientist in Belgium to introduce and apply genetic analysis in yeast to dissect the molecular mechanisms that were underlying complex problems in biology. Today, M. Grenson is recognized for the pioneering character of her work on the diversity and regulation of amino acid transporters in yeast. The aim of this tribute is to review the major milestones of her forty years of scientific research that were conducted between 1950 and 1990. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Whole-genome sequencing of Brassica oleracea var. capitata reveals new diversity of the mitogenome.

by Yang, Kiwoung, Nath, Ujjal Kumar, Biswas, Manosh Kumar, Kayum, Md Abdul, Yi, Go-eun, Lee, Jonghoon, Yang, Tae-Jin, Nou, Ill-Sup [2018-03-16]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA. No large repeats were found in the KU831325 assembly. However, KU831325 showed differences in the arrangement of bases at different regions compared to the previously reported mtDNAs. In the reference mtDNAs KJ820683 and AP012988, contig/fragment number 4 is partitioned into two contigs/fragments, 4a and 4b. However, contig/fragment number 4 was a single contig/fragment with 29,661 bp in KU831325. PCR and qRT-PCR using flanking markers from separate parts of contig/fragment number 4 confirmed it to be a single contig/fragment. In addition, genome re-alignment of the plastid genome and mtDNAs supported the presence of heteroplasmy and reverse arrangement of the heteroplasmic blocks within the other mtDNAs compared to KU831325 that might be one of the causal factors for its diversity. Our results thus confirm the existence of different mtDNAs in diverse B. oleracea subspecies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of Pycnocycla bashagardiana fruit's essential oil in animal models.

by Jahandar, Fatemeh, Asgarpanah, Jinous, Najafizadeh, Parvaneh, Mousavi, Zahra [2018-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Objective(s): Pycnocycla bashagardiana is an endemic species found only in Iran. Due to the presence of myristicin as the major component of the fruit's oil we were prompted to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of P. bashagardiana fruit's essential oil (PBFEO). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activities of PBFEO (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, IP) were studied by hot-plate and formalin tests in mice. Control and standard groups received vehicle and morphine (5 mg/kg, IP), respectively. The acute anti-inflammatory effect of PBFEO (200 and 400 mg/kg, IP) were assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema method in 30 min, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hr after carrageenan injection and the chronic anti-inflammatory effect of PBFEO (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP) were assessed by the cotton pellet-induced granuloma method in rats. Results: In hot-plate and formalin tests, the studied doses of PBFEO were not effective. However, in carrageenan test, all studied doses of PBFEO significantly reduced the paw edema in comparison to the control animals (P


CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND SIGNALING: THE NFE2L2/AP-1 PATHWAY.

by ZOLOTUKHIN, Peter V., BELANOVA, Anna A., BESEDA, Darya K., PRAZDNOVA, Evgeniya V., CHISTYAKOV, Vladimir A. [2018-01-02]

Academic Journal

pages 9