by Woody, Andrea I. [2004-01-01]
This essay addresses issues concerning explanation by exploring how explanatory structures function within contemporary chemistry. Three examples are discussed: explanations of the behavior of gases using the ideal gas law, explanations of trends in chemical properties using the periodic table, and explanations of molecular geometry using diagrammatic orbital schemes. In each case, the general explanatory structure, rather than particular explanations, occupies center stage in the analysis. It is argued that this quasi-empirical investigation may be more fruitful than previous analyses that attempt to isolate the essential features of individual explanations. There are two reasons for this conclusion, each discussed in some detail. First, the traditional analyses rely on highly precarious reasoning. Second, empirically grounded investigations provide a more natural connection to the core aim of analyses of explanation, namely to provide a rationale for the widely expressed preference for explanatory theories in science. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Clucas, Stephen [2017-05-01]
John Dee’sMonas Hieroglyphica(1564) was a work which involved a close collaboration between its author and his “singular friend” the Antwerp printer Willem Silvius, in whose house Dee was living whilst he composed the work and saw it through the press. This article considers the reasons why Dee chose to collaborate with Silvius, and the importance of the intellectual culture – and the print trade – of the Low Countries to the development of Dee’s outlook. Dee’sMonaswas probably the first alchemical work which focused exclusively on the diagrammatic representation of the alchemical process, combining diagrams, cosmological schemes, and various forms of tabular grid. It is argued that in theMonasthe boundaries between typography and alchemy are blurred as the diagrams “anatomising” his hieroglyphic sign (the “Monad”) are seen as revealing truths about alchemical substances and processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Rocke, Alan [2013-07-01]
Some recent philosophers of science have argued that chemistry in the nineteenth century 'largely lacked theoretical foundations, and showed little progress in supplying such foundations' until around 1900, or even later. In particular, nineteenth-century atomic theory, it is said, 'played no useful part' in the crowning achievement of nineteenth-century chemistry, the powerful subdiscipline of organic chemistry. This paper offers a contrary view. The idea that chemistry only gained useful theoretical foundations when it began to merge with physics, it will be argued, is based on an implicit conception of scientific theory that is too narrow, and too exclusively oriented to the science of physics. A broader understanding of scientific theory, and one that is more appropriate to the science of chemistry, reveals the essential part that theory played in the development of chemistry in the nineteenth century. It also offers implications for our understanding of the nature of chemical theory today. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Nelson, Gregory M., Eggett, Dennis L. [2017-10-01]
Hybrid open access refers to articles freely accessible via the Internet but which originate from an academic journal that provides most of its content via subscription. The effect of hybrid open access on citation counts and author behavior in the field of chemistry is something that has not been widely studied. We compared 814 open access articles and 27,621 subscription access articles published from 2006 through 2011 in American Chemical Society journals. As expected, the 2 comparison groups are not equal in all respects. Cumulative citation data were analyzed from years 2-5 following an article's publication date. A citation advantage for open access articles was correlated with the journal impact factor (IF) in low and medium IF journals, but not in high IF journals. Open access articles have a 24% higher mean citation rate than their subscription counterparts in low IF journals (confidence limits 8-42%, p = .0022) and similarly, a 26% higher mean citation rate in medium IF journals (confidence limits 14-40%, p < .001). Open access articles in high IF journals had no significant difference compared to subscription access articles (13% lower mean citation rate, confidence limits −27-3%, p = .10). These results are correlative, not causative, and may not be completely due to an open access effect. Authors of the open access articles were also surveyed to determine why they chose a hybrid open access option, paid the required article processing charge, and whether they believed it was money well spent. Authors primarily chose open access because of funding mandates; however, most considered the money well spent because open access increases information access to the scientific community and the general public, and potentially increases citations to their scholarship. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Brown, I. David, Abrahams, Sidney C., Faber, John, Berndt, Michael, Karen, Vicky L., Villars, Pierre, Westbrook, John D., McMahon, Brian, Motherwell, W. D. Sam [2005-11-01]
The proposed crystalline phase identifier consists of a number of components (layers) describing enough properties of the phase to allow a unique identification. These layers consist of the chemical formula, a flag indicating the state of matter, the space-group number and the Wyckoff sequence. They are defined in such a way that they can be incorporated into the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI) proposed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Schummer, Joachim [1997-12-01]
The paper shows epistemological, methodological and ontological peculiarities of chemistry taken as a classificatory science of materials using experimental methods. Without succumbing to standard interpretations of physical science, chemical methods of experimental investigation, classification, reference, theorizing, prediction and production of new entities are developed one by one as first steps towards a philosophy of chemistry. Chemistry challenges traditional concepts of empirical object, empirical predicate, reference frame and theory, but also the distinction commonly drawn between natural science and technology. Due to its many peculiarities, I propose to treat chemistry philosophically as a special type of science, apart from other sciences. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Smith, Marie-Louise, Martin, Mary E. [2001-03-01]
Presents a method to scale the leaf-level chemistry of forest stands to the whole-canopy level. Combination of leaf-level measurements of mass and chemistry with a camera-based technique; Ability to scale leaf-level traits; Estimation of whole-canopy N concentration.
by Silver, G. L. [2008-10-01]
Chemical equilibrium is not characterized by equilibrium constants alone. At least one conservation principle is necessary. Textbook descriptions of plutonium chemistry that are based on two-reaction-product disproportionation equations, or do not recognize the conservation principles, are incomplete and potentially misleading. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Francl, Michelle [2012-12-01]
The article presents the author's insights on the people she found through the text of book she read about introductory chemistry and quantum mechanics. The author says that a random sampling of the chemist textbook she use suggest that four pages have lease one eponymous term and every year she asked her students to add a hundred of such terms to their technical vocabulary. She mentions then names that she found in the book including Carmen Drahl, William Noyes, and Maria Goeppert Mayer, and the topics of the texts in the book which include sensibility regarding recognition, organic chemistry, and 500 named reactions.
by Bursten, Julia R. [2012-01-01]
Linus Pauling played a key role in creating valence-bond theory, one of two competing theories of the chemical bond that appeared in the first half of the 20th century. While the chemical community preferred his theory over molecular-orbital theory for a number of years, valence-bond theory began to fall into disuse during the 1950s. This shift in the chemical community's perception of Pauling's theory motivated Pauling to defend the theory, and he did so in a peculiar way. Rather than publishing a defence of the full theory in leading journals of the day, Pauling published a defence of a particular model of the double bond predicted by the theory in a revised edition of his famous textbook, The Nature of the Chemical Bond. This paper explores that peculiar choice by considering both the circumstances that brought about the defence and the mathematical apparatus Pauling employed, using new discoveries from the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers archive. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
by Deichmann, Ute, Travis, Anthony S. [2004-06-01]
This article examines the influence of Germans on science in Palestine and Israel. The introduction of chemistry at the university level was unusual in that it was not based on the three main branches, organic, inorganic and physical chemistry. It was strongly influenced by Andor Fodor's attempts to establish chemistry and biochemistry on the basis of colloid chemistry. This continued until the early 1930s, despite the fact that as biochemistry and polymer science developed the belief that biological processes and large cellular molecules such as proteins, which were of a colloidal nature increasingly came under attack. The outcome of committing a science so strongly to controversial concepts was a poor record of research, and a complacency that spilled over into institutional politics during the first decade.
No author [2004-09-01]
Lists books about chemistry published as of September 2004. "Chemistry: Foundations and Applications," by J.J. Lagowski; "Candid Science IV: Conversations With Famous Physicists," by Istvan Hargittai and Magdolna Hargittai; "Introduction to Chemistry for Biology Students," eighth edition, by George Sackheim.
by Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel, Castano, Oscar, Planell, Josep, Engel, Elisabeth [2014-07-01]
Surface biofunctionalisation of many biodegradable polymers is one of the used strategies to improve the biological activity of such materials. In this work, the introduction of collagen type I over the surface of a biodegradable polymer (poly lactic acid) processed in the forms of films and fibers leads to an enhancing of the cellular adhesion of human dermal fibroblast when compared to unmodified polymer and biomolecule-physisorbed polymer surface. The change of topography of the material does not affect the cellular adhesion but results in a higher proliferation of the fibroblast cultured over the fibers. Moreover, the difference of topography governs the cellular morphology, i.e. cells adopt a more stretched conformation where cultured over the films while a more elongated with lower area morphology are obtained for the cells grown over the fibers. This study is relevant for designing and modifying different biodegradable polymers for their use as scaffolds for different applications in the field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
No author [2003-09-01]
This article presents information on the contributors to the articles published in the journal "Catalysis Letters." Some of the authors are M.B. Abdul Rahrnan, L. Albornoz, K. Arata, K. Aziz, M.A. Baares, X. Bao, R.J. Behrn, S.K. Bhargava, J. Brito, I. Bucsi, S.B. Bukallah, C. Busca, A. Carrascull, I.D. Lick, S. Chand, O. Cherifi, V.R. Choudhary, Z. Gao, V. Gelman, G.S. Grader, M.L. Granados, A. Guerrero-Ruiz, T. Hashirnoto, H. Hayashi, D.M. Hercules, M. Inaba, K. Jeyalakshmi, N. Katada, R. Nakao, C. Kim, P. Kim and H. Kim.
by Zhao, Hongyang, Huang, Zhideng, Ma, Zhibin, Jia, Tingting, Kimura, Hideo, Fu, Qiuming, Wang, Geming, Tao, Hong, Cai, Kang, Fan, Ziran [2017-10-01]
The multiferroic phenomenon has interdisciplinary applications in the fields of chemistry, physics, electronics, materials, crystallography, and mechanics. Compared to traditional limited pure inorganic multiferroics, hybrid metal-organic frameworks are numerous and more flexible, and can be tailored to become different types of multiferroic materials. We synthesized [(CH)NH] FeMn(HCOO) and four crystals were obtained, with x = 0 (Mn), 0.1 (FeMn), 0.2 (FeMn), and 0.3 (FeMn). At the maximum Fe doping of FeMn, we observed magnetic properties different from lower-level-doped crystals. The magnetizations at 3 K were 3.50 emu/g, 3.87 emu/g, 3.89 emu/g and 7.38 emu/g corresponding to Mn, FeMn, FeMn and FeMn, respectively. FeMn has three magnetic transitions, at 118.3 K, 40.3 K, and 8.3 K. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Mathews, Allan, Azad, Abul Kalam, Abbas, Syed A., Che Rose, Farid Z. Bin, Uddin, A. B. M. Helal [2018-10-01]
Background: In Malaysia, community pharmacies play an important and vital role in both urban and rural areas with approximately 30% of 12,000 registered pharmacists with annual retention certificate practicing in community pharmacies. The main objective of this study was to find the perception of respondents on the value and necessity of pharmacists. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section assessed the visits to community pharmacies, purpose, interaction with pharmacy staffs, professional fee, and improvements to pharmacy practices; the second section evaluated the characteristics of respondents including an e-consent form. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 11.5). Results: The highest number of respondents (66.1%) consulted with the pharmacists for cough and cold, 33.1% for gastric and stomach ailments, and 28.9% for diarrhea and constipation. Only 34% of cases were handled by the pharmacists, whereas 52.1% by the sales assistant. Approximately 88.5% showed satisfaction with the counseling provided. A total of 46.3% did not know whom they dealt with, whereas 51.2% wanted personal attention of the pharmacists instead of the sales assistants. However, 66.9% of respondents preferred to a private consultation room. Records of only 32.2% of respondents were secured by the pharmacies, whereas 42.1% showed interest to pay a professional fee. Moreover, 83.3% agreed the fee of RM5 only, whereas 20.8% agreed to RM10. Among the respondents, majority agreed to pay a fee willingly, but approximately 30% stayed neutral. Conclusion: There is a need for the community pharmacists to play vital roles firsthand at the front desk to serve the patients professionally instead of handing over the responsibilities to the sales assistant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Manas, Eric, Green, Darren [2017-03-01]
The acronym 'CADD' is often used interchangeably to refer to 'Computer Aided Drug Discovery' and 'Computer Aided Drug Design'. While the former definition implies the use of a computer to impact one or more aspects of discovering a drug, in this paper we contend that computational chemists are most effective when they enable teams to apply true design principles as they strive to create medicines to treat human disease. We argue that teams must bring to bear multiple sub-disciplines of computational chemistry in an integrated manner in order to utilize these principles to address the multi-objective nature of the drug discovery problem. Impact, resourcing principles, and future directions for the field are also discussed, including areas of future opportunity as well as a cautionary note about hype and hubris. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Dale, Keith, Dale, Stephen G. [2018-09-01]
The Australian Curriculum (n.d.) describes chemistry as having three interrelated strands, Science Inquiry Skills, Science as a Human Endeavour and Science Understanding. It also states "... the three strands of the Australian Curriculum: Science should be taught in an integrated way". This article will explore a model for integrating these three strands, which is applicable across the whole of the course in senior chemistry. It will give four examples of the way the model can be applied to achieve this integration as well as highlighting the use of theories for explaining and predicting the properties of matter. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Arias-Albisu, Martín [2017-07-01]
In the Preface to his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant holds that empirical disciplines, such as--at least--chemistry, are improper natural sciences. What he has primarily in mind is the phlogistic chemistry mainly developed by Georg Stahl. Contrary to mathematical physics, phlogistic chemistry is not a proper natural science because it lacks a metaphysical pure part and mathematics cannot be adequately applied to its domain. The aim of this article is to show that the scientific character of improper sciences, such as--at least--phlogistic chemistry, depends on the application of two methodological prescriptions demanded by the regulative function of theoretical reason. These prescriptions are presented by Kant in the Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic of his Critique of Pure Reason. The first prescription requires the use of certain ideas of reason in empirical scientific laws. The second one consists in a demand of systematicity for those laws. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Kurzer, Frederick [2001-04-01]
The London Institution, established in the City of London in 1807, was devoted, as its full title proclaimed, to the 'advancement of Literature and the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge'. With its extensive lecture programme, splendid reference library, reading rooms, laboratory and other amenities, it provided for its members a scientific and cultural centre, modelled on the highly successful and fashionable Royal Institution in London's West End. Among its scientific activities, chemistry long maintained a leading role, in terms of both the sheer volume and variety of its presentations, and the high standing of its lecturers; they included Faraday, Playfair, Hofmann, Roscoe, Odling, Norman Lockyer, Meldola, and Sir William Ramsay, as well as other visiting lecturers, specially selected for their ability to present their subject in an interesting and attractive fashion to a wider lay public. The laboratory of the Institution, although limited in size and facilities, was the scene of instruction in practical chemistry, and between 1863 and 1884 attained the reputation of a significant centre of chemical research during the successive tenure of the professorship in chemistry by J. A. Wanklyn and H. E. Armstrong. Their publications, appearing under the device 'From the Laboratory of the London Institution', were a frequent feature of the leading chemical periodicals. Thus, within its many-sided activities, the Institution promoted significantly the public appreciation of the function of chemistry, as a contributor both to pure knowledge, and to technical and economic progress. It achieved this in an environment of influential City merchants, manufacturers and financiers and doubtless led to beneficient, if unrecorded, consequences. It was only towards the close of the nineteenth century, when the universities had become increasingly concerned with the systematic study of the discipline, that chemistry lost its direct impact in the London Institution, but continu. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
No author [2006-06-01]
The article reviews several chemistry books including "Biocide Guanidine Containing Polymers: Synthesis, Structure and Properties," by Nikolai Alexandrovich Sivov, "Deadly Sunshine: The History and Fatal Legacy of Radium," by David I. Harvie, and "Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in an Age of Revolution," by Madison Smartt Bell.
by Brooke, J.H. [1979-07-01]
Reviews the book 'Classics in Coordination Chemistry. Part 3,' edited by George B. Kauffman.
by Smeaton, W.A. [1979-11-01]
Reviews the book 'Chemistry Transformed: The Paradigmatic Shift From Phlogiston to Oxygen,' by H. Gilman McCann. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Manning, Pat, Newman, Alan R. [1986-10-01]
Focuses on the effect of safety concerns on chemistry sets and experiment books. Changes in warning labels and selling practices of retailers; Problems faced by librarians regarding chemistry experiment books; Hazards presented by experiment books.