TQM PRACTICES AND THEIR EFFECT ON JORDANIAN MUNICIPALITIES.

by Hummour, Anan Abu, Athamneh, Seif, Al-balas, Samir [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 19

This study investigates the impact of Total Quality Management principles of communication, employee involvement, continual improvement and leadership on performance speed, quality and quantity in the Greater Irbid Municipality in Jordan. This study describes how TQM principles can be reliably applied in the public services sector in Jordan and how the Greater Irbid Municipality can improve its overall performance. The study reveals that leadership has the strongest and most positive effect on performance speed and quantity relative to other dimensions of communication, employee involvement and continuous improvement. The combination of all TQM practices was found to influence performance quality positively. However, increasing communication resulted in a negative effect on performance quality. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 23

This study used systemic perspectives and actor and partner interdependence model to examine actor and partner effects of depression on couples' relationship satisfaction in sixty-three clinical couples. We also examined if a demand/withdraw communication pattern served a unique communication context that modified the impacts of depression on relationship satisfaction. Couples participated in a treatment-as-usual situation. The results showed that male depression had a negative impact on female relationship satisfaction. Males and females had different perceptions of male demand/female withdraw behaviours and it created different influences on each partner's depression in relation to relationship satisfaction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 23

This study used systemic perspectives and actor and partner interdependence model to examine actor and partner effects of depression on couples' relationship satisfaction in sixty-three clinical couples. We also examined if a demand/withdraw communication pattern served a unique communication context that modified the impacts of depression on relationship satisfaction. Couples participated in a treatment-as-usual situation. The results showed that male depression had a negative impact on female relationship satisfaction. Males and females had different perceptions of male demand/female withdraw behaviours and it created different influences on each partner's depression in relation to relationship satisfaction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Communication context, explanation, and social judgment.

by Todorov, Alexander, Lalljee, Mansur, Hirst, William [2000-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

The effects of the communication context on explanations and judgments were investigated in two experiments where participants explained a boy's violent behavior either to a disciplinarian or to a permissive addressee. The results of Study 1 showed that the participants' explanations varied as a function of communication context, but their judgments of responsibility were not influenced. In Study 2, the communication demand was either subtle or blatant. The participants' explanations varied as a function of communication context independently from the communication demand. However, participants' responsibility judgments were influenced only when this demand was subtle. The implications of this for explanations in everyday social settings are considered. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


LISTENERS' PREFERENCES REGARDING THE REGIONAL ACCENT ON FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CONTEXT.

by Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley, Silva, Eveline Gonçalves, De Almeida, Larissa Nadjara Alves, Barbosa Lima, Ivonaldo Leidson, De Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo [2014-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8


Academic Journal

pages 21

Attention has been turned recently to the role that social capital may play in the promotion of immigration integration and social cohesion. The paper addresses an aspect of social capital that has been neglected: the application of social capital and its related concepts to minority ethnic families in impoverished neighbourhoods. This paper discusses the ways in which contextual elements in a neighbourhood may facilitate or impair the building of social capital for minority ethnic immigrant families. Research from focus group interviews conducted among Hispanic families in predominantly Hispanic neighbourhoods in Los Angeles show how residents face multiple challenges in social capital building due to physical, psychological, socio-cultural and economic constraints on their everyday family and community life. Contrary to popular conceptions that promote social capital building as the solution to social fractures caused by immigration and ethnic diversity, findings illustrate how communicative conditions experienced by minority Hispanic ethnic families may affect the constitution of their bonding, bridging and linking social capital processes. The potential impact of social capital on social cohesion will vary depending on the ways in which its effects are enhanced or diminished by the context of local neighbourhoods and the communication environ in which families are embedded. Cet article étudie la manière dont les éléments contextuels dans un quartier peuvent faciliter ou empêcher la construction du capital social pour les familles immigrées des minorités ethniques. La recherche sur la base d'entretiens avec des groupes ciblés (focus groups) menés auprès de familles hispaniques dans des quartiers à prédominance hispanique à Los Angeles montre comment les résidents doivent faire face à de multiples défis dans la construction du capital social en raison de contraintes physiques, psychologiques, socio-culturelles et économiques sur leur vie quotidienne familiale et communautaire. Contrairement à l'idée courante qui veut promouvoir la construction du capital social comme solution aux fractures sociales dues à l'immigration et la diversité ethnique, les résultats montrent que les conditions de communication vécues par les familles minoritaires hispaniques peuvent influer sur la constitution de leur capital social (création de liens affectifs, de passerelles et d'alliances). L'impact potentiel du capital social sur la cohésion sociale varie selon la manière dont ses effets sont augmentés ou diminués par le contexte local des quartiers et l'environnement de communication auquel les familles sont intégrées. contexte de communication, immigration, integration, minorités, communautés, capital social, familles hispaniques, cohésion sociale [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Infants' Understanding of Information Transmission in the Context of Communication Involving Multiple Agents.

by He, Jie, Jin, Xinyi, Li, Zhuyun, Zheng, Lei, Sun, Zhongqiang, Zhang, Meng, Shen, Mowei [2016-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 13

This study explored whether infants understand information transmission in a third-party communication context involving multiple agents. Infants aged 12 and 15 months were habituated to two agents pursuing two different objects and then tested with one agent (the communicator) interacting with a new agent (the recipient), whereas the other agent (the noncommunicator) did not interact with anyone. Results showed that 15-month-olds looked for longer when the recipient reached toward the preferred object of the noncommunicator in contrast to that of the communicator, suggesting that they recognized information transmitted from the communicator (versus the noncommunicator) to the recipient. Furthermore, the information was perceived as being specifically transmitted between agents, and this inference was not driven by the low-level perceptual factors of the communicator or the communication itself. However, 12-month-old infants did not show an understanding of transmission between the agents. The selective understanding of information transmitted among multiple agents, and the critical role of agency in such understanding are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Periodical

pages 4

An essay is presented about the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet and computer-mediated communication. It explores how the emergence of the Internet affects the society and the lives of people. It discusses the use of Internet in education. It also comments on the emergence of the diabolical and sinister nature of cyberspace.


NEWS AND NOTES.

by Klapper, Joseph T. [1963-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

This article presents several news items that are published in the September 1, 1963 issue of the journal "Public Opinion Quarterly." The University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin has announced the initiation of two three-year study projects, sponsored by National Science Foundation and to be pursued by the University's Mass Communications Research center. Frank Stanton, president of CBS Inc. and Paulin Fredric, television network company NBC news commentator, together with eight other distinguished Americans were awarded honorary degrees by Harold C. Case, president of Boston University for their contributions in their respective fields. The University of Southern California has announced the start of a course entitled "Introduction to Mass Communication." The course will deal with the history, functions and present future of the various media and the process of mass communication. The course will include guest lectures by professional media experts, and field trips to familiarize students with local media production agencies and appropriate employment opportunities.


Academic Journal

pages 7

The article presents a profile of scholar Jennings Bryant and his achievements in the field of mass communication in the U.S. Bryant has built a legacy as a complete scholar for his countless efforts contributed to the mass media field. He has earned an A.B. in History from Davidson College, then took master's of divinity in communications and counseling from Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and received his Ph.D in mass communication from Indiana University. He has been awarded for his numerous works. It is said that his legacy will continue to be substantial in journalism.


ORGANIZATION'S MANAGEMENT VIEWS REGARDING MASS COMMUNICATION.

by CURETEANU, R. S., RUSU, S., ISAC, F. L. [2011-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Mass communication media already plays a dominant role in the life of everyone. Helped by the growth and convergence of global telecommunications and information technology, the role of these media is only becoming more and more important. Few people, let alone organizations, dare to forecast where this will lead in years to come other than to suggest that the media will play a vital role in the survival of every organization. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 4

Mass communication discourse stylistics is characterized by a specific linguistic category of conversationality. The latter gives communicators' speech the tone of confidentiality, familiarity and is more attractive for the communicants. The article studies the number of typical examples with the use of defamatory appellatives and units with rough expression. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 10

In this paper we have tried to define the notion of communication and delimit the concepts of direct communication, mediate communication and mass media communication. Unlike usual approach, we have brought to light the economic elements of the communication process. In this respect, we have tried to show that both linguistic structure and the subsequent definitions of the communication notion contain an ample economic feature. The means of communication have always been important, whether we speak of agrarian, industrial or informational society. In the first stage, companies that provided transport services had to handle the agricultural products which were supposed to be carried to the markets or consumers. In order to carry out these services efficiently, roads were built to enable merchandise transport. During industrial age, the necessity of transport still remained crucial, but there was a slight change in products. This time energy was the main product which needed transporting. Whether we speak of the transport of coal, oil, gas or electrical power, the industry dependence on energy and, implicitly, on energy transporters is indisputable. This situation led to the building of main pipe lines for energy transport. Nowadays, informational society needs information transport. Of course, goods and energy are still being transported today, but our society will hardly do without communication main lines. In order to meet the existing needs in this respect, we witness a development of the communication infrastructure. Contemporary progress is strongly connected to network communication development. Whether we refer to internet, fiber or wireless networks, all of them transport each and every second huge amounts of information. Society, conquered by communication, discovers each passing day new elements and creative approaches through which the communication process between people can be catalyzed and maximized. In all these attempts, the communication process is only the means to achieve higher goals. These interests cause an increase in performance of the communication system. Whether we speak of local, national or global interests, the key factors for mass control are ontologically related to the communication system. This field has been explored by researchers over centuries, but not enough, because today's background and challenges are more complex than yesterday's. In the present paper we are placing ourselves somewhere between the collection of past experience and future uncertainty, marked by the passion and duty to explore. In the communication field, we are in a similar position to medical research; when we discover a treatment, we realize that new types of viruses have appeared which require new solutions. The working ground of mass media is extremely moving. Whether we speak of technology, finance, competition, interests, demand and supply or all of them, the cycle of changes happens more and more rapidly, almost stunning. The above mentioned ideas have motivated us in approaching this topic, which we invite you to study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 21

The article discusses the view of behavioral scientist William Stephenson regarding theories of mass communication. Tackled is the sense-extension theory of Marshall McLuhan as well as the Q-methodology with factor analysis by Stephenson. Also explored is the implication of social culture and character in television broadcasting.


Academic Journal

pages 43

Word reordering is one of the most difficult aspects of statistical machine translation (SMT), and an important factor of its quality and efficiency. Despite the vast amount of research published to date, the interest of the community in this problem has not decreased, and no single method appears to be strongly dominant across language pairs. Instead, the choice of the optimal approach for a new translation task still seems to be mostly driven by empirical trials. To orient the reader in this vast and complex research area, we present a comprehensive survey of word reordering viewed as a statistical modeling challenge and as a natural language phenomenon. The survey describes in detail how word reordering is modeled within different string-based and tree-based SMT frameworks and as a stand-alone task, including systematic overviews of the literature in advanced reordering modeling. We then question why some approaches are more successful than others in different language pairs. We argue that besides measuring the amount of reordering, it is important to understand which kinds of reordering occur in a given language pair. To this end, we conduct a qualitative analysis of word reordering phenomena in a diverse sample of language pairs, based on a large collection of linguistic knowledge. Empirical results in the SMT literature are shown to support the hypothesis that a few linguistic facts can be very useful to anticipate the reordering characteristics of a language pair and to select the SMT framework that best suits them. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Reply.

by Burling, Robbins [1993-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The article presents the author's views in response to the comments of various researchers about his article "Primate Calls, Human Language, and Nonverbal Communication," published in the present issue of the journal. The author says that several researchers do not support his conclusion that human and animal gestures are similar. They also say that there are less differences between language and animal communication than stated by him.


Nonhuman Primate Communication, Pragmatics, and the Origins of Language.

by Scott-Phillips, Thomas C., Cartmill, Erica A., Crockford, Catherine, Gärdenfors, Peter, Gómez, Juan C., Luef, Eva M., Pika, Simone, Moore, Richard, Rendall, Drew, Townsend, Simon W., Sievers, Christine, Wheeler, Brandon C. [2015-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 25

Comparisons with the cognition and communication of other species have long informed discussions of the origins and evolution of human communication and language. This research has often focused on similarities and differences with the linguistic code, but more recently there has been an increased focus on the social-cognitive foundations of linguistic communication. However, exactly what these comparisons tell us is not clear because the theoretical concepts used in the animal communication literature are different from those used in the corresponding literature on human communication, specifically those used in linguistic pragmatics. In this article, I bridge the gap between these two areas and in doing so specify exactly what great ape communication tells us about the origins of human communication and language. I conclude that great ape communication probably does not share the same socialcognitive foundations as linguistic communication but that it probably does involve the use of metacognitive abilities that, once they evolved to a more sophisticated degree, were exapted for use in what is an evolutionarily novel form of communication: human ostensive communication. This in turn laid the foundations for the emergence of linguistic communication. More generally, I highlight the often-neglected importance of pragmatics for the study of language origins. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 19

Denying special traits like the use of language to nonhuman animals has often been a basis for the creation of a stand-alone human sphere, apart from and above the animal world and the environmental milieu. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology shows that human communication arises from the semiosis in the extra-human world and is not self-contained. Given many recent insights in scientific studies of nonhuman animals, only a few of which are cited here, it becomes impossible to say that animals are mute, reactive entities. They too share many of the same features of communication with human beings. That said, articulating an interspecies ethic of sympathy or concern must take into account species and individual differences. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 22

The aim of this paper is to show that human language is context-dependent in a very specific way. In order to support this thesis, a detailed comparison is made between the ways in which verbal expressions depend on the context of occurrence and evaluation and animal communication systems. The comparison highlights a series of analogies and differences between human language and the communication systems of other animals. My proposal is to use the term `indexicality' to indicate the characteristic way of using the context in human language and to use the more general phrase `context-dependence' for the corresponding phenomenon in animal communication systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Background: Among the global estimation of 10.4 million new cases of Tuberculosis (TB) in 2015, 27% of cases are contributed by India. Revised national TB control program (RNTCP) started in 1993, and now heading towards for universal access. Despite its achievements, the program faces number of implementation challenges. This qualitative study explored 'what is healthcare providers take on it?'. Material & Methods: A total of 28 in-depth interviews were conducted in Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Delhi and Maharashtra from October 2014 to January 2015, under the thematic areas of finance, human resource, and communications. Participants included senior level policy makers like principal secretaries of health, National Health Mission Directors, Director Health Services, state TB officers and district TB officers, medical officers, community volunteers and TB consultants from international agencies. Analytic induction method was used for data analysis. Results: Participants identified many barriers in the overall management and implementation of RNTCP. Convergence of RNTCP needs to be more effective. Inadequate Human resources, issues in public private partnership, insufficient budget allocation and interrupted fund flow, inefficient Information Education and Communication strategy are a few. Conclusion: This study could gather the perspectives of senior health officials, implementers and other stakeholders on challenges in implementation of TB control programme in four states. Challenges perceived by them are vital in strategic revisions of RNTCP. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]