Chapter 8: Invisible crowds in cyberspace.

by Smith, Marc A. [1998-12-17]

Book

pages 24

The article focuses on the social structure of the Usenet. Cyberspace is changing the social physics of human life, broadening the size and power of group interaction. In the article, the author reports on the initial results of Netscan, a software tool that gathers an ongoing stream of Usenet messages and maintains a database of information drawn from the header of each message. Data drawn from group interaction in cyberspace offer some unique opportunities for the study of social organization. One of the unique features of network-mediated communication is that almost all interactions leave behind a durable trace--electronic tracks that can provide detailed data about what vast numbers of groups of people do online. The Usenet has the largest geographic scope of systems of its type, drawing participants from nearly every corner of the globe. The number of people simply reading the Usenet remains a mystery but it seems safe to assume that more people read the Usenet than actively participate in it.


Academic Journal

pages 20

This case study describes how librarians and enterprise architects at an Australian university worked together to document key components of the Library's "as-is" enterprise architecture (EA). The article covers the rationale for conducting this activity, how work was scoped, the processes used, and the outputs delivered. The author discusses the short-term benefits of undertaking this work, with practical examples of how outputs from this process are being used to better plan future library system replacements, upgrades, and enhancements. Longer-term benefits may also accrue in the future as the results of this architecture work inform the Library's IT planning and strategic procurement. This article has implications for practice for library technology specialists as it validates views from other practitioners on the benefits for libraries in adopting enterprise architecture methods and for librarians in working alongside enterprise architects within their organizations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication.

by Christofides, Nicola J., Nieuwoudt, Sara, Usdin, Shereen, Goldstein, Susan, Fonn, Sharon [2013-01-02]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly) southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south-south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Systems Thinking as a Team-Building Approach.

by WAY, CYNTHIA, McKEEBY, JON WALTER [2012-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The chief information officer of a research hospital faced a formidable challenge: Over the last five years, his department had expanded from a staff of 65 to 94. Because of the complexity of the hospital's computer infrastructure, the CIO determined that a team approach was essential to managing the system. To improve communication, the leadership group participated in a team-building retreat with a focus on systems thinking. The approach was not to teach the entire systems thinking methodology. Instead, after a brief introduction to key concepts to set the stage, the group learned to look for examples of the systems archetypes in their organization. They later used these tools to improve teamwork, problem solving, and communication in the office [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The meaning of participation for children in Malawi: insights from children and caregivers.

by Nelson, F., Masulani‐Mwale, C., Richards, E., Theobald, S., Gladstone, M. [2017-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Background Global rates of childhood disability are high and are estimated through tools that focus on impairment, functioning and activity. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has promoted a framework to define disability more broadly and to include participation. New outcome measures have now been created to assess participation of children with disabilities for use in research and clinical practice. In order to use these in other cultural contexts, the validity of concepts and tools developed should be evaluated prior to use. We aim to create a tool that would be relevant and valid to the cultural context of Malawi, but to do so, we first need to understand what participation means to children in Malawi. Aim The aim of this study is to explore what participation means for children (including those with and without disability) in rural Northern Malawi. Methods We used semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participatory action research and direct observations. Sixty-four participants were involved including children (8-18 years) with (14) and without disabilities (17), carers of children with (8) and without (6) disabilities, community members (14) and professionals/healthcare workers (5). Data analysis was carried out using the 'framework' approach. Results Activities reported by children, carers and community members fell within seven main themes or areas of participation. These include contribution to family life (chores and work), social activities (communicating and being with others), social activities (unstructured play), structured and organized activities, activities of daily living, education and schooling and entertainment (listening to and watching media). Conclusions This study provides concepts and ideas that may be utilized in developing a suitable measure of participation of children with disabilities for rural African settings. Many of the most important activities for all children relate to family and day-to-day social life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A pilot study of what African American maternal caregivers and their adolescent daughters talk about when asked to discuss tobacco together.

by Corona, Rosalie, Yaros, Anna, Pope, Michell, Velazquez, Efren, Augustin, Divinda [2016-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 19

Parents play a critical role in shaping their children’s substance use behaviors, yet few studies have examined the messages that caregivers give their adolescents about tobacco. In this study, we identify tobacco-related messages discussed by African American maternal caregivers and their adolescent daughters. Twenty-five African American maternal caregivers and their adolescent daughters participated in a video-taped discussion about tobacco. Discussions were transcribed and coded thematically. Seven themes emerged, which were grouped into tobacco-messages and communication strategies. Messages included health risks, non-health-related reasons to stop smoking, reasons people smoke, and tobacco products and marijuana. Strategies caregivers used to communicate their tobacco-related messages included sharing personal or their families’ experience with smoking, using humor, and role-playing. Finally, embedded within all of the themes, participants expressed their disapproval of tobacco use, whether it was directed at their own use, their adolescents’ use, a family members’ use, or peers’ use. African American maternal caregivers and their daughters openly talk about a variety of tobacco-related topics, and caregivers are open to sharing their own and their families’ experience with substance use. Findings also suggest that having caregivers and their adolescents participate in discussions tasks could be potentially beneficial in facilitating discussions and could identify areas in which caregivers could use help in discussing sensitive topics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV first evolved in Western settings, with one aim being to promote behaviours which lower the risk of onward transmission or acquisition of HIV. However, although quantitative studies have shown that the impact of VCT on sexual behaviour change has been limited in African settings, there is a lack of qualitative research exploring perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, particularly among clients testing HIV-negative. We conducted a qualitative study to explore healthcare worker, community and both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients' perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages in rural Tanzania.Methods: This study was carried out within the context of an ongoing community HIV cohort study in Kisesa, northwest Tanzania. Nine group sessions incorporating participatory learning and action (PLA) activities were conducted in order to gain general community perspectives of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) with HIV-negative and HIV-positive service users explored individual perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, while five IDIs were carried out with nurses or counsellors offering HTC in order to explore provider perspectives.Results: Two key themes revolving around socio-cultural and contextual factors emerged in understanding responses to HIV prevention counselling messages. The first included constraints to client-counsellor interactions, which were impeded as a result of difficulties discussing private sexual behaviours during counselling sessions, a hierarchical relationship between healthcare providers and clients, insufficient levels of training and support for counsellors, and client concerns about confidentiality. The second theme related to imbalanced gender-power dynamics, which constrained the extent to which women felt able to control their HIV-related risk.Conclusion: Within the broader social context of a rural African setting, HIV prevention counselling based on a Western model of individual-level agency seems unlikely to make a significant contribution to sexual behaviour change until there is greater recognition by counsellors of the ways in which power dynamics within many relationships influence behaviour change. More culturally relevant counselling strategies and messages and infrastructural improvements such as additional training for counsellors and counselling rooms which ensure privacy and confidentiality, may lead to better outcomes in terms of sexual risk reduction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 20

This case study describes how librarians and enterprise architects at an Australian university worked together to document key components of the Library's "as-is" enterprise architecture (EA). The article covers the rationale for conducting this activity, how work was scoped, the processes used, and the outputs delivered. The author discusses the short-term benefits of undertaking this work, with practical examples of how outputs from this process are being used to better plan future library system replacements, upgrades, and enhancements. Longer-term benefits may also accrue in the future as the results of this architecture work inform the Library's IT planning and strategic procurement. This article has implications for practice for library technology specialists as it validates views from other practitioners on the benefits for libraries in adopting enterprise architecture methods and for librarians in working alongside enterprise architects within their organizations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Application Level Security in a Public Library: A Case Study.

by Thomchick, Richard, San Nicolas-Rocca, Tonia [2018-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Libraries have historically made great efforts to ensure the confidentiality of patron personally identifiable information (PII), but the rapid, widespread adoption of information technology and the internet have given rise to new privacy and security challenges. Hypertext Transport Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a form of Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) that enables secure communication over the public internet and provides a deterministic way to guarantee data confidentiality so that attackers cannot eavesdrop on communications. HTTPS has been used to protect sensitive information exchanges, but security exploits such as passive and active attacks have exposed the need to implement HTTPS in a more rigorous and pervasive manner. This report is intended to shed light on the state of HTTPS implementation in libraries, and to suggest ways in which libraries can evaluate and improve application security so that they can better protect the confidentiality of PII about library patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Interprofessional communication failures in acute care chains: How can we identify the causes?

by van Leijen-Zeelenberg, Janneke E., van Raak, Arno J. A., Duimel-Peeters, Inge G. P., Kroese, Mariëlle E. A. L., Brink, Peter R. G., Vrijhoef, Hubertus J. M. [2015-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Although communication failures between professionals in acute care delivery occur, explanations for these failures remain unclear. We aim to gain a deeper understanding of interprofessional communication failures by assessing two different explanations for them. A multiple case study containing six cases (i.e. acute care chains) was carried out in which semi-structured interviews, physical artifacts and archival records were used for data collection. Data were entered into matrices and the pattern-matching technique was used to examine the two complementary propositions. Based on the level of standardization and integration present in the acute care chains, the six acute care chains could be divided into two categories of care processes, with the care chains equally distributed among the categories. Failures in communication occurred in both groups. Communication routines were embedded within organizations and descriptions of communication routines in the entire acute care chain could not be found. Based on the results, failures in communication could not exclusively be explained by literature on process typology. Literature on organizational routines was useful to explain the occurrence of communication failures in the acute care chains. Organizational routines can be seen as repetitive action patterns and play an important role in organizations, as most processes are carried out by means of routines. The results of this study imply that it is useful to further explore the role of organizational routines on interprofessional communication in acute care chains to develop a solution for failures in handover practices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention.

by Valaitis, Ruta, MacDonald, Marjorie, Kothari, Anita, O'Mara, Linda, Regan, Sandra, Garcia, John, Murray, Nancy, Manson, Heather, Peroff-Johnston, Nancy, Bursey, Gayle, Boyko, Jennifer [2016-05-17]

Academic Journal

pages 17

Background: Public health systems in Canada have undergone significant policy renewal over the last decade in response to threats to the public's health, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is limited research on how public health policies have been implemented or what has influenced their implementation. This paper explores policy implementation in two exemplar public health programs -chronic disease prevention and sexually-transmitted infection prevention - in Ontario, Canada. It examines public health service providers', managers' and senior managements' perspectives on the process of implementation of the Ontario Public Health Standards 2008 and factors influencing implementation.Methods: Public health staff from six health units representing rural, remote, large and small urban settings were included. We conducted 21 focus groups and 18 interviews between 2010 (manager and staff focus groups) and 2011 (senior management interviews) involving 133 participants. Research assistants coded transcripts and researchers reviewed these; the research team discussed and resolved discrepancies. To facilitate a breadth of perspectives, several team members helped interpret the findings. An integrated knowledge translation approach was used, reflected by the inclusion of academics as well as decision-makers on the team and as co-authors.Results: Front line service providers often were unaware of the new policies but managers and senior management incorporated them in operational and program planning. Some participants were involved in policy development or provided feedback prior to their launch. Implementation was influenced by many factors that aligned with Greenhalgh and colleagues' empirically-based Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations Framework. Factors and related components that were most clearly linked to the OPHS policy implementation were: attributes of the innovation itself; adoption by individuals; diffusion and dissemination; the outer context - interorganizational networks and collaboration; the inner setting - implementation processes and routinization; and, linkage at the design and implementation stage.Conclusions: Multiple factors influenced public health policy implementation. Results provide empirical support for components of Greenhalgh et al's framework and suggest two additional components - the role of external organizational collaborations and partnerships as well as planning processes in influencing implementation. These are important to consider by government and public health organizations when promoting new or revised public health policies as they evolve over time. A successful policy implementation process in Ontario has helped to move public health towards the new vision. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Introduction: Given the potential malignancy risks associated with computed tomography (CT), some physicians are increasingly advocating for risk disclosure to patients/families. Our goal was to evaluate the practices and attitudes of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship program leaders' regarding CT radiation-risk disclosure. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of the United States and Canadian PEM fellowship directors and associate/assistant directors. We developed a web-based survey using a modified Dillman technique. Primary outcome was the prop ortion who "almost always" or "most of the time" discussed potential malignancy risks from CT prior to ordering this test. Results: Of 128 physicians who received the survey, 108 (86%) responded. Of those respondents, 73%, 95% confidence interval (CI) [64-81] reported "almost always" or "most of the time" discussing potential malignancy risks when ordering a CT for infants; proportions for toddlers, school-age children, and teenagers were 72% (95% CI [63-80]), 66% (95% CI [56-75]), and 58% (95% CI [48-67]), respectively (test for trend, p=0.008). Eighty percent reported being "extremely" or "very" comfortable discussing radiation risks. Factors of "high" or "very high" importance in disclosing risks included parent request for a CT not deemed clinically indicated for 94% of respondents, and parent-initiated queries about radiation risks for 79%. If risk disclosure became mandatory, 82% favored verbal discussion over written informed consent. Conclusion: PEM fellowship program leaders report frequently disclosing potential malignancy risks from CT, with the frequency varying inversely with patient age. Motivating factors for discussions included parental request for a CT deemed clinically unnecessary and parental inquiry about risks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


An Ecological Understanding of Caregiver Experiences in Palliative Care.

by Chandran, Devyani, Corbin, J. Hope, Shillam, Casey [2016-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 21

Palliative care is specialized health care to improve quality of life for patients with serious illness and their families through prevention and relief of suffering. A Palliative Care Institute was held in western Washington to capture community voices about diverse needs, strengths, and opportunities for improvement of palliative care. Researchers employed qualitative methods to obtain thematic data, provide real-time analysis, and engage in a multivoting technique to reflect stakeholder interest in individual themes and prioritize larger group interests. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems framework was used to explore caregiver experiences. Within the microsystem, caregivers reported difficulties in interactions with medical providers as a key challenge. Within the mesosysytem, interactions between patients and medical providers and the impact on caregivers were explored. Within the exosystem, caregivers reported lack of control over the schedules of personal care staff. Macrosystem influences included impact of local culture on the development of palliative care services. Chronosystem influences include de-medicalization of childbirth and its impact on perceptions of palliative care. Implications include the need for social workers to be proactive in fostering trust and effective communication between care providers and caregivers, and the demand for health care provider training in communication with patients and families. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


THE USE OF VISUAL AIDS IN THE TEACHING OF ACCOUNTING.

by Thompson, David W. [1948-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The teaching of accounting represents one of the most formidable challenges to the adapting of visual aids to teaching situations. This is true because of the very nature of accounting. Accounting requires some abstract thinking, especially in advanced courses. Abstractions are very difficult to visualize. Accounting requires the study of detailed forms and statements, and, until recently, projection devices have not been of adequate power to project these necessary details. This explains in part the slight use of visual aids in accounting instruction. Another explanation is that accounting instructors are not aware of the possibilities of visual aids and arc not trained in their use. However, since tests show that an individual learns primarily through his sense of sight, it seems that efforts should be made to use visual aids in teaching accounting in spite of the difficulties encountered. Some of the visual aids are, The blackboard, motion pictures, lantern slides, filmstrips, charts plant visits, and others. Visual aids are only an aid or supplement to the instructor. They cannot replace a text or instructor or outside study on the part of the Student. The use of visual aids will not lessen the work of the instructor. The instructor will work more, but he will work more effectively. If properly used they will result in more thorough coverage of the material presented.


Academic Journal

pages 13

Most of the scholarly body of knowledge of public relations built up over the last three decades has been undertaken in Western countries. Naturally, these conceptual frameworks have been suited to those areas of the world. The focal point of the calls for a shift to a new, inclusive global economic order is the growing influence of the developing economies of the world. This, in turn, has important implications for public relations and communication management in these regions and internationally. Academic researchers could embark on building an African body of knowledge of public relations and theories based on an African philosophy and worldview. Against this background, the debate around whether a generic model of public relations in and for Africa is possible has been the subject of considerable debate. It has also been argued that shared, common African philosophical approaches can be identified, and that these have an important role in communication throughout Africa. This article describes some of the influences that might shape African theory-building and raises a number of questions along the way such as: Can there be an exclusively African public relations model? What is the balance between Western and African influences in the synthesis of a hybrid model? What has Africa to offer to Western theory? Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Apostle Paul and the Early Practice of Public Relations.

by Medel, Ismael Lopez, Ferguson, Denise [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 15

Communication played a central role in the development of the early Christian Church. This paper will examine public relations practices in the ministry of the Apostle Paul, examining the accuracy of describing his communication activities as a form of public relations. Furthermore, we will examine claims by public historians about Paul's missionary work as a "public relations campaign." This paper will argue that although the modern practice of public relations navigates an increasingly complex environment, there are manifestations of what can be considered early forms of public relations in Paul's campaign to spread the gospel. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


News

pages 1

The article reports that mutual goals of psychology associations and commitments to regularly communicate and consider the development of joint activities are articulated in a signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).


Multi-Agent Communication System with Chatbots.

by MEMON, ZOJAN, JALBANI, AKHTAR HUSSAIN, SHAIKH, MOHSIN, MEMON, RAFIA NAZ, ALI, AHMED [2018-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

It has been found that communication is actually important in our lives; without it is difficult to accomplish something. It becomes possible with the support of the technology that is being used today; now it is easy to communicate as faster and much easier. A type of an agent called Chatbot is a conversational agent or a special kind of a program which had been specifically designed to replicate an intelligent chat with a single or multiple human users by using auditory or text based techniques. Chatbots are become an innovative application of industrial and research domains which specifically represent human to machine interaction systems. In technical perspective, efficacy of chatbots can be enhanced by designing multiagent communication system using novel mechanisms. Although our study focuses on building chatbots that sustain agents in collaborative learning by interacting with one or more chat agents. The proposed research is based on client server chatbots so that they will be capable to communicate by sending and receiving questions and responses. In this article we have present the design and implementation of two chatbots interaction. This consists of KR (Knowledge Reorganization) system, NLP (Natural Language Processing), KB (Knowledge Base) to handle its intelligent capabilities and client server socket system for integration. It has been implemented through Java. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 22

Several transition economies have witnessed a decreased state support for worklife balance, which called for a more active role and increased support offered by employers itself. Consequently, companies started implementing a wide array of family-friendly practices, however there was very little understanding about the main organisational effects of introducing family-friendly practices in the context of a transition economy. We propose and test a model of the relationship between family-friendly practices at the organisational level and their effects on the organisation. We offer a detailed investigation of the impact of eight groups of family-friendly practices on the perceived improvement in organisational outcomes. We analysed data over the span of five consecutive years, following companies in Slovenia that had systematically implemented family-friendly corporate practices. We analysed the perceived changes in 20 identified organisational outcomes. Using a linear regression model, we tested which practices would be most able to explain the perceived improvement. We found that the introduction of family-friendly practices had a positive perceived improvement in most (70 percent) of the identified areas, though none of them exhibited a significantly greater impact. Practices affecting workplace arrangements, information and communication and services for families were the groups of practices that had the greatest effect on the perceived positive effects for companies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Symptom management, nutrition and hydration at end-of-life: a qualitative exploration of patients', carers' and health professionals' experiences and further research questions.

by Baillie, Jessica, Anagnostou, Despina, Sivell, Stephanie, Van Godwin, Jordan, Byrne, Anthony, Nelson, Annmarie [2018-04-16]

Academic Journal

pages 1

Background: Symptom management is an essential aspect of palliative and end-of-life care, but evidence suggests that patients' symptoms may not always be relieved, causing significant harm to patients and magnifying their relatives' distress. A growing body of evidence focuses on symptom management at the end-of-life, but research funding for palliative care remains disproportionately low. It is therefore crucial that research funding is targeted at areas of importance to patients and relatives. The Palliative and end-of-life care Priority Setting Partnership (PeolcPSP) undertook a UK-wide free-text survey to establish research priorities within palliative and end-of-life care and disseminated its results in 2015. Much of the data were related more broadly to personal perceptions and experiences rather than specific research questions. The aim of this article is to report on a supplementary analysis exploring the experiences and questions of PeolcPSP survey respondents regarding symptoms, hydration and nutrition. Methods: The PeolcPSP data (n = 1403) were coded by a team of qualitative researchers in a supplementary analysis. There were 190 responses that related to symptoms, nutrition and hydration. The data were analysed thematically using Braun and Clarke's approach. Results: Five themes were identified: pain, breathlessness, agitation, nutrition and hydration. The majority of responses related to symptoms that were sub-optimally managed, in particular pain. Nutrition and hydration were of significant concern, particularly for carers. Overall, respondents consistently asked about the most effective, evidence-based methods for managing symptoms and suggested areas where further research is necessary. Conclusions: This study highlights the perceptions and experiences of patients, families and professionals within palliative care, highlighting the need for improved care, communication and further research to establish which treatments are most effective within a palliative care population. This is essential to reduce harm and distress for patients and families. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Exploring quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and intellectual disability: What are the important domains of life?

by Davis, E., Reddihough, D., Murphy, N., Epstein, A., Reid, S. M., Whitehouse, A., Williams, K., Leonard, H., Downs, J. [2017-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Background Although it is estimated that half of all children with cerebral palsy also have comorbid intellectual disability, the domains of quality of life (QOL) important for these children are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify important domains of QOL for these children and adolescents. Methods Due to the children's communication impairments, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents. The children (9 males) had a median age of 12 (range 7 to 17) years at interview and nearly two thirds were classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System IV or V. A grounded theory approach was used to identify domains of QOL. Results The 11 domains identified as important to QOL were physical health, body comfort, behaviour and emotion, communication, predictability and routine, movement and physical activity, nature and outdoors, variety of activity, independence and autonomy, social connectedness, and access to services. Conclusions The domains of QOL that emerged from this study will be useful for professionals who support children with cerebral palsy and their families. They will also be important for developing a QOL instrument essential for informing the development of interventions and their monitoring and evaluation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Being adequately prepared for an experience such as cancer empowers patients, lowers distress, improves coping, supports self-management, promotes recovery, and improves quality of life. However, patients with cancer report unmet informational and support needs across the cancer trajectory. The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship of information preparation and patient outcomes, identify information and support needs across the cancer trajectory, and describe the role of oncology nurses in the delivery of high-quality patient-centered cancer care. The middle range theory of "Carrying On" was used to identify information and support needs during different phases of the cancer trajectory from treatment to survivorship. The authors concluded that nurses should engage the patient in a relational exchange of information; provide concrete, understandable information across specific times in the cancer experience; and use creative approaches to minimize barriers in meeting patient needs to achieve high-quality patient-centered cancer care. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods.

by Del Rios, Marina, Han, Josiah, Cano, Alejandra, Ramirez, Victor, Morales, Gabriel, Campbell, Teri L., Hoek, Terry Vanden [2018-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Introduction: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods: We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high schoolcentered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to "pay it forward" and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and "pay-it-forward" participants. Results: Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p < 0.0001). The pay-it-forward cohort saw an increase from 58% to 82% (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: A high school-centered, CPR educational intervention with a "pay-it-forward" component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrallyorganized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]