Academic Journal

pages 25

This study had two main purposes: (a) to replicate and verify a previous study (Q-Ed-1), and (b) to study the basic factors behind educational attitudes. The educational theory of both studies was based on the presumed dichotomy between "Restrictive" and "Permissive" outlooks in education. Twenty-five Ss, including Education and Liberal Arts professors and businessmen, sorted a Q-sort of 80 statements on educational theories and practices on an approval-disapproval continuum. Each S's sort was analyzed with a factorial analysis of variance, and the results upheld most of the hypotheses of the first study. All Ss' sorts were intercorrelated, the resulting correlation matrix was factor analyzed, and the resulting two factors were rotated orthogonally. In addition, the obliquely rotated factor loadings of Q-Ed-1 were re-rotated orthogonally to facilitate comparison and interpretation. The factor results of both studies were very similar: in general, there seem to be two basic factors behind educational attitudes, A: Progressivism and B: Traditionalism. The factor analyses were used to compute factor-arrays which were, in effect, "ideal" or "pure" A and B Q-sorts. From these the general nature of A and B was inferred. Consistency and inconsistency of attitude structure and a possible extension of the meaning of reliability in personality and attitude study were mentioned. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

The article focuses on a study on the educational attitudes of the members of the Western Australian Education Department on the two educational scales constructed by social psychologist F.N. Kerlinger. Kerlinger has suggested that behind educational attitudes there lie two basic attitudes, "Restrictive-Traditional" and "Permissive-Progressive." The restrictive-traditional educational viewpoint emphasizes subject matter for its own sake, external discipline, and social beliefs which tend towards conservatism and the preservation of the status quo. Superior-inferior relationships are impersonal and structured in hierarchical fashion, "morality" is strongly emphasized and based on an external "higher" authority. The permissive-progressive tends to concentrate on problem solving rather than on subject matter and facts, considers education as a growth process basically determined by child needs and interests. The study found that in Western Australia, as in the U.S., these scales seem to measure two fundamental attitudes towards education which may be labeled Progressive and Traditional. Results for similar groups in the two countries are extremely close and scales show similar differences between groups with different occupational roles.


Academic Journal

pages 9

Annotated primary scientific literature is a teaching and learning resource that provides scaffolding for undergraduate students acculturating to the authentic scientific practice of obtaining and evaluating information through the medium of primary scientific literature. Utilizing annotated primary scientific literature as an integrated pedagogical tool could enable more widespread use of primary scientific literature in undergraduate science classrooms with minimal disruption to existing syllabi. Research is ongoing to determine an optimal implementation protocol, with these preliminary iterations presented here serving as a first look at how students respond to annotated primary scientific literature. The undergraduate biology student participants in our study did not, in general, have an abundance of experience reading primary scientific literature; however, they found the annotations useful, especially for vocabulary and graph interpretation. We present here an implementation protocol for using annotated primary literature in the classroom that minimizes the use of valuable classroom time and requires no additional pedagogical training for instructors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


I've Taught Monsters.

by LAHEY, JESSICA [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6


Academic Journal

pages 10

In this article the author discusses the work and life of woman educator Susan Isaacs. It is mentioned that born in 1885, Isaac is known for her contribution in the childhood education. She attended the University of Manchester to take the training as an infant teacher and learned psychology from the University of Cambridge. Isaac wrote the book "An Introduction to Psychology," and teached Logic at the Manchester University. She wrote many papers on the mental health of children.


Academic Journal

pages 8

Piano teaching should follow the basic principles of cognitive psychology in order to understand the psychological state of students in the piano performance to help students in better psychological control. This paper analyzed the psychological phenomenon of students in the piano performance from the perspective of cognitive psychology, and conducted an in-depth analysis of the cultivation of piano performing skills, which is of great scientific and theoretical value and significance in educational practise for the piano teaching quality improvement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Towards evidence-based practice in medical training: making evaluations more meaningful.

by Drescher, Uta, Warren, Fiona, Norton, Kingsley [2004-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

CONTEXT The evaluation of training is problematic and the evidence base inconclusive. This situation may arise for 2 main reasons: training is not understood as a complex intervention and, related to this, the evaluation methods applied are often overly simplistic. METHOD This paper makes the case for construing training, especially in the field of specialist medical education, as a complex intervention. It also selectively reviews the available literature in order to match evaluative techniques with the demonstrated complexity. CONCLUSIONS Construing training as a complex intervention can provide a framework for selecting the most appropriate methodology to evaluate a given training intervention and to appraise the evidence base for training fairly, choosing from among both quantitative and qualitative approaches and applying measurement at multiple levels of training impact. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Embedding Information Literacy in the Sociology Program at the University of Otago.

by Proctor, Lesley, Wartho, Richard, Anderson, Megan [2005-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 16

This paper examines an information literacy collaborative research project at the University of Otago between a sociology lecturer and a subject specialist librarian. The research project was undertaken to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of embedding information literacy skills into academic assessment requirements in a first and a third year sociology course. Using focus group interviews and whole class surveys the research team generated both qualitative and quantitative data relating to students' acquisition of information literacy skills and to their evaluation of the embedding approach. This paper discusses the initial stages of the project and concludes with a brief outline of preliminary analysis of data from the first year course. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Black Mothers' Perceptions of the Role of Race in Children's Education.

by Williams, Amber D., Banerjee, Meeta, Lozada‐Smith, Fantasy, Lambouths, Danny, Rowley, Stephanie J. [2017-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 15

Many Black parents consider racial climate and academic quality when thinking and making decisions about their children's schooling experiences. However, few studies have directly asked Black parents about the role they believe race will play in their children's schooling, if any. The authors interviewed 76 Black mothers ( M age = 34; SD age = 6.67) of children entering first grade ( M age = 6.13; SD age = 0.36), asking what role they believed race would play in their children's schooling. The authors found that mothers considered the racial composition of the school and the perspectives and behaviors of teachers and the administration to be important factors when assessing the role of race in their children's education. Mothers were also particularly concerned about the discrimination their sons may face because of their position as Black boys. Given these contextual factors, mothers considered themselves to be protective agents through their involvement in their children's academic lives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

This study examined attitudes and concerns related to the use of alternative assessments in literacy education courses. A Likert-style twenty-item questionnaire was developed and administered first as a pilot to determine item quality and dimensionality. Three subscales were identified: Self-Evaluation, Peer Evaluation, and Instructor Modeling. The questionnaire was then administered to two sections of one literacy assessment course as pre- and post-course assessments. The results were significant for Self-Evaluation and Peer Evaluation. Results for Instructor Modeling did not reach significance but were generally positive in support of modeling alternative assessment in education classes. Qualitative analysis of respondent comments supported the statistical findings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Towards the transformation of practice in early childhood education: the effective provision of pre-school education (EPPE) project.

by Siraj-Blatchford, Iram, Taggart, Brenda, Sylva, Kathy, Sammons, Pamela, Melhuish, Edward [2008-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

The introduction of the Foundation Stage and its associated legislation has constituted a radical innovation that is transforming early childhood education. In this paper we show how the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) research programme continues to contribute towards achieving these improvements in practice. In focusing upon the EPPE programme's influence upon pedagogic practice in particular, the paper draws predominantly upon the research findings and recommendations associated with our qualitative case studies. This work was first published in the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years (REPEY) report in 2002, and in the EPPE Technical Paper 10 in 2003. Practitioners respond positively to research when it is focused on specific teaching and learning contexts and practices. The EPPE project therefore applied Environment Rating Scales to identify the quality of educational provision, and used multilevel analysis to isolate the independent variables of most significance in explaining variations in the progress and development of young children during their time in pre-school. The multi-level analysis identified 'good' and 'excellent' centres, based on measurable child outcomes. Twelve of these centres were selected for in-depth qualitative case study enquiries that both extended and triangulated the quantitative analysis. This paper shows how the qualitative findings, as well as some of the data that they have been drawn from, have subsequently been applied to provide the practical guidance and exemplar resources needed in the development and improvement of early years educational practice. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The scholar architecture in the construction of the republican imaginary.

by Albano da Cruz, Paula Lorena Cavalcante, Stamatto, Maria Inês Sucupira [2018-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9


Understanding patients' and doctors' attitudes about shared decision making for advance care planning.

by Hajizadeh, Negin, Uhler, Lauren M., Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E. [2015-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: Although shared decision making (SDM) is the preferred model of making complex treatment decisions with patients, patients' and doctors' attitudes towards SDM for advance care planning are unknown. Objective: We sought to: (i) gain general insights into the current practice of SDM and attitudes about patient involvement, and (ii) gain specific insights into experience with, and attitudes about, SDM for advance care planning. Design: Qualitative analysis of face‐to‐face semi‐structured interviews. Setting and participants: Patients with chronic lung disease and their doctors at a New York City public hospital. Results: Although patients described participation in decision making, many deferred the final decision to their doctors. Doctors indicated a preference for SDM but expressed barriers including perceived lack of patient understanding and lack of patient empowerment. With regard to end‐of‐life discussions, patients were generally open to having these discussions with their doctors, although their openness sometimes depended on the circumstance (i.e. end‐of‐life discussions may be more acceptable to patients for whom the chance of dying is high). Doctors reported engaging in end‐of‐life treatment decisions with their patients, although expressed the need for conversations to take place earlier, in advance of acute illness, and identified a lack of prognostic estimates as one barrier to engaging in this discussion. Conclusions: Doctors should explore their patients' attitudes regarding end‐of‐life discussions and preferences for decision‐making styles. There is a need for tools such as decision aids which can empower patients to participate in decision making and can support doctors with prognostic estimates pertinent to individual patients. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Coherence and disparity in assessment literacies among higher education staff.

by Davies, Mark S., Taras, Maddalena [2018-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 17

Assessment literacies are finding leverage, but there is little exploration of links between theory, practice and perceived understandings in higher education (HE). This article builds on and consolidates research that has taken place over ten years that evaluates assessment literacies among HE lecturers in education and science, and in staff developers, by presenting a comparative view of the data. The results indicate that there was generally a good understanding of theoretical and practical aspects of summative assessment across all groups. However, understandings of formative assessment showed little concordance between and within the groups, particularly among staff developers, but this group was better at clarifying the necessary link between formative assessment and feedback. Although education lecturers had a firmer grasp of central terminologies, in general there are still deficits in understanding about how these terms interrelate. Staff developers' relative weakness of understanding in some areas is of concern since this group shapes those who teach. These issues are exacerbated by a lack of acknowledgement that they exist, which may seriously hamper the development of both staff and students in clarifying processes they encounter daily. Basic shared understandings are required that can translate into personal, coherent assessment literacies. As a community we need to take on this task, because if we do not, as individuals, or individual groups, we will continue to have fragmented assessment literacies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


MASS EDUCATION AND FERTILITY TRANSITION.

by Axinn, William G., Barber, Jennifer S. [2001-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 25

The relationship between the spread of mass education and fertility-limiting behavior is examined. Existing theories relating education to fertility limitation are integrated, including those relating the presence of educational opportunity to fertility decline, theories relating women's education to their fertility behavior, and theories relating children's education to the fertility behavior of their parents. Using survey data from a sample of 5,271 residents of 171 neighborhoods in rural Nepal the individual-level mechanisms linking community-level changes in educational opportunity to fertility behavior are tested. A woman 'S proximity to a school during childhood dramatically increases permanent contraceptive use in adulthood. This finding is largely independent of whether the woman subsequently attended school, whether her husband attended school, whether she lived near a school in adulthood, and whether she sent her children to school. Strong fertility limitation effects were also found for husband's education and for currently living near a school. These effects were independent of other education-related measures. The largest education-related effect is for sending children to school. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 16

Assesses the political and social foundations of Zemecha, an educational development campaign in Ethiopia. Other conceptions on the term Zemecha; Information on the Zemecha program; Aims of the Zemecha; Details of the Alphabetization Program of the Zemecha; Problems associated with the educational program; Comparison between technical training, work and intellectual education.


Academic Journal

pages 8

An introduction is presented in which the author talks about the topics discussed in the issue including mass education system in Japan, importance of textbooks, and the popularity of the "Shonen kurabu" magazine.


The Aakash tablet and technological imaginaries of mass education in contemporary India.

by Phalkey, Jahnavi, Chattapadhyay, Sumandro [2015-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 30

We explore here public and private initiatives in technological solutions for educating the poor and the disadvantaged in India since the second half of the twentieth century. Specifically, we document Ministry of Human Resource Development’s project to develop an affordable tablet computer, named ‘Aakash,’ as a personal access device for digital courses and online learning materials. We approach this case study in relation to several educational technologies that preceded it, and with a wider interest in mapping a contemporary transition from satellite-based mass education to Internet-based mass education. We argue that this process cannot be easily seen as a transition from unilateral broadcasting to more democratic multi-casting model of communication and learning. Specifically, we study the manufacturing process of Aakash and the public debates around it, to comment on the nature of state power in India, as revealed in its attempts to imagine and develop a digital personal device to deliver mass education. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Conference

pages 4

This paper analyses the processes of 'neoliberalisation' in education as directed by Teach For All. Specifically, we explore the case of Empieza por Educar, the Spanish policy network included in Teach For All. The first section seeks to clarify what we understand by the term neoliberalism, using a theoretical dimension through different perspectives. Methodologically, the piece of research is categorised under what is defined as 'Network Ethnography', an approach which unifies social network analysis with some traditional ethnographic methods. We explore the meaning Teach For All and its foundation in Spain (Empieza por Educar) as a philanthropic foundation which is changing the political arena. The last section explores how neoliberalism is constructed by means of a complex interconnection of actors and policies that establish the policy network within the Spanish context and how is implemented in the curriculum through three aspects: hegemonic truths; the conduct of the conduct (performativity culture); and the modes of formation of the subject with practices of oneself (entrepreneur of oneself). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Educating Eli.

by Weinberg, Neil [2003-10-06]

Periodical

pages 3

Eli Broad, a world-class art collector and a civic pillar of Los Angeles, who globe-trots in a Gulfstream IV jet and pals around with the political and business elite, has put up $500,000 as one small step in his idealistic crusade to fix the nation's broken inner-city schools. Since 1999 Broad and wife Edythe have contributed $400 million to the Broad Foundation for public education reform, and pledged a few hundred million more to medical research and foster care. The way Broad sees it, the big problem in education is that principals and administrators--typically former teachers with scant business training--are overwhelmed trying to run their organizations and aren't focusing effectively on education and academic achievement. Thus his foundation runs programs that teach new school-board members how to govern big organizations. He draws high achievers from outside of education to train for new careers as district superintendents. He funds apprenticeships for aspiring principals and attracts M.B.A.s and lawyers to big-city school management jobs. Broad even woos unions, trying to get them to embrace performance-based pay schemes. Sensible as Broad's strategy sounds, getting big education to buy in is the real test, as many would-be reformers have discovered. INSET: Good Intentions.


Editorial.

by Foray, Dominique [2002-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 3

It is informed that the current issue of the International Social Science Journal is devoted to knowledge-based economies and societies. Knowledge-based economies are essentially founded on high levels of investment in education, training, research and development, software and information systems. They are also characterized by substantial reliance on the new information technologies, not only for communication between individuals but also for the creation of new knowledge. The introductory article in the current issue of the said journal by Paul A. David and Dominique Foray reviews the main themes relating to the development of the new knowledge-based economies. After setting the emergence of these economies in an historical perspective and proposing a theoretical framework for distinguishing between knowledge and information, the article attempts to pinpoint the specific features of these economies. In another article Sven Ove Hanson studies the new kinds of relationship that exist between knowledge societies and risk societies.


Academic Journal

pages 16

This paper tests the Trivers-Willard hypothesis that high-status individuals will invest more in sons and low-status individuals will invest more in daughters using data from the 2000 to 2010 General Social Survey and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We argue that the primary investment U.S. parents make in their children is in their children's education, and this investment is facilitated by a diverse market of educational choices at every educational level. We examine two measures of this investment: children's years of education and the highest degree attained. Results show that sons of high-status fathers receive more years of education and higher degrees than daughters, whereas daughters of low-status fathers receive more years of education and higher degrees than sons. Further analyses of possible mechanisms for these findings yield null results. We also find that males are more likely to have high-status fathers than females. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 8

The article analyzes the causes of burnout among secondary and elementary school teachers in China. Teachers have one of the most stressful occupations in which long-term work stress may lead to burnout. Burnout may gravely affects teachers' physical and mental health and lowers the quality of their work, which impairs their students' physical and mental health and development and imperils the sound development education. Furthermore, it mentions strategies that will help to protect teachers' work enthusiasms including to take a proactive toward work, do one's best to turn work into pleasure, and satisfy personal requirements.