Learning advantages of newness: A reconceptualization and contingent framework.

by Zahra, Shaker A., Zheng, Congcong, Yu, Jifeng [2018-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 26

A growing body of research suggests that new ventures (companies less than 6 years old) have advantages over established firms in terms of learning when internationalizing their operations. Yet, the concept of “learning advantages of newness” appears to be at odds with some central concepts in the organizational learning literature, probably because it is grounded in several assumptions that are open to debate. In this paper, we attempt to reconcile this incongruity by identifying the underlying assumptions of this concept, reconceptualizing the notion of learning advantages of newness, and showing that these advantages are contingent on several environmental, organizational, and strategic variables. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 15

Strategic ta'awun (cooperation) and fastabiqul khairat (competing for goodness) are two partnership concepts from Islamic perspectives to enable for sustainable competitive advantage with spiritual synergy. The spiritual synergy rooted in the reciprocal norms, motivation, and determination of the operators in making successful entrepreneurial ventures not only for profitability, but for humanity and environmental benefits. This research explores the effects of strategic ta'awun and fastabiqul khairat partnerships among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Muslim world to attain and sustain competitive advantage. Strategic ta'awun and fastabiqul khairat are part of the Islamic teachings practiced by Muslim society along with obligatory deeds such as prayers, zakat, and hajj. This study postulates that the spiritual reciprocal power in strategic ta'awun enables for unity and synergy among SMEs in Muslim world. Likewise, the reciprocal power of fastabiqul khairat among SMEs enables Muslim society to venture into model of entrepreneurial, urbanised, and sustainable society. The study interviewed five key SMEs owners representing different geographical locations (Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East Asia, North America, and Europe). Indeed, the informants argued that the spiritual reciprocal norm in strategic ta'awun occurred through collaboration and partnerships among SMEs for goodness (fastabiqul khairat) in terms of sharing of expertise, contacts, and commercial projects. This situation allows them to strengthen their competitive advantages in competing with consortium of competitors from different regions. The study suggests the future research to employ case study method for more contextual insights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Consumer Behaviour and Order Fulfilment in Online Retailing: A Systematic Review.

by Nguyen, Dung H., de Leeuw, Sander, Dullaert, Wout E. H. [2018-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 22

Abstract: This paper provides a systematic review of consumer behaviour and order fulfilment in online retailing. The objective of this review is threefold: first, to identify elements of order‐fulfilment operations that are relevant to online consumer behaviour (purchase, repurchase, product return); second, to understand the relationship between order‐fulfilment performance and consumer behaviour; and third, to inspire future research on developing consumer service strategies that takes account of these behavioural responses to order‐fulfilment performance outcomes. The paper is based on a systematic review of literature on online consumer behaviour and order‐fulfilment operations, mainly in the fields of marketing and operations, published in international peer‐reviewed journals between 2000 and September 2015. This study indicates that the current literature on online consumer behaviour focuses mainly on the use of marketing tools to improve consumer service levels. Very little research has been conducted on the use of consumer service instruments to steer consumer behaviour or, consequently, to manage related order‐fulfilment activities better. The study culminates in a framework that encompasses elements of order‐fulfilment operations and their relationship to online consumer behaviour. This paper is the first comprehensive review of online consumer behaviour that takes aspects of order‐fulfilment operations into account from both marketing and operations perspectives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 17

The research theorizes how hubris impacts ethical decision making and develops empirical evidence that earnings manipulation is more likely at firms led by CEOs influenced by hubris. The theory posits that hubris impairs moral awareness by causing decision makers to ignore external factors that otherwise drive such awareness. Additionally, these individuals apply a flawed subjective assessment of the decision they face which further impairs moral awareness. The predicted result is that hubris leads managers to invoke an amoral decision process which causes a higher incidence of unethical behavior among these individuals. An empirical study investigates the relationship between CEO hubris and the unethical practice of earnings manipulation. This study finds a significant correlation between CEO hubris and earnings manipulation at the firms they lead, an outcome broadly consistent with the theory developed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


CANADA, SPAIN, AND THE USA: ETHICS & CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CUSTOMER SERVICE.

by Dinh, Eric, Davis, John, Munoz, Jessica, Cheng, Victoria, Pham, Viet, Steinberg, Hannah [2017-04-01]

Conference

pages 5

When it comes to Ethics both countries Canada and Australia have a very high standard of ethics.hierarchy is established for convenience, superiors are always accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. The Power Distance in both countries is very low, both managers and employees expect to be consulted and information is shared frequently. At the same time, communication is informal, direct and participative. In regards to Customer service once again both countries are highly Individualist culture. This translates into a loosely-knit society in which the expectation is that people look after themselves and their immediate families. In the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. While this may be viewed as employees are not compassionate towards customers needs. It actually allows for employees to have less stress and anxiety at work. This model ultimately translates into great customer service, because employees can devote the appropriate time and energy into one thing at a time. The only are of concern between the two countries is that they both have a low long-term orientation score. This scores a countries concern with establishing the absolute Truth. Both of these countries exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small likelihood to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. Therefore, this may hinder entrepreneurship and innovation in both of these countries. Ethics and strategic customer service are connected to Hofstede's 6D model. The model is composed of six dimensions: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and indulgence. Comparatively between Spain and Canada, the six dimension scores differ. In Spain, there is a hierarchical system in society where subordinates follow their superiors and bosses hold the decision-making power, maintaining a high power distance score of 57. The business structure in Spain follows a laid-back, familyorientated lifestyle because leisure is important to Spaniards. On the individualism scale, their score is at a low of 51 due to a collective mindset where teamwork is natural characteristic in the Spaniard business world. In this society, the traditional view of women being the home-care provider is progressively changing over time as women are taking on higher positions, yet that mindset is still present. The masculinity score is about 42, which is an indicator of the progression within their society. As for uncertainty avoidance, Spain has a high score of 86, which indicates a high tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty. Based on the long-term orientation scale, the Spanish have a score of 48, meaning that they like to live in the moment and not worry about the future. On the indulgence dimension, Spain has a low score 44, reflecting that the society does not take a strong side with indulgence. Customer service in Spain correlates back to these ethics and dimensions. Meetings are more social and meant to establish personal relationships. While conducting business, it is common to be interrupted. In Canada, the low power distance score of 39 indicates that there is an accessible relationship between superiors and staff members. With the high individualistic score of 80, there is a strong division between work and home life. As for masculinity scale of 52, there are high standards of success and performance. Based on the uncertainty avoidance (42) and long term orientation (36), Canadians are more open to new ideas and not highly concerned for long-term goals. On the indulgence scale (68), Canada holds their desires as an importance. Customer service in Canada is more down to business, focusing more on deadlines, and showing initiative in business. Since there is more individualistic society, customer service is highly important since they are business-friendly and have low levels of corruption, always wanting to do the right thing. In the United States, there is a great divide between people who abide by the principles of ethics/morality and people who are determined to make the world burn. Ethics and morals are a great hindrance to the power brokers in the government. In the corporate world, whose sole objective is the accumulation of money and power, American's greed is prevalent. Although Canada is tamer, their corporate world has downfalls of their own. More than four in 10 Canadians have witnessed wrongdoing at work. This includes bribery, fraud of financial results, and nearly half didn't report it according to a poll on workplace ethics. Power Distance between America and Canada are about at the same levels, with America at 40 and Canada at 39. Individualism is leading in America with a score of 91 while Canada lags behind at 80. Americans are also more masculine with a rating of 62 compared to Canada's 52. With uncertainty avoidance however, Canada wins at 48, a sheer 2 points higher than America's 46. Canadians are more likely to think about long term as well, having a score of 36 and America with only 26. Last but not lease, Americans and Canadians are equally indulgent, matching scores at 68. Customer Service in America has had increasingly high expectations. Americans feel entitled to having what they want and having it done right. The Accenture Customer Service Strategy and Transformation gives customer service executives the power to achieve true customer-centricity. They work on improving customer satisfaction at the transactional and relationship levels, get right answers to customers through the right channel at the right time, and develop cost-efficient service delivery that balances value to the customer with enterprise value. In Canada however, they are known for being much more friendly, both in business and in general. Canadian Business ranked the most influential brands in the country by the only metric that really matters, which was the respect of average Canadians. This shows a stronger relationship between Canadian citizens and their perception of large corporations than their counterparts in America. Ethics in the United States and Canada is a big deal because it is what really narrows it down to what companies and people in each country do. Take the United States for example when we had the Edward Snowden incident. He went ahead and let the American people know that our own government was spying on us. It was an ethical dilemma that Edward Snowden had to decide what he would do and while some people think it was the right thing to do, others think he should not have done that. In my opinion, Canada has a strong ethical code and the people abide by it because you never really hear of there being ethical problems in Canada. Hofstede's six dimensional model really breaks it down into exactly what people are. Look at masculinity, masculinity is something that was much more dominant back in the day which has slowly been disappearing. In Canada, it seems to be the same, Hofstede's six dimensional model really breaks down how the Canadian people are. I think that in my opinion, Canada is much more dedicated to long term situations as opposed to the United States, who are very in the moment. Look at some of the government policies out there, Canada has some set knowing the benefit will come in the long run, where the United States wants the benefit now. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Firm Demography and Regional Development: Evidence from Italy.

by Piacentino, Davide, Espa, Giuseppe, Filipponi, Danila, Giuliani, Diego [2017-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 31

This article contributes to the literature on firm demography and regional development in at least three different ways. First, consumption, rather than employment, which is the most common variable seen in literature, is used to measure the impact of firm demography on regional development. Second, while the literature is mainly focused on the relationship between new business formation and regional development, we investigate both entry and exit flows of firms. Third, we decompose each of these flows into spatial and sectoral components. The empirical investigation looks at the Italian regions with reference to the period 2004-2009. Results seem to be substantially divergent between the South and the rest of Italy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 14

Interest in the education of young people to be ‘responsible global citizens’ has grown exponentially since the turn of the century, led by increasingly diverse networks of sectors, including government, community, business and philanthropy. These networks now have a significant influence on education policy and practice, indicative of wider changes in governance and processes of globalisation. Yet little of the academic literature on global citizenship education specifically examines the impact of these networks on the production of knowledge about young global citizens. This paper addresses this gap by analysing the discourses of global citizenship that underpin recent work by a youth organisation that works closely with a network of sectors in Australia. The paper finds that a particular kind of entrepreneurial global citizen is favoured, one that is simultaneously responsible for themselves, for the rights of others and for ensuring Australia's future economic prosperity. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Is Stress Worth it? Stress-Related Health and Wealth Trade-Offs for Entrepreneurs.

by Cardon, Melissa S., Patel, Pankaj C. [2015-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 42

Occupational stress is associated with numerous health problems that cost organisations considerable resources. We explore whether the detrimental effects of stress on individual health are accompanied by productive effects on individual performance for self-employed people, thereby making stress somewhat 'worth it' for this occupational group. Given that positive affect can serve as a stress-buffering resource, we also examine the potential for positive affect ( PA) to moderate these relationships. Our hypotheses are tested using data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study ( NHEFS) that incorporated extensive demographic, medical history, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data representative of the non-institutionalised civilian US population. From this dataset we created a longitudinal matched sample of 688 self-employed individuals and 688 employees, incorporating self-reported and physiological measures of stress and health. Our findings indicate that (controlling for past income and prior health) self-employed people experience greater stress than employees, and they experience a positive impact of stress on income despite a negative impact on physical health. These relationships are moderated by positive affectivity, where PA accentuates the positive effect of stress on personal income and mitigates the negative effect of stress on physical health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


USE AND ROLE OF PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ECONOMY.

by Devcic, A., Sostar, M., Skoko, I. [2010-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 2

Project Cycle Management is' an official methodology for the preparation, implementation and evaluation of European Union projects and programs. It includes management activities and a set of rules for planning and decision making. Because of the pre-accession period, many stakeholders in the Republic of Croatia are in a delicate situation. From that aspect, in this paper we are analysing actual situation in companies and at entrepreneurs. The results of our methodological research are that there are employees with theoretical but with no practical experience in Project Cycle Management. The results brought us to the conclusion that is necessary for companies and entrepreneurs to build their knowledge and experience in Project Cycle Management, in order to develop their ideas into projects acceptable for co-financing from the European Union. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 16

Organised crime emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union unexpectedly quickly and forcefully, rapidly 'colonising' the new economic and political structures. Hyperbole notwithstanding, the 'mafiya' does not 'own' the new Russia, but it is undoubtedly a powerful force, and one which has eagerly exploited new opportunities to cultivate strategic alliances in the global underworld and also to spread across the world. It is presently at an important crossroads at home. It is maturing, as larger, more professional networks eliminate or incorporate the myriad gangs that emerged in the freewheeling days of the early Russian state, and under President Putin it faces a regime embarked upon a state-building programme intolerant of the kind of open anarchy that characterised the early 1990s. However, Russian organised crime remains strikingly disorganised, characterised by loose and highly entrepreneurial networks rather than disciplined hierarchies, and there are still pressures, including the impact of foreign criminal penetration and the growing profits from drug smuggling, which threaten the present status quo. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 16

The main research objective was to assess the efficiency and effectiveness, in some theoretical approaches considered as a type of efficiency, of EU financial support affecting the entrepreneurship development in rural areas of Poland. Descriptive and comparative analysis of basic statistics and Gini coefficient as well as the econometric model of absolute beta convergence were applied as e research methods. The analysis utilised the data from Central Statistical Office, Local Data Bank, for 2004-2013 for 1,529 rural counties. General conclusion of the paper is that EU financial support had a positive and statistically significant impact on local absolute beta convergence. Moreover, the analyses confirmed that the higher level of support from the EU budget accelerates an increase in the number of private enterprises, micro-enterprises and the number of the employees. It also slows down the processes of growth in the number of the unemployed. However this is the short-time effect. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 17

Open government data (OGD) can enable outbound open innovation (OI) that is beneficial to society. However, innovation barriers hinder OGD users from generating value. While previous studies have detailed a large number of such barriers, little is known of how different types of OGD users are affected, and when the barriers appear in their innovation processes. To this end, this paper describes a case study of distributed service development in the Swedish public transport sector. The contribution to extant research is twofold. Firstly, based on an inductive analysis, three OGD user archetypes are proposed: employees, entrepreneurs and hobbyists. Secondly, the study finds that the significance of distinct innovation barriers varies across phases of the services’ lifecycles and depending on the OGD users’ motivation, objective, pre-conditions and approach. Drawing on these insights, we propose that OGD initiatives aimed at facilitating outbound OI to a greater extent should address the barriers that appear during diffusion of innovations, the barriers that are not directly related to the OGD provision, and the barriers that are experienced by non-obvious OGD user groups. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

Motivation: Institutional and Entrepreneurship theory pays attention to institutions and their influence on productive, unproductive and destructive entrepreneurship in transition economies. However, according to the literature, it is not only institutions that matter for productive entrepreneurship, but also the interaction between formal and informal institutions. Moreover, transition economies needs the productive entrepreneurship 'to catch-up' with world leaders. Aim: The aim of this paper is to advance institutional research through the development of a better understanding of the relation between formal and informal institutions and their influence on productive entrepreneurship in transition economies like CEECs. Results: The paper demonstrates that strong formal and informal institutions, the 'invisible hand' of the state, as well as the complementary and accommodating relations between formal and informal institutions are necessary for productive entrepreneurship in transition economies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES.

by NASTASE, Carmen, LUCACI, Ancuța [2018-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

The aim of this paper is to analyze the importance of rural entrepreneurship in the Nordic countries. Over the years, many countries have implemented different policies and programmes in order to stimulate entrepreneurship in the rural areas. Currently, entrepreneurs from the Nordic countries are encouraged to identify new business opportunities in rural areas and to transform them in successful business ideas with the certain purpose of creating new jobs and increasing the income of this rural areas. This paper provides a view of rural entrepreneurship at the local level in terms of its socioeconomic contribution. In all four Nordic countries many of the highlighted characteristics of rural entrepreneurship are similar, with a focus on innovation and the early embrace of new competitive technologies. The results of the analysis show that in the Nordic countries innovation, entrepreneurship and modern technology create new opportunities and rural areas are regarded as important for the development of a sustainable society. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 10

In his article "Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Spirit of Digital Capitalism," Collin Chua analyzes the myth of innovation and the fantasy of entrepreneurship. The article draws on foundational perspectives regarding the spirit of capitalism established by Max Weber, later extended by Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello. The myth of innovation is shown to operate as a rhetorical and managerial strategy that must be pursued in order to be competitive in today's capitalist system. The fantasy of entrepreneurship is shown to serves as a coping mechanism for the fragmentation and erosion of traditional work arrangements and structures. The article examines the anxieties evoked by disruption, in explaining the utility of the fantasy of entrepreneurship and the myth of innovation as significant drivers in our era of digital capitalism. A materialist approach to ideas is therefore taken up, in tracing social, political, economic, cultural realities shaped by powerful ideas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


An Entrepreneurial Decision-Making Model: A Case Study of the Electronic Business of Tehran.

by Mohammadi, Golshan, Sajadi, Seyed Mojtaba, Sakhdari, Kamal [2019-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 20

E-businesses play a critical role in today's knowledge-based economies. Despite their increasing portion, e-businesses experience high rates of failure. Therefore, it is of prime importance to identify their decision-making activities encountering outer competitive forces and their internal structural events. In this study, through using the Grounded Theory approach, we analyze interviews conducted by 20 entrepreneurs who have started and run e-businesses, based on an ex-post facto view. We identified preconditions to entrepreneurial decisions to actualize in three steps and their respective sub-activities that are taken during this decision. Decisionmaking strategies together with contextual and intervening factors that affect the adoption of the mentioned strategies and decision making itself are also identified. Finally, probable outcomes of entrepreneurial decisions are identified and reflected in emerged theory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


THE START-UP PROGRAMS' RELEVANCE FOR STIMULATING THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY.

by DESPINA, ANDRAŞ ALEXANDRA, REBECA, MEHELEAN PAULA, COSMIN, GOMOI BOGDAN [2018-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Once the year 2017 had begun, the Ministry for Business Environment, Trade and Entrepreneurship from Romania had released for the first time the Start-Up Nation Romania Program. This initiative had appeared in Romania as a consequence of a continuously decreasing economy. The decreasing trend of economy had been, was and is influenced by a raised unemployment rate that directly involves a low level of the workforce. In the same time, this Start-Up Program appeared as a result of the deficit of financial resources in order to set a business targeted on innovation and development. Based on a strong motivation and on well outlined objectives, on different research methods and on an extensive literature review, the present paper aims to approach the previously presented subject. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


TEST RUN.

by Henricks, Mark [2007-12-01]

Periodical

pages 3

The article discusses the importance of feasibility study on business developments. It was revealed that entrepreneur usually took a similar approach to evaluate the feasibility of ideas for new businesses, focusing on developing their product or service instead of assessing the business's feasibility. In addition, well did feasibility analysis not only looks at the technical feasibility of creating the product or service, but also tests the potential of the market and industry.


Academic Journal

pages 10

Succession is a persistent topic in recent family business research and garners attention from a wide range of research areas. Strategic and principal-agent approaches discuss the subject from an organizational point of view; gender research takes a sociological viewpoint. The present study assesses the perspectives of those involved in the succession process through a qualitative research approach. Based on in-depth interviews conducted in German horticultural businesses, a comparative analysis serves as the starting point for an inquiry of internal succession processes. With transferability limited to similar cases, results show a range of important factors, affecting the generation-spanning succession process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Student interest in entrepreneurship as a career alternative has grown in recent years. In response, a growing number of colleges and universities are offering entrepreneurial curriculum. Traditionally university based entrepreneurial training has focused primarily on business based technical skills, i.e., accounting, management, marketing and finance. Persuasive communication and communication competence are vital skills that are often overlooked in entrepreneurship programs. This paper provides a brief overview of the skills required for communication competence and proposes a method for enhancing persuasive communication skills and communication competence in budding entrepreneurs-role play exercises. Role play exercises allow students to develop, enhance and practice their communication skills as well as building communication confidence. Role play exercises can be added to existing classes or administered through extra-curricular activities to avoid having to add an additional course to the curriculum. Role play exercises can also provide a mechanism for creating awareness of the entrepreneurship program both on campus and off campus. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]