by Warf, Barney [1998-05-01]
Examines global telecommunications, with emphasis on the institutional and spatial dynamics of the global strategies used by the American Telephone and Telegraph company. What strategies include; Information on the domestic and global operations of the company; Details on the expansion of the world's largest telecommunications provider.
by Iyigun, Murat [2005-06-01]
This paper explores the role of geography in early development. It presents a model where the odds of survival are higher in geographically favorable regions. In such regions, higher life expectancy prompts parents to devote more of their resources to old-age consumption and enables them to invest relatively more in the quantity and quality of their offspring. Investment in education, together with population growth, helps geographically-favorable economies to attain high levels of a more educated population that is necessary for sustained economic growth. The empirical evidence is generally supportive of the view that geographic attributes influenced regional population levels in Europe and its colonial offshoots around 1500 A.D. and that they affected population levels and educational attainment in low-income countries of the 1990s. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Rigg, LesleyS., McCarragher, Shannon, Krmenec, Andrew [2012-11-01]
by Fain, James R. [2017-10-01]
Using simulation methods I explore some of the properties of the new economic geography model using a complex landscape. I introduce landscape complexity by allowing the existence of limited pathways that can be traversed at a lower cost than most other paths. I also introduce a river that may be crossed at limited points and may be used to transport goods. I find that adding complexity substantially alters how many cities form and where they form. Compared with a simple landscape, complex landscapes produce a distribution of city sizes that more closely resemble the actual distribution of city sizes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Spencer, J. E. [1975-01-01]
The article shares the author's experience on his undergraduate training in geography at Southern Branch, University of California. He recalls that as an undergraduate, he cannot react to his teacher. He remembers that some of his early reaction to his teacher were akin to his undergraduate feelings towards imposing characters. He also remembers that in their undergraduate lecture course, it was habit of his teacher to enter the classroom about one minute before the time of their class begin.
by Clement, Vincent [2019-04-01]
This article contributes to the current debate on decolonizing geography. It explores rethinking the relationship of Indigenous epistemologies, knowledges, and geography from Indigenous perspectives. After deconstructing the Enlightenment as an illusory way towards emancipation and critically exploring the heritage of geography regarding Indigenous peoples, this paper examines the Indigenous epistemologies that are considered counter-discourses that challenge western 'regimes of truth'. It approaches Indigenous knowledges through decolonizing paths to capture the originality and strength of Indigenous epistemologies more fully, and re-centre Indigenous conceptual frameworks as offering new possibilities to write the 'difference differently' in human geography. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Akhtar, Rais [1988-02-01]
The article discusses geography as an academic discipline in Zambia. With the coming of independence and the end of the Central African Federation, the federal University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland broke up. Soon thereafter the first and only university in Zambia, University of Zambia, was founded along with the Department of Geography with D.H. Davies as first professor and head of the geography department. N.D. McGlashan, eminent medical geographer was also a founder-member of the department. An important feature of geography in Zambia is that the department has been dominated by staff members from abroad, particularly Great Britain. The department has also hosted two international conferences.
by Graham, Mark, Hogan, Bernie, Straumann, Ralph K., Medhat, Ahmed [2014-07-01]
by Jacobsen, Scott Douglas [2018-03-01]
An interview with Count & Grand Master Raymond Dennis Keene, O.B.E.. He discusses: geographics, cultural, and linguistic background; pivotal moments in early life; influences on intellectual development; growing up gifted or not; precocious chess achievements; myths and truths around chess prodigies; interest in Goethe; personal achievements; motivation for diverse interests; benefits from being a chess Grandmaster; general transferability to other areas of life; computers surpassing humans at chess; innate versus environmental influence on ability; benefits for students learning chess; Magnus Carlsen; probable near and far future for the world of chess; ranking chess achievement; common personality traits of the great chess grandmasters; genius gone awry such as Bobby Fischer; and underrated chess Grandmasters. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Torrieri, Nancy K. [2018-01-01]
An interview with Michael R. Ratcliffe, assistant division chief for geographic standards at U.S. Census Bureau, is presented. Topics discussed include work of government with government administration, and political philosophy, responsibilities in categories such as political, or administrative geography and use of geographic information system (GIS) with increase in the use of data for small geographic areas.
by Sjöholm, Jenny [2014-07-01]
Despite artistic practices, sites and modes of production and expression being in constant flux, and artistic production being of fragmented and temporal, often precarious status, this article emphasizes how the studio is and remains an important instrument and base of contemporary artistic performance. Based on qualitative research on contemporary visual artists’ work practices in London, this study presents accounts on how artists come to perceive but also construct the work and studio environment in which they are located; how they recognize the potential opportunities of this relation as well as how they actively react in order to practice and use such space. The artist’s studio is a space from which the alchemy of an art form cannot be completely revealed. Yet, with all its material, the studio is a space whose materialities are manifestations, documentations and traces of studio processes and visual artists’ work. The studio represents collections of clues and traces of the artists’ working lives and, for the artists, the studio is not only a space for work in progress but also for storage and creative resources. It is a space where they filter, sort, store and appropriate active actants, remnants and traces of their working lives inside the studio as well as their inspirational journeys outside. The studio is a space where objects and documents are placed as a way to mark an end to a process, but it is also a space where things originate or are reinvented – it is a space where things begin. However, in its particular set-up there is a creative limitation; there is a limiting order of the material collected that can authorize and command the future development of artistic work. There is an archival notion of the making and thinking in the modern art studio. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Potter, Richard E., Balthazard, Pierre A. [2000-07-01]
This paper presents an empirical study of dyadic negotiation supported by computer-mediated communication media. Dyads of MBA students from mainland China and the United States negotiated in a distributed, semisynchronous environment. The task was based on a scenario developed and used extensively by Lituchy (1992) involving distribution of real estate. The technologies were electronic mail and Internet/World Wide Web-based threaded discussion, configured to appear and function very similarly to electronic mail. Outcome measures included joint profitability of the negotiation (reflecting its integrativeness) and perceptions of suitability of the technologies for the task (task-technology fit). Hypotheses drew from literatures on integrative negotiation, negotiation and group support systems, technology adoption, and cross-cultural psychology. As predicted by previous research, Chinese dyads (from a collectivist culture) reached higher average joint profitability (more integrative solutions) than did American dyads (from an individualist culture). These results concur with those obtained with similar cultural groups in previous studies. Both groups of dyads here achieved somewhat lower joint profitability than similar groups who negotiated face-to-face without computer support in previous studies. Neither amount of information technology experience nor assigned technology had any effect on profitability or on any perceptions of task-technology fit. Subjects from both cultures reported that the technologies were acceptable for the task. Chinese subjects preferred the computer-based technologies to face-to-face negotiation, preferred the computer-based technologies to the telephone for dispersed negotiation, and felt that these media were more secure and private than telephony. Americans showed reversed preferences. The authors stated that the technologies used are already being adopted in mainland China in their primary roles as communication support media. Results are consonant with the technologies' expected adaptation as negotiation support tools, appropriate for both cultural groups. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
by Power, Marcus, Mohan, Giles, Mercer, Claire [2006-11-01]
A preface to articles on geography published in this periodical is presented.
by Bebbington, Anthony [2002-01-01]
Discusses the contributions of geographers to the scholarly work on Latin American development. Definition of development; Geographies of dependent development; Distinctions between development as structural change and development as agency; Discourse and development in Latin America; Discussion on the problem of human well-being.
by Bebbington, Anthony [2001-01-01]
Provides an overview of the geographies of development in Latin America. Studies of organized development intervention; Geographies of livelihood; Discourses of development; Importance of the tension in geography between critics of development and those who see the need for positive change; Need for the involvement of geographers in the developmental process.
by Sidaway, James D. [2012-02-01]
The use of categories (such as developing world or Third World) to demarcate world regions on the basis of their levels of development is increasingly disputed. Moreover, in the last few years, references have proliferated to the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China), or sometimes BRICA (adding the Arab states of the Gulf), as hyperlinks to future-oriented investment in the world economy. These new labels rest on more than two decades of discourse about “emerging markets” and are embodiments of and agents in the decomposition of the Third World as denoting a meaningful geopolitical and epistemological category. Where are and what then remains of the geography of development and the Third World? In addressing such questions, nuanced maps will be needed. This article sketches some alternatives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Bebbington, Anthony [2004-12-01]
Much research on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in international development has been case-study-based, with questions about the broader geographies of NGO intervention rarely asked. This paper explores the factors that drive such NGO geographies and considers how they relate to the uneven geographies of poverty and livelihood produced under contemporary processes of capitalist expansion and contraction. Explanations of NGO presence and absence must of necessity be historicized and contextualized, and particular attention should be paid to the influences of the politics and political economy of aid and development, the geographies of religious, political and other social institutions, the transnational networks in which these institutions are often embedded, and the social networks and life histories of NGO professionals and allies. The resulting geographies of intervention pattern the uneven ways in which NGOs become involved in reworking places and livelihoods, though this reworking is also structured by the dynamics of political economy. The paper closes by drawing out implications for geographical research on NGOs, as well as for efforts to theorize the relationships between intentional development interventions and immanent processes of political economic change, and their effects on inequality and unevenness. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ballard, Richard [2013-12-01]
Since the mid-1990s, a number of governments in the global South have instituted programmes which provide regular cash grants to poor people. The results of cash transfer programmes have impressed those searching for ways to improve welfare: the depth of poverty has been reduced, more children are being educated and vaccinated, and the poor are more likely to get jobs and start enterprises. Advocates of social democracy are hopeful that this heralds the possibility of comprehensive social protection. Experiments in welfare in the global South do not, however, inevitably signal an epochal shift to a postneoliberal era. They form part of an increasingly heterodox approach which combines an enduring emphasis on liberalized economic growth with bolder biopolitical interventions for the poor. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
No author [1950-10-01]
The article informs that the Russian insistence that scientific research have immediate practical application so that it can aid in economic construction, an insistence that seems to misunderstand the role of pure research in scientific development, is reflected in the report on the work of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Academia Sinica, made by J.S. Lee at the first National Congress of Scientific "Workers in Peiping. The academy has thirteen research institutes covering history, archaeology, physics, chemistry, an observatory, a technological laboratory, and preparatory offies for institutes in the fields of psychology, geography and paleontology. Two additional institutes are planned in the fields of geology and paleontology. The academy set up several periodicals for publishing papers and reporting news of scientific activities and achievements in China and abroad. It is promoting the translation of reference books and textbooks. It has several projects going, one of which, engaging a reported 118 specialists, is at work unifying scientific terms.
by Malecki, Edward J., Hu Wei [2009-04-01]
Submarine cables for telecommunications were an early catalyst of globalization and of transnational corporate production networks and they continue to facilitate global economic activity. This article describes increasing demand from Internet and mobile phones as well as new uses for cables, such as oil exploration and high-energy physics. We trace the history of submarine cables and their geography from their early days to the Internet era, and analyze a global data set of cables at four intervals since 1979. Although the traditional triad locations (Western Europe, North America, and East Asia) are among the best connected, new networks in new places—notably Asia—are poised to become key network nodes in the twenty-first century. Based on cable capacity, the future submarine cable network looks very different from the old, suggesting new economic geographies and new world cities for a new world economy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Varró, Krisztina, Lagendijk, Arnoud [2013-01-01]
VarróK. and LagendijkA. Conceptualizing the region – in what sense relational?,Regional Studies. Recently, the question of how to conceptualize the region seems to have created a division in geographical scholarship between those propagating the primacy of a relational view, on the one hand, and those defending the relevance of a territorial view, on the other. This paper argues that two main factors have impeded a fruitful discussion, to the extent that even some points of convergence have been neglected. First, the two strands have drawn, sometimes implicitly, on incommensurable philosophical assumptions. Second, scholars in favour of a relational view have at times made statements that do not fit well (some of) their philosophical sources of inspiration. The paper suggests the task of conceptualization is readdressed by following consistently a discourse–theoretical relational ontology. 区域 相关性以及空间领域方法 VarróK. and LagendijkA. 概念化区域-就什么而言是相关的？区域研究。目前关于如何能够概念化区域这个问题在地理学研究者中出现了分歧， 一部分研究者坚持相对性视角，另一部分则坚持领域相关性观点。本文认为，有两个原因阻碍了有益的探讨，涉及到对两者的联性的忽略。首先，两种思路是建立在不同的哲学假设上的。其次，学者关注相关性观点在很多情况下其论点并未完全符合其哲学假设。本文认为，概念化这一任务需要建立在语境理论相关性存在论的基础上。 Régions Façon relationnelle et territoriale d'aborder l'espace VarróK. et LagendijkA. La conceptualisation de la région – dans quel sens est-ce relationelle?,Regional Studies. Au cours des dernières années, la conceptualisation de la région semble avoir divisé les spécialistes de la géographie entre ceux qui prônent d'un côté la primauté de l'approche relationnelle et de l'autre côté ceux qui justifient la pertinence de l'approche territoriale. Cet article affirme que deux facteurs principaux ont empêché un débat fructueux, dans la mesure où des points de vue convergents même ont été négligés. Primo, les deux fils ont quelquefois puisé, de façon implicite, dans des suppositions philosophiques incommensurables. Secundo, les spécialistes qui prônent l'approche relationnelle ont quelquefois fait des déclarations qui ne correspondent pas bien à (quelques-unes de) leurs sources d'inspiration philsophiques. Cet article laisse supposer que l'on devrait aborder à nouveau la tâche de la conceptualisation en poursuivant systématiquement une ontologie relationnelle fondée sur un discours théorique. Regionen Relationale und territoriale Betrachtung des Raums VarróK. und LagendijkA. Die Konzeptualisierung der Region – in welchem Sinne relational?,Regional Studies. In letzter Zeit hat die Frage, wie sich eine Region konzeptualisieren lässt, offenbar zu einer Spaltung der geografischen Wissenschaft geführt, wobei sich ein Lager für das Primat einer relationalen Perspektive ausspricht und das andere die Relevanz einer territorialen Perspektive verteidigt. In diesem Beitrag wird argumentiert, dass vor allem zwei Faktoren einer fruchtbaren Diskussion im Wege stehen und sogar zur Vernachlässigung einiger Konvergenzpunkte geführt haben. Zum einen haben sich beide Richtungen – manchmal implizit – auf inkommensurable philosophische Annahmen bezogen. Zum anderen haben manche Wissenschaftler, die eine relationale Perspektive verfechten, teilweise Aussagen getroffen, die nicht gut zu ihren philosophischen Inspirationsquellen (oder einigen davon) passen. Wir schlagen vor, die Aufgabe der Konzeptualisierung neu anzugehen und dabei konsequent eine diskurstheoretische relationale Ontologie zu befolgen. Regiones Enfoque relacional y territorial para el espacio VarróK. y LagendijkA. La conceptualización de la región; ¿en qué sentido relacional?,Regional Studies. Recientemente, la cuestión de cómo conceptualizar la región parece haber creado una división en la ciencia geográfica entre, por una parte, los que abogan por la primacía de una perspectiva relacional, y por otra, los que defienden la relevancia de una perspectiva territorial. En este artículo sostenemos que existen dos principales factores que han impedido un provechoso debate, de forma que incluso se han descuidado algunos puntos de convergencia. En primer lugar, los dos grupos se han basado, algunas veces implícitamente, en suposiciones filosóficas inconmensurables. En segundo lugar, los académicos a favor de una perspectiva relacional a veces han hecho declaraciones que no encajan bien (algunas) de sus fuentes filosóficas de inspiración. En este artículo sugerimos que se considere de nuevo la tarea de la conceptualización siguiendo sistemáticamente una ontología relacional de discurso teórico. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ferretti, Federico [2016-10-01]
Drawing on recent thorough-going debates on 'geographies of peace', this paper addresses the experience of the French geographer Paul Dupuy (1856-1948) and his daughter, Marie-Thérèse Maurette (1890-1989), in the Geneva International School between 1924 and 1948. Working with primary sources, I reconstruct their teaching of 'synthetic geography' and 'international culture', which aimed to establish didactic methods for peace education employing current geopolitical issues. I discuss this early experience in geographies of peace in order to put it in its historical and international contexts and to give a contribution to present geographies and geopolitics of peace, by underscoring the importance of internationalism and voluntarism. The main arguments of this study are the importance of multilingualism and cosmopolitan mentality, and the problems that politically committed geographies often found with institutions and 'national schools': the context of Dupuy's and Maurette's teaching was completely exterior to academia and marked by a strong voluntarism. In this, it joined former examples of extra-institutional and engagé geographical networks, like those of the anarchist geographers Reclus and Kropotkin and of anarchist education, a tradition which played a role in inspiring Paul Dupuy's works. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Kamalu, O.J., Isirimah, N.O., Ugwa, I.K., Orimoloye, J.R. [2002-07-01]
The morphological, physical, chemical and pedological properties of eight pedons representative of the four physiographic units in the Meander Belt of the Niger Delta were studied. The soils were classified and the constraints to their agricultural and engineering uses evaluated. The soils were generally poorly drained, having an Aquic moisture regime, mottles and Fe and Mn concretions. They belong to the Entisol and Inceptisol USDA soil taxonomy orders. Soil textures were generally clayey, except for the pedons of the levee crest with sandy loam textures. Bulk density, particle density and total porosity were generally low. Total nitrogen and available phosphorus were also low. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation were high. Organic matter was low to moderate. Total elements of the clay were generally high. The soils have poor physical conditions. The high clay content, and the presence of 2:1 lattice clay minerals could account for the deterioration of the major east-west interstate road linking southeast and southwest Nigeria that passes through the area. Optimum use of the soils for agriculture would depend on good land evaluation and efficient soil water management. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Smith, Carol A. [1974-10-01]
The article presents a literature review of the recent market studies in geography, since 1965, and to recent developments in central-place theory and methodology. This literature aims to explore the economics of marketing systems through the context of anthropology. It includes a highly selective group of anthropological work on marketing, particularly in China, United States, Canada, Philippines, Germany, Guatemala, Roman Britain, and certain parts of Africa. This review was undertaken in the light of the belief that attention to developments in a sister discipline would stimulate more interesting and sophisticated work on marketing systems by anthropologists.