Academic Journal

pages 3

People whom the author would like to thank for their assistance in the creation of the journal "Life" are mentioned including Michael Aldersley, Daniel E. Austin, and Ralf Anken.


Society for the Study of Human Biology.

by Steckel, R., Lewis, S., De Moura, A. C., Lee, P. C., Underdown, S., Casiday, R., Lomas, H., Panter-Brick, C., Clarke, S., Lindsay, S., Pinder, M., Walraven, G., Priston, N., De La Mora, A. Nunez, Chatterton, R. T., Choudhury, O., Napolitano, D., Hochman, J., Bentley, G. R., Lunn, P. G. [2004-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

This article presents abstracts of proffered papers of meeting held by Society for the Study of Human Biology which was held at the University of Cambridge on May 8, 2003. Some of the papers discussed here are: "What the "Body-Beautiful" Might Be Telling Us About the "Body-Healthy"" by S. Lewis of Chester College from Chester, England. "The Cognitive Abilities of Cebus Apella Libidinosus: Tool Use and Survival in a Harsh Environment" by A.C. De Moura and P.C. Lee from University of Cambridge, located in England. "A Review of Neanderthal and Selk'nam Long Bone Trauma Frequency" by S. UnderDown, University of Cambridge, located in England.


Academic Journal

pages 21

Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states’ sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in hisLeviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 24

This article examines in some technical detail the application of Maturana and Varela's biology of cognition to a simple concrete model: a glider in the game of Life cellular automaton. By adopting an autopoietic perspective on a glider, the set of possible perturbations to it can be divided into destructive and nondestructive subsets. From a glider's reaction to each nondestructive perturbation, its cognitive domain is then mapped. In addition, the structure of a glider's possible knowledge of its immediate environment, and the way in which that knowledge is grounded in its constitution, are fully described. The notion of structural coupling is then explored by characterizing the paths of mutual perturbation that a glider and its environment can undergo. Finally, a simple example of a communicative interaction between two gliders is given. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential implications of this analysis for the enactive approach to cognition. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Background: The use of spectrally distinct variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) such as cyan or yellow mutants (CFP and YFP, respectively) is very common in all different fields of life sciences, e.g. for marking specific proteins or cells or to determine protein interactions. In the latter case, the quantum physical phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is exploited by specific microscopy techniques to visualize proximity of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings: When we applied a commonly used FRET microscopy technique - the increase in donor (CFP)-fluorescence after bleaching of acceptor fluorophores (YFP), we obtained good signals in live cells, but very weak signals for the same samples after fixation and mounting in commercial microscopy mounting fluids. This observation could be traced back to much faster bleaching of CFP in these mounting media. Strikingly, the opposite effect of the mounting fluid was observed for YFP and also for other proteins such as Cerulean, TFP or Venus. The changes in photostability of CFP and YFP were not caused by the fixation but directly dependent on the mounting fluid. Furthermore we made the interesting observation that the CFP-fluorescence intensity increases by about 10 - 15% after illumination at the YFPexcitation wavelength - a phenomenon, which was also observed for Cerulean. This photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at the YFP-excitation can cause false-positive signals in the FRET-microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of a yellow FRET acceptor. Conclusions/Significance: Our results show that photostability of fluorescent proteins differs significantly for various media and that CFP bleaches significantly faster in commercial mounting fluids, while the opposite is observed for YFP and some other proteins. Moreover, we show that the FRET microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of the YFP is prone to artifacts due to photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins under these conditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Addressing teachers' concerns about teaching evolution.

by Sanders, Martie, Ngxola, Nonyameko [2009-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Evolution was introduced into the senior secondary school Life Sciences curriculum in South Africa for the first time in 2008. Research in other countries shows that evolution is an extremely controversial topic to teach, raising serious concerns for teachers. Curriculum change theory dealing with 'stages of concern' suggests that teachers implementing a new curriculum move through a predictable series of types of concerns, and that if their initial concerns are not addressed then teachers are slow to move on to more important task-related matters. This has serious implications for both professional development programmes and the development of support materials for teachers: information about teachers' concerns is needed so that those having to support teachers can do so on an informed basis. This article identifies the concerns of 125 secondary school teachers having to teach evolution for the first time. Data was gathered using an activity-based questionnaire administered in a workshop setting to four different groups of biology teachers attending inservice workshops on the teaching of evolution, at stages progressively closer to the implementation date. The majority of concerns identified were early-stage 'self-concerns', dealing with personal worries and a need for information. Implications of the findings for providing support for teachers with concerns about teaching evolution are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 4

The article reports that C-suite and other executives in a recent Deloitte poll1 expect board of director requests for reporting on cybersecurity program effectiveness to increase. It mentions that industries expecting higher than average board requests on cybersecurity program effectiveness are life sciences and health care.


Academic Journal

pages 10

Authorship of peer-reviewed journal articles and abstracts has become the primary currency and reward unit in academia. Such a reward is crucial for students and postdocs who are often under-compensated and thus highly value authorship as an incentive. While numerous scientific and publishing organizations have written guidelines for determining author qualifications and author order, there remains much ambiguity when it comes to how these criteria are weighed by research faculty. Here, we sought to provide some initial insight on how faculty view the relative importance of 11 criteria for scientific authorship. We distributed an online survey to 564 biomedical engineering, biology, and bioengineering faculty members at 10 research institutions across the United States. The response rate was approximately 18%, resulting in a final sample of 102 respondents. Results revealed an agreement on some criteria, such as time spent conducting experiments, but there was a lack of agreement regarding the role of funding procurement. This study provides quantitative assessments of how faculty members in the biosciences evaluate authorship criteria. We discuss the implications of these findings for researchers, especially new graduate students, to help navigate the discrepancy between official policies for authorship and the contributions that faculty truly value. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


ImageJ2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data.

by Rueden, Curtis T., Schindelin, Johannes, Hiner, Mark C., De Zonia, Barry E., Walter, Alison E., Arena, Ellen T., Eliceiri, Kevin W. [2017-11-29]

Academic Journal

pages 26

Background: ImageJ is an image analysis program extensively used in the biological sciences and beyond. Due to its ease of use, recordable macro language, and extensible plug-in architecture, ImageJ enjoys contributions from non-programmers, amateur programmers, and professional developers alike. Enabling such a diversity of contributors has resulted in a large community that spans the biological and physical sciences. However, a rapidly growing user base, diverging plugin suites, and technical limitations have revealed a clear need for a concerted software engineering effort to support emerging imaging paradigms, to ensure the software's ability to handle the requirements of modern science. Results: We rewrote the entire ImageJ codebase, engineering a redesigned plugin mechanism intended to facilitate extensibility at every level, with the goal of creating a more powerful tool that continues to serve the existing community while addressing a wider range of scientific requirements. This next-generation ImageJ, called "ImageJ2" in places where the distinction matters, provides a host of new functionality. It separates concerns, fully decoupling the data model from the user interface. It emphasizes integration with external applications to maximize interoperability. Its robust new plugin framework allows everything from image formats, to scripting languages, to visualization to be extended by the community. The redesigned data model supports arbitrarily large, N-dimensional datasets, which are increasingly common in modern image acquisition. Despite the scope of these changes, backwards compatibility is maintained such that this new functionality can be seamlessly integrated with the classic ImageJ interface, allowing users and developers to migrate to these new methods at their own pace. Conclusions: Scientific imaging benefits from open-source programs that advance new method development and deployment to a diverse audience. ImageJ has continuously evolved with this idea in mind; however, new and emerging scientific requirements have posed corresponding challenges for ImageJ's development. The described improvements provide a framework engineered for flexibility, intended to support these requirements as well as accommodate future needs. Future efforts will focus on implementing new algorithms in this framework and expanding collaborations with other popular scientific software suites. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 20

The field of “child study” emerged at the end of the nineteenth century with the purpose of disclosing children's “nature” for the benefit of parents, educators, psychologists, and other interested groups. Borrowed from the biological sciences, narratives of biological recapitulation were common in the discourses about child development during this period. Such theories often measured children against “savages,” but they also suggested that the study of childhood offered clues into the evolutionary relationships between humans and animals. By emphasizing the relevance of children's “instincts,” observers of child development explained child behavior as the tissue that linked humans and animals. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Influence of respiratory mechanics and drive on genioglossus movement under ultrasound imaging.

by Kwan, Benjamin C. H., McBain, Rachel A., Luu, Billy L., Butler, Jane E., Bilston, Lynne E., Gandevia, Simon C. [2018-04-16]

Academic Journal

pages 19

Genioglossus is the largest upper airway dilator and its dilatory movement can be measured non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The present study used a novel ultrasound method to assess genioglossus movement in conditions in which ventilatory drive or respiratory mechanics were changed. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects (10 males, age 28±5 years [mean ± SD]) lay supine, awake, with the head in a neutral position. Ventilation was monitored with inductance bands. Real-time B-mode ultrasound movies were analysed. We measured genioglossus motion (i) during spontaneous breathing, voluntary targeted breathing (normal tidal volume Vt), and voluntary hyperpnoea (at 1.5Vt and 2 Vt); (ii) during inspiratory flow resistive loading; (iii) with changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV). Results: Average peak inspiratory displacement of the infero-posterior region of genioglossus was 0.89±0.56 mm; 1.02±0.88 mm; 1.27±0.70 mm respectively for voluntary Vt, and during voluntary hyperpnoea at 1.5Vt and 2Vt. A change in genioglossus motion was observed with increased Vt. During increasing inspiratory resistive loading, the genioglossus displaced less anteriorly (p = 0.005) but more inferiorly (p = 0.027). When lung volume was altered, no significant changes in genioglossus movement were observed (p = 0.115). Conclusion: In healthy subjects, we observed non-uniform heterogeneous inspiratory motion within the inferoposterior part of genioglossus during spontaneous breathing with mean peak displacement between 0.5–2 mm, with more displacement in the posterior region than the anterior. This regional heterogeneity disappeared during voluntary targeted breathing. This may be due to different neural drive to genioglossus during voluntary breathing. During inspiratory resistive loading, the observed genioglossus motion may serve to maintain upper airway patency by balancing intraluminal negative pressure with positive pressure generated by upper airway dilatory muscles. In contrast, changes in EELV were not accompanied by major changes in genioglossus motion. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 19

The search for once-habitable locations on Mars is increasingly focused on environments dominated by fluvial and lacustrine processes, such as those investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The availability of liquid water coupled with the potential longevity of such systems renders these localities prime targets for the future exploration of Martian biosignatures. Fluvial-lacustrine environments associated with basaltic volcanism are highly relevant to Mars, but their terrestrial counterparts have been largely overlooked as a field analogue. Such environments are common in Iceland, where basaltic volcanism interacts with glacial ice and surface snow to produce large volumes of meltwater within an otherwise cold and dry environment. This meltwater can be stored to create subglacial, englacial, and proglacial lakes, or be released as catastrophic floods and proglacial fluvial systems. Sedimentary deposits produced by the resulting fluvial-lacustrine activity are extensive, with lithologies dominated by basaltic minerals, low-temperature alteration assemblages (e.g., smectite clays, calcite), and amorphous, poorly crystalline phases (basaltic glass, palagonite, nanophase iron oxides). This paper reviews examples of these environments, including their sedimentary deposits and microbiology, within the context of utilising these localities for future Mars analogue studies and instrument testing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 15

Life science research and life sciences' industries are facing an overwhelming complexity of biology. Today's scientific methods and technologies allow for a very detailed look at biology. What is left to do, is understanding and interpretation. Quantitative biology, the close coupling of life sciences, mathematics, and statistics is likely to provide the methodologies to turn collected data into dedicated information and knowledge. The most promising approach is the formulation of mathematical models on the basis of machine learning. The predictive power of such an approach is a promising option for basic biological research, medicine, pharmacology, agricultural science, and ecology. Furthermore, also R&D of related life sciences industries can take advantage of this digital approach to meet future challenges and market requirements. Quantitative biology plays the role of an enabling technology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Cell Hijackers.

by Brooks, Rodney [2004-06-01]

Periodical

pages 1

This article provides information on two examples of some early progress in the field of synthetic biology, as of June 2004. During the 1940s, John von Neumann, popular in the development of modern computers, investigated the theoretical possibilities of self-reproduction. Von Neumann essentially asserted that a self-reproducible machine would require a tape or other description of itself. During reproduction, this tape would serve as the set of instructions for building a copy of the machine and would itself be copied to create the seed necessary for the next generation. Apparently, DNA turned out to have precisely such properties. One of the very first computer scientists, a mathematician and engineer, made a prediction of the fundamental mechanism of life that biologists subsequently discovered. Allegedly, in a forthcoming denouement, engineering is poised for a triumphant comeback in molecular biology. The last fifty years of molecular biology have largely been devoted to understanding the incredibly complex mechanisms that govern life. Scientists have developed wonderful analytic tools to study what goes on in cells. Presently, experts are on the brink of an engineering revolution that will allegedly transform the ability to manipulate the biological world.


Knowledge: A Measurable Universal Phenomenon of Life.

by Simms, James R., Johnson, Patrick J. [2012-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

This article describes the development of the fundamental principles of the science of life, which are equivalent to those of the natural (hard) sciences, such as physics and chemistry. The natural sciences are typified by identification of universal phenomena, relations among these phenomena and fundamental measures and units of measure for these phenomena. It is shown that matter, energy, knowledge, information and behaviour are universal phenomena of life and that there are relations among these phenomena. Units of measure for these phenomena were previously developed, except for knowledge. The principles of life sciences are developed using the natural sciences (Newton) development model. Names are also suggested for new dimensions of quantitative measures of biochemical, genetic and neural knowledge. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research.

by Kilkenny, Carol, Browne, William J., Cuthill, Innes C., Emerson, Michael, Altman, Douglas G. [2014-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

The author discusses Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines applied in animal research reporting with emphasis on bioscience research. Topics discussed include the information needed in every research on animal, maximization of output of published researches, and methods used in the research.


NATURE OF RESISTANCE OF COWPEA ALECTRA VOGELII INFESTATION.

by MBWANDO, A., LUNGU, D. M., TRYPHONE, G. M., TEMBO, L. [2016-10-01]

Periodical

pages 7


Academic Journal

pages 11

Purpose. Formulation in the compressed type of basic scientifically-historical information, touching the topics for all of humanity and biological science - geneticists taking into account the known for today scientific achievements on the way of its evolutional development is presented. Methodology. Scientific methods of receipt and systematization of knowledges. Methods of historical method at becoming and development of biological science and genetics. Results. Short history of origin and becoming of classic genetics is described. The portraits of row of domestic and foreign scientists, bringing in a prominent contribution to development of genetics as sciences are presented. Short general biological bases of heredity are given for living organisms. Information is resulted about basic modern fundamental achievements and scientific openings of humanity in area of biology and genetics of living organisms. Originality. First by a scientist-electro-physicist for the wide circle of readers the simple and clear appearance is expound short basic scientific information about genes, genome and difficult mechanisms of transmission in the animal (vegetable) kingdom of the inherited information. Practical value. System built scientific popularization of existent knowledges of humanity in area of such section of biological science as genetics and expansion for the large number of people of scientific range of interests about outward us things and flowings in its difficult biological processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 10

The sustainability of radiation biology (radiobiology) is under threat in South Africa because of underdevelopment in the discipline, despite the fact that South Africa has been a user of radiation since radioactivity and X-rays were discovered. The widespread use of radiation in medicine, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and other sophisticated nuclear facilities in South Africa makes it imperative that the interaction of radiation with biological systems is understood. For example, radiobiology is critical in radiation oncology and cancer treatment. Radiobiology is a distinctly biological science and its uniqueness and value should be highlighted to provide insight for authorities and other relevant parties. Regrettably, radiobiology has been largely neglected despite the importance of maintaining expertise and competence in this discipline. Many radiation-associated disciplines require radiobiology for their training and practice yet few radiobiologists are available nationally. The scientific community needs to be informed of the predicament of radiobiology in South Africa so that the situation can be addressed. Radiobiology is a scarce skill that needs to be developed to support South Africa's mature radiation infrastructure. The country has too few radiobiologist training programmes and there is a lack of succession planning. Radiobiology is required for training and practice in a number of disciplines that use radiation, but, as a result of a shortage of qualified personnel, teaching of radiobiology has frequently been conducted by non-experts. To reinvigorate radiobiology in South Africa, a collective effort by government, academia, industry and allied professionals is required. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Opportunities Abound: A Call for Leadership in the Life Sciences.

by Potter, Sheri, Stafford, Susan G., Travis, Joseph L., Collins, James P., Pickett, Steward T. A., Fenster, Charles B., Nagy, Eric S., Poston, Muriel [2015-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

The article discusses the changing trends in the leadership roles in the life science including the geographic, cultural, or disciplinary constraints and the professional pathways exist for new professionals entering the biological science. Topics discussed include job opportunities and changing intellectual property structure, investment made by National Science Foundation (NSF) in cyberinfrastructure, and cross-cutting.


Political Engagement for Scientists.

by GROPP, ROBERT E. [2016-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages unknown

The article offers information on the forum Biological Science Congressional District Visits organized by American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) held on December 7-8, 2016.


AIBS news.

No author [2007-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

The article offers news and announcements from the American Institute of Biological Science (AIBS). AIBS member organizations and other scientific groups are invited to partake in the Year of Science 2009. Public policy associate Holly Menninger participated in the annual meeting of the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA), an AIBS member society. The 2007 AIBS Council Meeting will be held from May 15-16, 2007 at the Capital Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C.


Biological Sciences Poster Abstracts.

No author [2008-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 15

The article presents abstracts on biological science topics which include a survey related to antibiotic resistance and sensitivity of several bacteria, the effectiveness of aloe vera in treating cancers, and the gymnosperms' progesterone.