ASTM Launches Online Journal.

No author [2004-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages unknown

In January 2004, publishing company ASTM International launched an online journal dedicated to original research findings and technical articles. Journal of ASTM International (JAI) serves the international scientific and engineering community through the timely publication of results of original research and critical review articles in the physical and life sciences and engineering technologies. These peer-reviewed articles cover diverse topics relevant to the science and research that establish the foundation for standards development within ASTM International.


ASTM Launches Online Journal.

No author [2004-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages unknown

In January 2004, publishing company ASTM International launched an online journal dedicated to original research findings and technical articles. Journal of ASTM International (JAI) serves the international scientific and engineering community through the timely publication of results of original research and critical review articles in the physical and life sciences and engineering technologies. These peer-reviewed articles cover diverse topics relevant to the science and research that establish the foundation for standards development within ASTM International.


Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments.

by Schmid, Benjamin, Jahr, Wiebke, Weber, Michael, Huisken, Jan [2016-08-29]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today’s research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Setting: Purdue University is a major agricultural, engineering, biomedical, and applied life science research institution with an increasing focus on bioinformatics research that spans multiple disciplines and campus academic units. The Purdue University Libraries (PUL) hired a molecular biosciences specialist to discover, engage, and support bioinformatics needs across the campus. Program Components: After an extended period of information needs assessment and environmental scanning, the specialist developed a week of focused bioinformatics instruction (Bioinformatics Week) to launch system-wide, library-based bioinformatics services. Evaluation Mechanisms: The specialist employed a two-tiered approach to assess user information requirements and expectations. The first phase involved careful observation and collection of information needs in-context throughout the campus, attending laboratory meetings, interviewing department chairs and individual researchers, and engaging in strategic planning efforts. Based on the information gathered during the integration phase, several survey instruments were developed to facilitate more critical user assessment and the recovery of quantifiable data prior to planning. Next Steps/Future Directions: Given information gathered while working with clients and through formal needs assessments, as well as the success of instructional approaches used in Bioinformatics Week, the specialist is developing bioinformatics support services for the Purdue community. The specialist is also engaged in training PUL faculty librarians in bioinformatics to provide a sustaining culture of library-based bioinformatics support and understanding of Purdue's bioinformatics-related decision and policy making. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Forecasting Ecological Genomics: High-Tech Animal Instrumentation Meets High-Throughput Sequencing.

by Shafer, Aaron B. A., Northrup, Joseph M., Wikelski, Martin, Wittemyer, George, Wolf, Jochen B. W. [2016-01-08]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Recent advancements in animal tracking technology and high-throughput sequencing are rapidly changing the questions and scope of research in the biological sciences. The integration of genomic data with high-tech animal instrumentation comes as a natural progression of traditional work in ecological genetics, and we provide a framework for linking the separate data streams from these technologies. Such a merger will elucidate the genetic basis of adaptive behaviors like migration and hibernation and advance our understanding of fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes such as pathogen transmission, population responses to environmental change, and communication in natural populations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Alternative Tech Centre.

by Solbé, Rosemarie [2006-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages unknown

The members of the North Wales branch of the Institute of Biology visited the Alternative Technology Centre at Machynthlech in March 2005. Around 17 members were originally participating in the visit but heavy snow reduced the number of delegates to just six. The visitors were given a guided tour by the center's chief biolgist, Peter Harper.


Introduction to the life sciences series and homeostasis.

by Hendry, Charles, Farley, Alistair, McLafferty, Ella [2012-07-04]

Periodical

pages 5

The aim of this series is to examine the life sciences in the context of clinical nursing practice and explore the basic structure and function of the human body. The series will examine different aspects of anatomy and physiology, assisting the reader to make essential links between theory and practice. This article introduces the series, describes some basic anatomical terms and outlines the concept of homeostasis and feedback systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Potential Energy and the Body Electric.

by Helmreich, Stefan [2013-10-02]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Physics tells us that potential energy is the capacity to do work that a body possesses as a result of its position in electric, magnetic, or gravitational fields. Thinking of "potentiality" in an electric idiom and with reference to its place in human biological processes that implicate electric phenomena, such as the pulses of action potentials that animate the heart and brain, can afford novel angles into contemporary biomedical enactments of humanness. This paper explores the material and rhetorical power of electric potential in cardiac and neurological medicine, paying attention to how discourses of "waves" of energy format the way scientists apprehend bodies as emplaced in time—in a time that can be about both cyclicity and futurity. Attention to electrophysiological phenomena may enrich the way anthropologists of the biosciences think about potentiality, taking scholars beyond our established attentions to the genetic, cellular, or pharmacological to think about the body electric. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 3

The author reflects on innovations in U.S. public health education. She argues that health professionals are in a position to be leaders in improving public health and discusses the economic and social factors of changing health needs, the development of global contents and standards for public health education, and why it's important that public health students need to be able to integrate nontraditional public health capabilities.



Agricultural Management e-School: Extension Education over the Internet.

by Edward, William M., Eggers, Timothy R. [2004-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

It is being observed that there is a growing proliferation of extension education in agricultural management over the Internet. Extension educators are quick to discover the power of posting information on the World Wide Web where thousands of people per day can download and view information. However, simply posting information does not guarantee solutions to real-world problems. For instance, land-grant educators have often insisted that underlying principles of applied science must first be learned before current information can be used to develop sound decision analysis. Extension economists at Iowa State University decided to offer home-study course over the Internet. The first course, Advanced Grain Marketing, was launched in January 2002. About the same time, the North Central Risk Management Education Center at the University of Nebraska, proposed to establish a project called the Agricultural Management e-School (AMES). This article then, explores the course development and Internet delivery of AMES.


Academic Journal

pages 20

The genesis and development of grounded theory method (GTM) is evaluated with reference to sociology's attempt to demarcate exclusive referents of inquiry. The links of objectivist GTM to positivistic terminology and to the natural scientific distinction from "common sense" are explored. It is then considered how the biological sciences have prompted reorientation towards constructivist GTM, underpinned by the metaphysics of social constructionism. GTM has been shaped by the endeavor to attain the sense of exactitude associated with positivism, whilst also seeking exclusive referents of inquiry that are distinct from the empirical realm of the natural sciences. This has generated complex research techniques underpinned by tortuous methodological debate: eschewing the perceived requirement to define and defend an academic niche could help to facilitate the development of a more useful and pragmatic orientation to qualitative social research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Women's Careers in Biomedical Sciences: Implications for the Economy, Scientific Discovery, and Women's Health.

by Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L., Heggeness, Misty L., Lund, P. Kay, Clayton, Janine Austin [2017-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

While women have been well represented in medical school and biomedical doctoral degree programs, they do not comprise half of academic medicine faculty positions. Furthermore, there is a significant paucity of women in academic medicine leadership positions, as evidenced by the fact that only 16% of dean positions at United States Medical schools are filled by women. In this commentary, the authors review the state of women in academic medicine and argue that increased representation of women in the academic workforce will lead to economic gains, increased scientific discovery, and improvements to women's health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 10

Magicians use deception to create effects that allow us to experience the impossible. More recently, magicians have started to contextualize these tricks in psychological demonstrations. We investigated whether witnessing a magic demonstration alters people’s beliefs in these pseudo-psychological principles. In the classroom, a magician claimed to use psychological skills to read a volunteer’s thoughts. After this demonstration, participants reported higher beliefs that an individual can 1) read a person’s mind by evaluating micro expressions, psychological profiles and muscle activities, and 2) effectively prime a person’s behaviour through subtle suggestions. Whether he was presented as a magician or psychologist did not influence people’s beliefs about how the demonstration was achieved, nor did it influence their beliefs in pseudo-psychological principles. Our results demonstrate that pseudo-psychological demonstrations can have a significant impact on perpetuating false beliefs in scientific principles and raise important questions about the wider impact of scientific misinformation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Eleven quick tips to build a usable REST API for life sciences.

by Tarkowska, Aleksandra, Cook, Charles E., Turner, Edd, Finn, Robert D., Yates, Andrew D., Carvalho-Silva, Denise [2018-12-13]

Academic Journal

pages 8

The article offers author's opinion on development life sciences repositories, databases, and archives. It is mentioned representational state transfer (REST) API and HTTP standard could be used for development of such databases to manage information in real-time. The article also discusses that these databases would help in managing various biological questions and offering solutions to various problems.


Conference

pages 20

This study examines empirically collaboration networks of Korean scientists. This study constructed networks in 31 Journals of various science fields: physics, chemistry, mathematics, electronics, biotechnology, medical science, and so on. The present study suggests that scientists be connected by collaboration and they be graded according to social and scientific background.First of all, scientists are joined by short path distance and their degree distribution follows a power law in collaboration networks. All scientists who have produced at least one paper in a single subfield are linked in a single collaboration network. They are joined directly or indirectly; moreover, each of the scientists is connected on an average by 3-4 paths of intermediate collaborators. In other words, collaboration networks are 'small worlds' discussed by Milgram; besides, the distributions of degree how many each of the scientists have connectors in networks follow a power law.Secondly, scientists are stratified by social factors: by age, position, employed period, graduation from the best one of universities, engagement in the high level of research institutes, and so on. The older scientists are, the more recognition they get. For the longer time researchers works in their institutes, the more compensation they obtain. If scientist were graduated form several renowned universities, they are located in good structural position in collaboration networks and scientific society.In conclusion, this study offers experimental proofs of general network characters in every scientific network. This paper is very significant empirical study about production of scientific knowledge. ..PAT.-Unpublished Manuscript [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 17

This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 50

Since 2002 we have been testing and refining a methodology for ontology development that is now being used by multiple groups of researchers in different life science domains. Gary Merrill, in a recent paper in this journal, describes some of the reasons why this methodology has been found attractive by researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences. At the same time he assails the methodology on philosophical grounds, focusing specifically on our recommendation that ontologies developed for scientific purposes should be constructed in such a way that their terms are seen as referring to what we call universals or types in reality. As we show, Merrill's critique is of little relevance to the success of our realist project, since it not only reveals no actual errors in our work but also criticizes views on universals that we do not in fact hold. However, it nonetheless provides us with a valuable opportunity to clarify the realist methodology, and to show how some of its principles are being applied, especially within the framework of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry initiative. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Objective: This pilot project, which was jointly conducted by a hospital and a university, describes the development of the Master's Degree Programme in Leadership in Medicine, a course designed to supplement medical specialty training. The aim of the pilot project is to demonstrate how hospital-based projects on personnel and organisational development undertaken under academic supervision can be used to increase leadership responsibility among doctors whose duties include providing initial and follow-on training and to professionalise medical specialty training as a leadership task. This need arose from the nationwide re-quirements and an internal audit regarding follow-on training. The version of the degree programme described below aims to further the personnel development of the participants in the field of didactics. Method: Each of the nine modules is made up of two classroom-based phases and one distance learning phase. The distance learning phase involves undertaking hospital-based projects on personnel and organisational development under academic supervision. The pilot phase participants were hospital doctors who, as part of their duties, hold leadership responsibility or are involved in the follow-on training of doctors. Results: The 17 participants successfully implemented more than 30 hospital-based projects during the distance learning phases of the nine modules. These projects included the development of medical specialty curricula, relevant didactic methods and evaluation design and were subsequently presented and subjected to reflection in interdisciplinary groups. The project presentation together with the project report were regarded as proof of competency. Conclusion: In addition to enhancing participant competency, the degree model described, which interlinks theory and practice, promotes organisational development through the implementation of projects undertaken under academic supervision. This has a double impact on the quality of medical follow-on training at the hospital where the participant is based, for not only is the individual's didactic competency enhanced, but so is the "learning organisation" as a whole as a result of continuous project orientation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 10

Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author’s scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index), has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s) in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index), which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


NEW TITLES.

No author [2010-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages unknown

The article lists books on aspects of bioscience including "The Biology of Small Mammals," by Joseph F. Merritt, "Conservation Biology For All," edited by Navjot S. Sodhi and Paul R. Ehrlich, and "The Eerie Silence: Renewing Our Search for Alien Intelligence," by Paul Davies.


Academic Journal

pages 3

People whom the author would like to thank for their assistance in the creation of the journal "Life" are mentioned including Michael Aldersley, Daniel E. Austin, and Ralf Anken.