Business Ethics: Restrictive or Empowering?

by Kjonstad, Bjørn, Willmott, Hugh [1995-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 20

There is a tendency in the business ethics literature to think of ethics in restrictive terms: what one should not do, and how to control this. Drawing on Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the paper focuses on, and draws attention to, another more positive aspect of ethics: the capacity of ethics to inspire and empower individuals, as well as groups. To understand and facilitate such empowerment, it is argued that it is necessary to move beyond Kohlberg's justice reasoning so as to appreciate the value and importance of feeling and care. Accordingly, we draw upon case study material to review the meaning of Kohlberg's higher stages -- 5, 6 and 7 -- to question the meaning of ethical 'reasoning'. With such deeper understanding of particular ethical codes or practices, it is thought that members of organisations may come closer to the spirit, as opposed to the letter, of ethical conduct in organisations. This, we argue, is consistent with the degree of trust and integrity demanded by leaner, post-bureaucratic ways of organizing and conducting business as well as being personally beneficial to the people involved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Chest compression duration influences outcome between integrated load-distributing band and manual CPR during cardiac arrest.

by Olsen, J.‐A., Lerner, E. B., Persse, D., Sterz, F., Lozano, M., Brouwer, M. A., Westfall, M., Grunsven, P. M., Travis, D. T., Herken, U. R., Brunborg, C., Wik, L. [2016-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Background: The Circulation Improving Resuscitation Care (CIRC) Trial found equivalent survival in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who received integrated load-distributing band CPR (iA-CPR) compared to manual CPR (M-CPR). We hypothesized that as chest compression duration increased, iA-CPR provided a survival benefit when compared to M-CPR.Methods: A pre-planned secondary analysis of OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology from the randomized CIRC trial. Chest compressions duration was defined as the total number of minutes spent on compressions during resuscitation and identified from transthoracic impedance and accelerometer data recorded by the EMS defibrillator. Logistic regression was used to model the interaction between treatment and duration of chest compressions and was covariate-adjusted for trial site, patient age, witnessed arrest, and initial shockable rhythm. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge.Results: We enrolled 4231 subjects and of those, 2012 iA-CPR and 2002 M-CPR had complete outcome and duration of chest compressions data. While covariate-adjusted odds ratio for survival to hospital discharge was 1.86 in favor of iA-CPR (95% CI 1.16-3.0), there was an interaction between duration and study arm. When this was factored into the multivariate equation, the odds ratio for survival to hospital discharge showed a significant benefit for iA-CPR vs. M-CPR for chest compression duration greater than 16.5 min.Conclusion: After adjusting for compression duration and duration-treatment interaction, iA-CPR showed a significant benefit for survival to hospital discharge vs. M-CPR in patients with OHCA if chest compression duration was longer than 16.5 min. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 20

This article delineates the individual and institutional challenges management faculty in African universities face in producing research that is relevant to the African context and also meets the growing expectation for international publications. We argue that faculty in Africa should and must do research not just for the sake of doing research, but this research should contribute to the knowledge economy, be relevant to the African context, and ensure students are educated through the use of empirical and theoretical research on local and continental management issues. An exploratory survey of 57 faculty members from 10 African countries (Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda) examines the extent of research funding, support, and incentives within their universities. Thus, suggestions are proffered as to what African universities and business schools, the business community, and governments should do to enhance research infrastructure, productivity, and quality. The article ends with a conclusion and a set of implications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Use of Online Panel Data in Management Research: A Review and Recommendations.

by Porter, Christopher O. L. H., Outlaw, Ryan, Gale, Jake P., Cho, Thomas S. [2019-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 26

Management scholars have long depended on convenience samples to conduct research involving human participants. However, the past decade has seen an emergence of a new convenience sample: online panels and online panel participants. The data these participants provide—online panel data (OPD)—has been embraced by many management scholars owing to the numerous benefits it provides over "traditional" convenience samples. Despite those advantages, OPD has not been warmly received by all. Currently, there is a divide in the field over the appropriateness of OPD in management scholarship. Our review takes aim at the divide with the goal of providing a common understanding of OPD and its utility and providing recommendations regarding when and how to use OPD and how and where to publish it. To accomplish these goals, we inventoried and reviewed OPD use across 13 management journals spanning 2006 to 2017. Our search resulted in 804 OPD-based studies across 439 articles. Notably, our search also identified 26 online panel platforms ("brokers") used to connect researchers with online panel participants. Importantly, we offer specific guidance to authors, reviewers, and editors, having implications for both micro and macro management scholars. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


"How to Do Things With Words": Mechanisms Bridging Language and Action in Management Research.

by Lockwood, Christi, Giorgi, Simona, Glynn, Mary Ann [2019-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 28

We review the past quarter century of literature linking language and action in management research published from 1993 through 2017. Different from recent in-depth reviews that focus narrowly on particular forms that words take, we look across these different kinds of word assemblages to uncover broad themes and mechanisms that link words with action outcomes in organizational settings. Classifying common conceptual approaches and prominent outcomes, we systematize and synthesize existing work on how to do things with words, identifying points of tension or contradiction as well as consistencies or overlaps across areas of research and methodologies. In addition, we go beyond typologies of how words are constructed to unearth how words function in the service of action; in so doing, we articulate three underlying mechanisms that connect words to action—resonance, enactment, and power—and discuss each. We end with a discussion of promising avenues for future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Challenge of leading in Javanese culture.

by Irawanto, Dodi W., Ramsey, Phil L., Ryan, James C. [2011-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 15

Scholars in the field of management and culture have developed paradigms regarding the importance of managing people across culture. While most scholars agree that culture plays a vital role in an organization, it has been recognized that research on the sub-cultures within a national culture that impact on an organization, is very limited. One example is the impact of Javanese culture in Indonesian organizations' environments. Indonesia is widely known as a multicultural country, with a population made up of people from approximately 364 ethnicities. Of these ethnicities, the Javanese have come to be recognized over time as the most culturally and politically dominant in Indonesia. The exploration of Javanese culture and its development over time are the central concerns of this article. The values central to Javanese culture are identified and the relationship between these values and Western perspectives of management practices such as communication, change management, and conflict management are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 24

The Department of Trade and Industry's 2003 strategy identifies 'Black Economic Empowerment' (BEE) as being broad-based, inclusive, and part of a sustainable long-term growth and development strategy. In this, it is consistent with the 2001 Black Economic Empowerment Commission report, the ANC 2002 conference resolution and ultimately the ANC's Reconstruction and Development Programme of 1994. We use firm-level information in the metals and engineering industries to examine the actual nature and extent of BEE across the dimensions of ownership, procurement, employment equity and training. Its aim is to examine the relationships between BEE concepts and provisions and the responses that firms took in practice. Direct pressure for BEE in metals and engineering firms arises from legislation and regulatory provisions governing employment equity, skills development and procurement. It also follows from procurement provisions applying to large companies that buy from metals and engineering firms, as well as to mining firms and State-Owned Enterprises such as Eskom and Transnet. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 8

In the procurement process the decisions of project teams determine if the potential of sustainable procurement is attained. To optimize this, project teams should be encouraged to adopt new behaviour. The academic literature awards an encouraging role to the change agent. A comparison of the role of change agents in seven Dutch public procurement projects shows that change agents play an important role in sustainable procurement projects and help project teams progress towards sustainable procurement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Roundtable statement on boards of directors.

by Andrews, Kenneth R. [1978-09-01]

Periodical

pages 7

The influential Business Roundtable has responded to current criticism of corporate boards in a carefully considered position statement that if fully implemented may someday be considered a landmark m the development of effective boards of directors. The urbanity of the report, however, obscures a number of difficult problems in board management. If these are not addressed by chief executive officers and independent directors, Mr. Andrews argues, this report will disappear into the literature of the subject and leave the pressure for additional regulation unrelieved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Is Management Training Effective?

by Andrews, Kenneth R. [1957-03-01]

Periodical

pages 10

"In providing the opportunity for an educational experience...we are interested less in change than in growth, and less in the similarity of end product than in individual progress." So says Kenneth R. Andrews in the second of his two articles on the question, Is Management Training Effective? Part 2, subtitled Measurement, Objectives, and Policy, stresses the "blending" of formal education programs with the total climate of the company and suggests that strict evaluation of classroom training may be irrelevant if this merger is successfully accomplished. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

In project management, and particularly software project management, there has been a shift from traditional plan based project management, to the agile event driven project management style. This paper identifies some of the most important agile practices a team should use, to succeed in an agile software project. Four participants in two different projects were interviewed. 53 often used practices were identified. 15 were found to be especially relevant in agile software projects. Six practices were related to quality, eight were related to scope and one was related to time. The results indicated that practices which improves customer feedback, helps the team to understand customer needs and improves the team process, are most likely to affect project success. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS.

by SOLOMON, IONELA GABRIELA, COSTEA, CARMEN, NIȚĂ, AUREL MIRCEA [2016-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Over time the concept of leadership was analyzed from different perspectives. Some of them refer to human relationships that are established under it, others are focus on management as a process. The article analyzes the evolution of the concept of leadership, the differences between management and leadership, and challenges that may arise in the management process within a public institution, namely public administration in Romania. This article aims aspects of leadership in public administration such as: the application of this concept in the decision-making process, and the changes that are taking place in a public organization. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Behavioral Ethics: A Critique and a Proposal.

by Ellertson, Carol, Ingerson, Marc-Charles, Williams, Richard [2016-09-22]

Academic Journal

pages 15

In behavioral ethics today, there is debate as to which theory of moral development is the best for understanding ethical decision making, thereby facilitating ethical behavior. This debate between behavioral ethicists has been profoundly influenced by the field of moral psychology. Unfortunately, in the course of this marriage between moral psychology and business ethics and subsequent internal debate, a simple but critical understanding of human being in the field of management has been obscured; i.e., that morality is not a secondary phenomenon arising out of something else. Therefore, in this paper, we will argue that there is a need in behavioral ethics to shift our understanding away from the influence of contemporary moral psychology and back to management theorist Ghoshal's (Acad Manag Learn Educ 4(1):75-91, 2005) view of what it means to be human in which the moral is fundamental. To assist in this labor, we will build on the philosophical work of Emmanuel Levinas who sees ethics, regardless of the setting, as a metaphysical concern. What this means is that Levinas sees the essential moral character of human life and the reality of human agency as ontologically fundamental, or constitutive of human nature itself. In other words, the ethical is the 'first cause' in regard to understanding the nature and action of the individual, including within organizations. Thus, morality in any sphere of human endeavor, including in business, is not merely epiphenomenal to some more fundamental reality. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Beyond Agency and Structure: Triple-Loop Learning.

by Yuthas, Kristi, Dillard, Jesse F., Rogers, Rodney K. [2004-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 15

With the demise of Andersen, LLP and new legislation that puts an end to self-governance in public accounting, the effectiveness of current models of accounting ethics have been seriously called into question. We argue that the profession suffers from fundamental limitations in its ethical framework that makes it impossible to effectively address ongoing ethical problems. The dominant representation of professional behavior is an agency model of ethics, in which the ultimate responsibility for identifying and dealing with ethical dilemmas resides with the individual. We argue that structural forces such as control over resources, meaning systems, and community norms and values also have a strong influence on the actions of accountants and that these must also be considered. The recent legitimation crisis has forced the accounting profession and its constituencies to begin to recognize and address the structural aspects of ethics as they enable and constrain action. We propose a framework based on structuration theory and learning theory that allows for systematic, multi-level investigation of the structural forces that cause ethical dilemmas to arise and to be recognized and that influence the manner in which they are analyzed and resolved. This framework should be capable of continual critique and reconfiguration as environmental conditions change. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 3

This article examines the non-executive director's role from a non-agency theory perspective, as indicated in the commentaries on the Higgs Report. In January of 2003, the British government published Derek Higgs' report on the role and effectiveness of non-executive directors on British corporate boards. Higgs commissioned three studies to collect and analyze data on British corporate boards to be used in his final report. One of those studies involved in-depth interviews with 40 board chairmen and non-executive directors, a task that was undertaken by the research team of Terry McNulty, John Roberts and Philip Stiles. There are several commentaries which represent some of the latest theoretical thinking from some of the brightest corporate governance scholars regarding issues of board effectiveness and the non-executive director. Annie Pye and Andrew Pettigrew considered the role played by context and how variations in context reveal differences in the dynamic interplay of practices, processes and performance over time. Ruth Aguilera's commentary follows with an essential and helpful international perspective on issues of board effectiveness. By examining governance innovation and the role played by independent directors in different countries, she is able to shed light on the pervasiveness of the independence paradox and its connection to the dynamics of a corporate board, regardless of national boundaries.


ESTIMATES OF THE SENSITIVITIES OF THE VALUE OF THE FIRM TO PROFITABILITY, GROWTH, AND CAPITAL INTENSITY.

by Miller, Tom W., Mathisen, Richard E., McAllister, John P. [2004-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

Value-based management systems concentrate on actions that generate value for the shareholders in the wealth creation process (Fisher 1995; Lieber 1996; Walbert 1994). This study focuses explicitly on profitability, growth, and capital intensity as drivers of the value of the firm by extending a free cash flow valuation model for the firm. The extended model is used to provide information about the sensitivities of the value of the firm to changes in the firm's profitability, growth, and capital intensity. These sensitivities are presented in terms of partial derivatives and dollar changes. The partial derivatives show the changes in the value of the firm resulting from a small change in the measures for profitability, growth, or capital intensity. Each dollar amount shows the dollar changes in the value of the firm resulting from a small change in the profitability, growth, or capital intensity measures. These sensitivities show the impact of changes in the profitability, growth, and capital intensity measures on the value of the firm. This information is valuable in helping managers predict the results of actions to improve the wealth generating ability of the firm by managing these value drivers more effectively (Lehn and Makhija 1996). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT BOOK AWARDS.

No author [1966-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 2

This article presents a list of books honored by the Academy of Management as the Best Books in Management for 1962-1965, including "The Management Profession," by Louis Allen, "Management Rights and Union Interests," by Margaret Chandler and "Management: Theory and Practice," by Ernest Dale.


TRANSFER PRICING OPTIMIZATION IN COMPLEX CAPITAL STRUCTURES.

by Kozłowska-Makóś, Danuta [2014-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 17

Complex capital structures are a particular organizational form of business entities in a developed market economy. An important element of their internal financial links are transfer prices. Transfer pricing policy affects in different ways the transactions made between related parties, and varies depending on the decisional discretion of individual responsibility centers. Managers of decision-making centers aim at determining such a transfer price which will enable them to achieve own benefits, which often leads to conflict of interests and individual aims with aims of whole complex capital structure. This article is an attempt to assess methods and principles of setting optimal transfer pricing from the view-point of internal decision-making centers' aims as well as whole complex capital structure with the assessment of its efficiency impact. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

The article focuses on the South West effect and issues pertinent to airlines. The traditional US network airlines are reportedly losing ground to low-cost airlines in operations and have experienced losses during the past 4 years. The low-cost airlines captured the entire market by dramatically increasing the volume of traffic, termed as "South West effect". Forced alliances, use of advanced systems to share costs and revenue could enhance network profits.


Academic Journal

pages 12

Mining operations are increasingly challenged to sustain and improve its profitability. Mineral Resource Throughput Management (MRTM) is showing immense promise to become a fit for use mining management and improvement methodology. Research indicated that the three dimensions of MRTM, namely physical and non-physical constraint management, product payability improvement and optimised decision-making are largely based on the theory of mechanistic and organic systems, the theory of constraints and chaos theory. It also enhances best practices in quality and mining operations management. Managing the impact of variable geology (variable ore and ore body morphology), mining (variable and changing process flow chains) and beneficiation (material compatibility) conditions as well as external variables on production within the MRTM context, mainly centres around understanding and predicting the correct flow behaviour of ore (physical and quality) in downstream processes and synchronisation of the total mining value chain. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]