Academic Journal

pages 21

Contemporary conceptualizations of organizational effectiveness are selectively reviewed. Dominant goal-based models are found deficient in providing evaluative criteria that apply to the organization as a whole, that permit comparison across organizations, and that point to an appropriate direction for organizational change. It is argued that a Barnardian participant-satisfaction model, augmented by a principle of social justice, provides a more useful framework for assessing organizational value? [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Three Traditions of Network Research: What the Public Management Research Agenda Can Learn from Other Research Communities.

by Berry, Frances S., Brower, Ralph S., Sang Ok Choi, Goa, Wendy Xinfang, HeeSoun Jang, Myungjung Kwon, Word, Jessica [2004-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

This article identifies and describes the development of three parallel streams of literature about network theory and research: social network analysis, policy change and political science networks, and public management networks. Noting that these traditions have sometimes been inattentive to each other's work, the authors illustrate the similarities and differences in the underlying theoretical assumptions, types of research questions addressed, and research methods typically employed by the three traditions. The authors draw especially on the social network analysis (sociological) tradition to provide theoretical and research insights for those who focus primarily on public management networks. The article concludes with recommendations for advancing current scholarship on public management networks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Ethical Leadership in Organisation in Transition.

by Yuhariprasetia, Yari [2013-02-01]

Conference

pages 6

Leaders play a prominent role in promoting ethics in organisations. Trevino, Hartman and Brown (2000) emphasise the importance of being a moral manager for a leader, as well as being a moral person. As an ethical leader, it is not enough to be a moral person, as it only "tells followers what the leader will do. It doesn't tell them what the leader expects them to do" (Trevino and Brown, 2004). A moral manager on the other hand is "one, who leads others on the ethical dimension, lets them know what is expected, and holds them accountable" (Trevino and Brown, 2004). A number of ways that moral managers can act have been identified (Trevino et al, 2000): to be a role model, to communicate the ethics, and to consistently employ reward system. Leadership has also been perceived as a key element in the ethics management implementation at the Indonesian tax administration. Such view was revealed from interviews and focus group discussions mainly conducted in the Directorate General of Taxes (DGT), the Indonesian tax administration. This paper identifies two other ways moral managers can carry out their role: to show a strong commitment and great concern, and to comfort and reinforce. These additional ways are seen as essential, particularly where ethics management is still at early stages of implementation. Furthermore, Trevino et al (2000) suggests four possibilities of moral person-moral manager combinations. One of which is a weak moral person-strong moral manager condition. In this regard, this paper is of the opinion that in the case of ethics management implementation in DGT, the two dimensions must not be seen as separable conditions. A strong moral person is part of, and the characteristics are a prerequisite to be, a strong moral manager.The research will contribute to the number of studies in ethics management in public sector conducted in developing countries. In Indonesian context, in which bureaucracy reform is currently taking place, the research will provide insights on the implementation of ethics management and will give feedbacks on it in public sector reforms in Indonesia. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 4

There is a need to develop reporting systems so that safety and quality of care for patients in the NHS are improved. This article will examine the theory of significant event audit to establish its importance in continued improvements to patient safety and professional development among all primary care staff, particularly nurses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Strategy and Structure in Managing Global Associations.

by Young, Dennis R., Koenig, Bonnie L., Najam, Adil, Fisher, Julie [1999-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 21

A key aspect of civil society worldwide is the emergence of thousands of nongovernmental organizations that operate on a global scale. The special challenges of organizing and managing these organizations include massive communications problems and the need to accommodate a wide diversity of interests. In this paper, we ask what kinds of organizational structures and management strategies are utilized by globally oriented nongovernmental organizations involved in the development of civil society, and we consider the advantages and disadvantages of alternative structures. From 15 case studies, we find that three principal types of structures are utilized: corporate partnerships, federations, and membership associations. We also find that management challenges are addressed in various creative ways within these structures, and that the federation form appears to be generally effective and avoids some of the risks associated with other forms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Evaluation and the information needs of organizational leaders.

by Owen, John M., Lambert, Faye C. [1998-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Conceptualizes key differences between management and leadership as a basis for suggesting ways in which evaluators might operate to serve the decision-making needs of organizational leaders. Changing roles for managers; Leadership versus management; Evaluation for leadership; Analysis of organizational culture.


Periodical

pages 7

The article discusses the difference between management and leadership in the context of American capability to compete in the global economy. British Petroleum America chief executive officer R. B. Horton is cited for pointing out the loss of control over economic factors in a world growing in uncertainty and complexity. The corporate vision of executives Jim Burke of Johnson & Johnson, John Scully of Apple and television producer Norman Lear is noted to be built on directing change.


LEADERSHIP: WHAT IF IT WAS ALL ABOUT THE LEADER?

by Williams, Kendrick, Essounga-Njan, Yvette [2011-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 2

This review explores a different angle of the art of leadership. It does not detract from the extant literature on leadership. However, the discussion expounds upon the theories that already exist and put a new turn on those theories. Leadership is often confused with management. There are individuals who would still believe because they are managers, they are essentially leaders as well. As commonly argued, it is possible for a manager to be a leader but the reverse is not always true. This review will discuss the differences between management and leadership, exploring the reasons for such differences. In addition, this discussion is making the case that leadership, despite the style exercised, is contingent upon the person exercising leadership. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Leadership for service improvement.

by Taylor, Vicki [2007-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

The article explains the different approaches to leadership in nursing profession. Many studies have found that nurses want their managers to be available for them, and to support them as they develop their practices. The ability of leaders to balance the demands of the tasks at hand and their relationships with colleagues is called situational approach to leadership. Differences between management and leadership is discussed.


Management and Leadership in Business.

by BONTAŞ, Dumitru [2012-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

The paper contains the results of research on approaches to the topic of interest in management and leadership in business. Comments and opinions are submitted internationally by renowned authors, whose works have been published in recent years in Romania. By summarizing these results it is highlighted the similarities and differences between management and leadership processes, defining the stages of change taking place in the context of competition generated by creativity and innovation in the competitive international markets [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


SAFETY MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP SYSTEMS.

by Usrey, Cary [2014-06-01]

Periodical

pages 2

The article focuses on the role of safety leadership systems to keep employees safe. It mentions the function of safety management in keeping people safe as it needs to be effective and comprehensive. It cites the differences the differences between safety management and safety leadership, which include alignment, direction, personal qualities, and outcomes.


Academic Journal

pages 15

Although it is suggested that an important role for codes of ethics is to influence decision making, the little research into the impact of codes of ethics on decisions finds little impact. Insights from information economics help to explain this. If an individual will select (forego) the action that a code of ethics indicates to be ethical (unethical) in the absence of a code, then expressing that position in a code of ethics will have no impact on the action chosen. Even if the individual will select (forego) the action that a code of ethics indicates to be unethical (ethical) in the absence of a code, the presence of a statement in the code of ethics must cause the individual's beliefs to change enough so that he or she changes actions. This can be a fairly high obstacle. Enforcement provisions can increase the likelihood that an individual will select (forego) the action that a code of ethics indicates to be ethical (unethical). There are limits, however, as to how effective enforcement provisions can be. Therefore, although there may be other important goals for a code of ethics, having an impact on decision making is one that is often difficult to achieve. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


WHAT THE CATASTROPHIST HERESY CAN TEACH PUBLIC OFFICIALS.

by Roberts, Patrick S. [2007-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 21

Marxist "catastrophism" offers a way to cope with increasing disaster losses. Catastrophism is one interpretation of Marx that claims social revolution will occur when capitalism collapses under the weight of its own contradictions and society descends into chaos. Catastrophist theory should provoke managers to ask what they can learn from the possibility of the collapse of civilization. If increasing disaster losses and eventual collapse are inevitable in capitalist society, good managers and good citizens should not throw up their hands but rather attempt to ameliorate the root causes of catastrophe and, when it occurs, to relieve suffering as much a possible and strengthen local government and face-to-face community participation. A close reading of catastrophist theory leads to the conclusion that addressing the social roots of vulnerability by increasing the capacities of vulnerable populations and strengthening local community participations will best address the causes and consequences of catastrophe. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Communication Problems in Management.

by Odine, Maurice [2015-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Management can only thrive in the prevalence of communication. Indeed, the present paper is timely. A 2002 survey of 1,104 employees of organizations in the United States showed that, while managers spend 60 to 80 percent of their time on operational communication, only 17 percent said their managers communicated effectively. Thus, every possible constructive measure must be taken to disentangle areas that stand in the way of effective communication within a given business organization. Efforts must be exhausted to create a business environment in which managers and staff pay close attention to the conceptualization and dissemination of communication media and the messages they transmit. Since the desired purpose of transmitting information from sender to receiver is effective communication, the paper will review pertinent literature to ascertain harbors of problems that result in communication problems in management. To this end, the paper intends to examine attitudes of senders that generate poor and/or ineffective communication; investigate media choices that are inappropriate in certain communication instances; consider cultural/gender insensitive implications prevalent in management communication; as well as the importance of placing the receiver at the center when designing information or messages to be transmitted. In addition, the proposed paper intends to analyze management communication mistakes, such as making controversial announcements, lying [sic], ignoring the realities of power, underestimating the intelligence of the receiver or audience, using inappropriate media or channels of communication, and ignoring to admit mistakes. It is a truism that, 60 percent of corporate public relations effort is devoted to internal communication, which is a reflection that good communication is at the heart of every productive workplace. The paper's objective is to produce a document that chronicles not only missteps in management communication, but also to advance ways of creating awareness and to forge management policies that foster good and effective communication in a business environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 19

This study investigated the relationships among firm performance, international markets, international product strategy, and the international integration of marketing activities. Performance was operationalized using sales growth and return on investment. Hypotheses were tested on the relationship between a firm's performance and (1) the match between its international product strategy and the international market served, and (2) the match between its international product strategy and the international integration of its marketing activities. These hypotheses were supported when sales growth was used as a dependent variable. No statistically significant relationship was found between either match and return on investment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Men's and Women's Perceptions of the Gender Typing of Management Subroles.

by Atwater, Leanne E., Brett, Joan F., Waldman, David, DiMare, Lesley, Hayden, Mary Virginia [2004-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which subroles inherent in managerial positions are gender-typed and whether men or women engage in relatively more gender typing of managerial roles. We obtained perceptions of 19 management subroles from 263 business students in the United States Results confirmed predictions that some subroles are viewed as more feminine in nature whereas other subroles are perceived as more masculine. Male respondents saw most subroles as more masculine in nature than did female respondents. Results are discussed in terms of implications for researchers studying management, as well as for managers in the workplace. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

The present studies sought to investigate what kind of stereotypes are used in Sweden to describe male and female managers, and whether gender-neutral characteristics are used in the description of requisite management characteristics. In Study 1, participants answered open-ended questions on good, bad, female and male management. Requisite management characteristics showed a greater resemblance to the descriptions of female managers than male. In Study 2, female managers were rated more positively than men, and attributes ascribed to men in Study 1 were considered just as descriptive of women. Although participants described female managers more positively than male, responses often implied a norm of men as managers. In this way, prescriptive aspects of the stereotype may still work against female managers, despite the more feminine description of management. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Gender-typing of leadership: Evaluations of real and ideal managers.

by Cuadrado, Isabel, García‐Ael, Cristina, Molero, Fernando [2015-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

This research focuses on female underrepresentation in managerial positions. Specifically, two studies examine gender-typing for managerial roles in Spain using ratings for real and ideal managers. In addition, we analyse the existence of same-gender bias on evaluations of the behavior of actual leaders. In the first study, 195 Spanish workers evaluate the extent to which gender-stereotypical traits are important for becoming a successful middle manager in three conditions (female managers, male managers, and managers in general). In the second study, we explore the degree to which the behavior of real Spanish managers is gender-typed and the existence of same-gender bias on leadership styles - transformational, transactional and avoidant/passive - and on leadership outcomes - effectiveness, extra effort and satisfaction - from the perspective of subordinates ( N = 605). Overall, the results demonstrate that masculine characteristics were rated as more important than feminine characteristics for managerial positions, and they were more often assigned to male managers than to female managers. Unexpectedly, this manager-male association is stronger among female participants than among male participants. Our findings also demonstrate that women subordinates evaluate their same-sex supervisors more favorably in transformational leadership, effectiveness, and extra effort. The negative consequences derived from gender-typing managerial positions are highlighted according to the role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. The positive effects of in-group female bias on behavior ratings are also noted. The mixed implications of these results for women's advancement to leadership positions are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 10

Project management is a course of action based on a rigorous plan to achieve certain objectives formulated as clearly as possible in a limited time and resources limi ing. the terms and simple project management means work, guided by a rigorous plan. The extent of project management as a way to support economică competition, respond economic environment increasingly more demanding has led to a new type of organization - organization centered projects. if such an organization, performance is no longer measured, for example, depending on organizational soundness, but on the ability to adapt to projects and depending on the consistency of the project portfolio. This is a competition continues to attract existing resources based on relizării and completion of projects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning Processes on E-Learning Outcomes in Organizational Settings.

by Wan, Zeying, Compeau, Deborah, Haggerty, Nicole [2012-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 34

This paper focuses on employees' e-learning processes during online job training. A new categorization of self-regulated learning strategies, that is, personal versus social learning strategies, is proposed, and measurement scales are developed. The new measures were tested using data collected from employees in a large company. Our approach provides context-relevant insights into online training providers and employees themselves. The results suggest that learners adopt different self-regulated learning strategies resulting in different e-learning outcomes. Furthermore, the use of self-regulated learning strategies is influenced by individual factors such as virtual competence and goal orientation, and job and contextual factors such as intellectual demand and cooperative norms. The findings can (1) help e-learners obtain better learning outcomes through their active use of varied learning strategies, (2) provide useful information for organizations that are currently using or plan to use e-learning for training, and (3) inform software designers to integrate self-regulated learning strategy support in e-learning system design and development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]