Disentangling factors that shape the gut microbiota in German Shepherd dogs.

by Vilson, Åsa, Ramadan, Ziad, Li, Qinghong, Hedhammar, Åke, Reynolds, Arleigh, Spears, Julie, Labuda, Jeff, Pelker, Robyn, Björkstén, Bengt, Dicksved, Johan, Hansson-Hamlin, Helene [2018-03-23]

Academic Journal

pages 16

The aim of this study was to explore the development of the gut microbiota in 168 German Shepherd dogs (30 litters) from 7 weeks to 18 months of age and furthermore, to study the effect of relatedness, maternal microbiota composition and living environment in a large and well-defined population of dogs. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we assessed the effects of pre- and postnatal probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (La1)) and analysed whether administration of the probiotic strain influenced fecal microbiota composition in a placebo controlled double-blinded study. The bitches were treated with probiotics or placebo during last trimester of pregnancy and until their puppies were 8 weeks old, the puppies received the same treatment as their mothers between 3–12 weeks of age. Samples from bitches were collected at pregnancy day 42, partum, 4 weeks postpartum and 7 weeks postpartum and from puppies at the age 4 weeks, 7 weeks, 12–13 months and 15–18 months. Serum IgA, total serum IgE, fecal IgA and IgG antibody responses against canine distemper virus were analysed by ELISA in order to detect any immune stimulating effects of the probiotic strain. Analysis of the fecal microbiota composition showed that the predominant phyla were the same in 7 weeks old puppies as in pregnant and lactating bitches (Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes). Proportions among different bacteria as well as diversity varied from 7 weeks old puppies up to 15–18 months of age. Litter mates had a more similar fecal microbiota compared to unrelated dogs and 7 weeks old puppies were more similar to their mothers than to unrelated bitches at 7 weeks postpartum but not at partum. We observed a change in the relative abundance of different bacteria during lactation, and an increase in diversity from pregnancy to end of lactation. The microbial diversity was affected by living area where dogs living in big cities had higher diversity compared to dogs living at the countryside. However, we were not able to demonstrate an effect by pre and postnatal exposure to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (La1) upon the diversity or composition of the microbiota or the levels of serum IgA, total serum IgE, fecal IgA or vaccine response. Our findings provide a better understanding of the canine fecal microbiota in growing dogs as well as in pregnant and lactating bitches. This information forms a basis for further research on the connection between early gut colonization and immune function later in life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Nitrate addition has minimal short-term impacts on greenland ice sheet supraglacial prokaryotes.

by Cameron, Karen A., Stibal, Marek, Chrismas, Nathan, Box, Jason, Jacobsen, Carsten S. [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist. Estimated bulk and active cryoconite community cell abundance was unaltered by nitrate additions when compared to control holes using a quantitative PCR approach, and nitrate was found to have a minimal affect on the dominant 16S rRNA gene-based community composition. Together, these results indicate that sampled cryoconite communities were not nitrate limited at the time of sampling. Instead, temporal changes in biomass and community composition were more pronounced. As these in situ incubations were short (6 weeks), and the community composition across GrIS surface ice is highly variable, we suggest that further efforts should be considered to investigate the potential long-term impacts of increased nitrate across the GrIS. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in South Africa: Implications for public health.

by Foka, Frank E. Tatsing, Kumar, Ajay, Ateba, Collins N. [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

The article focuses on the threat to public health in South Africa caused due to the vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs), which creates various health problems by transmitting their resistance genes to susceptible pathogens. It discusses the prevalence of VRE in in water, food items, farming and agriculture. It mentions the current management of antimicrobial resistance with some recommendations on how to tackle the issue of vancomycin resistance genes in South Africa .


Oak killer leaves scientists foxed.

No author [2008-09-04]

Periodical

pages unknown

The article reports on the investigation by British scientists on a mysterious killer disease attacking oaks. Forestry Commission scientists asserted that the infection leads to massive stem bleeding and acute oak decline. Scientists need to conduct further studies that will take months or years to identify particular species of the bacteria found in the infected oaks.


Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity.

by Roesch, Luiz F. W., Fulthorpe, Roberta R., Riva, Alberto, Casella, George, Hadwin, Alison K. M., Kent, Angela D., Daroub, Samira H., Camargo, Flavio A. O., Farmerie, William G., Triplett, Eric W. [2007-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Estimates of the number of species of bacteria per gram of soil vary between 2000 and 8.3 million (Gans et al., 2005; Schloss and Handelsman, 2006). The highest estimate suggests that the number may be so large as to be impractical to test by amplification and sequencing of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene from soil DNA (Gans et al., 2005). Here we present the use of high throughput DNA pyrosequencing and statistical inference to assess bacterial diversity in four soils across a large transect of the western hemisphere. The number of bacterial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from each site varied from 26 140 to 53 533. The most abundant bacterial groups in all four soils were the Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Using three estimators of diversity, the maximum number of unique sequences (operational taxonomic units roughly corresponding to the species level) never exceeded 52 000 in these soils at the lowest level of dissimilarity. Furthermore, the bacterial diversity of the forest soil was phylum rich compared to the agricultural soils, which are species rich but phylum poor. The forest site also showed far less diversity of the Archaea with only 0.009% of all sequences from that site being from this group as opposed to 4%–12% of the sequences from the three agricultural sites. This work is the most comprehensive examination to date of bacterial diversity in soil and suggests that agricultural management of soil may significantly influence the diversity of bacteria and archaea.The ISME Journal (2007) 1, 283–290; doi:10.1038/ismej.2007.53; published online 5 July 2007 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

RNA

Academic Journal

pages 10

Nucleic acid separation is an increasingly important tool for molecular biology. Before modern technologies could be used, nucleic acid separation had been a time- and work-consuming process based on several extraction and centrifugation steps, often limited by small yields and low purities of the separation products, and not suited for automation and up-scaling. During the last few years, specifically functionalised magnetic particles were developed. Together with an appropriate buffer system, they allow for the quick and efficient purification directly after their extraction from crude cell extracts. Centrifugation steps were avoided. In addition, the new approach provided for an easy automation of the entire process and the isolation of nucleic acids from larger sample volumes. This review describes traditional methods and methods based on magnetic particles for nucleic acid purification. The synthesis of a variety of magnetic particles is presented in more detail. Various suppliers of magnetic particles for nucleic acid separation as well as suppliers offering particle-based kits for a variety of different sample materials are listed. Furthermore, commercially available manual magnetic separators and automated systems for magnetic particle handling and liquid handling are mentioned. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Arrays and Medical Microbiology.

by Versalovic, James [2009-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

The article focuses on medical microbiology. It discusses the importance of integrating molecular data to direct change in medicine and presents the limitations of strategies in diagnostic microbiology. It also cites the significance of array-based testing in molecular diagnostics for pathologists along with the application of global molecular diagnostic strategies in oncology, pharmacogenomics, and other areas.


Academic Journal

pages 4

Discusses the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the "Journal of Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology." Journal's reflection of the potential of scientific results in the fields of microbiology, biochemistry and biotechnology for practical application; Authors published in the journal; Journal's elucidation of works on the biochemical fundamentals of plant immunity; Articles awarded with various prizes.


Electroendocytosis Is Driven by the Binding of Electrochemically Produced Protons to the Cell's Surface.

by Ben-Dov, Nadav, Rozman Grinberg, Inna, Korenstein, Rafi [2012-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Electroendocytosis involves the exposure of cells to pulsed low electric field and is emerging as a complementary method to electroporation for the incorporation of macromolecules into cells. The present study explores the underlying mechanism of electroendocytosis and its dependence on electrochemical byproducts formed at the electrode interface. Cell suspensions were exposed to pulsed low electric field in a partitioned device where cells are spatially restricted relative to the electrodes. The cellular uptake of dextran-FITC was analyzed by flow cytometery and visualized by confocal microscopy. We first show that uptake occurs only in cells adjacent to the anode. The enhanced uptake near the anode is found to depend on electric current density rather than on electric field strength, in the range of 5 to 65 V/cm. Electrochemically produced oxidative species that impose intracellular oxidative stress, do not play any role in the stimulated uptake. An inverse dependence is found between electrically induced uptake and the solution's buffer capacity. Electroendocytosis can be mimicked by chemically acidifying the extracellular solution which promotes the enhanced uptake of dextran polymers and the uptake of plasmid DNA. Electrochemical production of protons at the anode interface is responsible for inducing uptake of macromolecules into cells exposed to a pulsed low electric field. Expanding the understanding of the mechanism involved in electric fields induced drug-delivery into cells, is expected to contribute to clinical therapy applications in the future. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 17

The goal of modern taxonomy is to understand the relationships of living organisms in terms of evolutionary descent. Thereby, the relationships between living organisms are understood in terms of nested clades-every time a speciation event takes place, two new clades are produced. Life comprises three domains of living organisms, these are the Bacteria, the Archaea and the Eukaryota. Within the eukaryotic domain, the fungi form a monophyletic group of the eukaryotic crown group and are thus high up in the evolutionary hierarchy of life. Fungus-like organisms possess certain morphological features of fungi, such as the hyphal organization of the Oomycota or the spores and reproductive structures inside a fructification of plasmodiophorids (Plasmodiophoromycota) and slime moulds (Mycetozoa). The first group are algae which secondarily lost their plastids during evolution and contain cellulose in their cell walls. Both osmotrophic phyla, the Oomycota and the Plasmidiophoromycota belong to the Chromista and Rhizaria, respectively, whereas the last group, the cellular and plasmodial slime moulds (Mycetozoa) are phagotrophic amoeboid protists belonging to the Amoebozoa. These fungus-like organisms are not considered further in this review. The Fungi sensu stricto comprise a heterogenous, often inconspicuous group of microorganisms which (1) are primarily heterotrophic with an (2) osmotrophic style of nutrition containing (3) chitin and its derivatives in the cell wall. This review discusses species concepts and current strategies in fungal taxonomy, phylogenetic affiliations of miscellaneous fungus-like groups like the microsporidia, perspectives of fungal nomenclature, and their impact on natural product research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Evolution of the sex-Related Locus and Genomic Features Shared in Microsporidia and Fungi.

by Soo Chan Lee, Corradi, Nicolas, Doan, Sylvia, Dietrich, Fred S., Keeling, Patrick J., Heitman, Joseph [2010-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Background: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic pathogens that infect a wide range of animals from nematodes to humans, and in some cases, protists. The preponderance of evidence as to the origin of the microsporidia reveals a close relationship with the fungi, either within the kingdom or as a sister group to it. Recent phylogenetic studies and gene order analysis suggest that microsporidia share a particularly close evolutionary relationship with the zygomycetes. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we expanded this analysis and also examined a putative sex-locus for variability between microsporidian populations. Whole genome inspection reveals a unique syntenic gene pair (RPS9-RPL21) present in the vast majority of fungi and the microsporidians but not in other eukaryotic lineages. Two other unique gene fusions (glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase and ubiquitin-ribosomal subunit S30) that are present in metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filasterean opisthokonts are unfused in the fungi and microsporidians. One locus previously found to be conserved in many microsporidian genomes is similar to the sex locus of zygomycetes in gene order and architecture. Both sex-related and sex loci harbor TPT, HMG, and RNA helicase genes forming a syntenic gene cluster. We sequenced and analyzed the sexrelated locus in 11 different Encephalitozoon cuniculi isolates and the sibling species E. intestinalis (3 isolates) and E. hellem (1 isolate). There was no evidence for an idiomorphic sex-related locus in this Encephalitozoon species sample. According to sequence-based phylogenetic analyses, the TPT and RNA helicase genes flanking the HMG genes are paralogous rather than orthologous between zygomycetes and microsporidians. Conclusion/Significance: The unique genomic hallmarks between microsporidia and fungi are independent of sequence based phylogenetic comparisons and further contribute to define the borders of the fungal kingdom and support the classification of microsporidia as unusual derived fungi. And the sex/sex-related loci appear to have been subject to frequent gene conversion and translocations in microsporidia and zygomycetes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 13

Microbiology, developed in the decades before the First World War, encouraged a particular vision of disease and human social relationships. Some of the consequences of that can be seen in the way in which the Central Powers engaged with Romania during combat operations and during the occupation. Much as with colonial approaches to disease in tropical Africa, parasitology encouraged Germans to focus on bacteria and vectors of disease rather than on social relations or indigenous humans. As a consequence, medical care was segregated: it focused on protecting occupiers, and encouraged Germans to construct Romania and Romanians as colonial. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Effect of adjuncts on sensory properties and consumer liking of Scamorza cheese.

by Braghieri, A., Piazzolla, N., Romaniello, A., Paladino, F., Ricciardi, A., Napolitano, F. [2015-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 13

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a peptidolytic adjunct (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus paracasei), as a tool to accelerate ripening, on sensory properties and acceptability of Scamorza cheese obtained using 2 types of milk (Friesian and Friesian + Jersey) and Streptococcus thermophilus as primary starter. A 10-member panel was trained using a specific frame of references and used a specific vocabulary to assess cheese sensory properties through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), whereas 87 consumers were used to evaluate product acceptability. Analysis of variance showed that milk type did not markedly alter cheese sensory properties. Conversely, panelists perceived higher intensities of butter, saltiness, and sweetness flavors in cheese without adjunct culture (ST), whereas the addition of the adjunct culture (ST+A) induced higher and sourness flavors, oiliness and grainy textures, and lower adhesiveness, moisture, springiness, and tenderness. Principal component analysis showed positive relationships between pH and tenderness, sweetness and saltiness and a negative correlation between pH and grainy, oiliness, color and structure uniformity, sourness, and milk. Most of the differences observed in QDA and most of the relationships observed in the principal component analysis were linked to the higher microbial activity induced by the adjunct culture. Independently of milk and starter types, consumers perceived Scamorza cheese as characterized by a good eating quality (mean liking scores were all above the neutral point of the hedonic scale). Although ST cheeses showed higher values for overall liking, 2 homogeneous groups of consumers were identified using partial least squares regression analysis. One group preferred ST cheeses with higher levels of tenderness, adhesiveness, springiness, and moisture in terms of texture, butter in terms of flavor, and sweetness in terms of taste, whereas a second group preferred ST+A products characterized by specific attributes of texture (cohesiveness and oiliness), flavor (milk), taste (sourness), and appearance (structure and color uniformity). We conclude that further studies for the development of short-ripened products based on the use of adjunct cultures should be conducted to promote product differentiation and meet the sensory requirements of particular segments of consumers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

by Johnson, M. E. [2017-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and Syphilis (EMTCT): Process, progress, and program integration.

by Taylor, Melanie, Newman, Lori, Ishikawa, Naoko, Laverty, Maura, Hayashi, Chika, Ghidinelli, Massimo, Pendse, Razia, Khotenashvili, Lali, Essajee, Shaffiq [2017-06-27]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Melanie Taylor and colleagues discuss progress towards eliminating vertical transmission of HIV and syphilis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Structural basis of nectin-1 recognition by pseudorabies virus glycoprotein D.

by Li, An, Lu, Guangwen, Qi, Jianxun, Wu, Lili, Tian, Kegong, Luo, Tingrong, Shi, Yi, Yan, Jinghua, Gao, George F. [2017-05-19]

Academic Journal

pages 19

An early and yet indispensable step in the alphaherpesvirus infection is the engagement of host receptors by the viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Of the thus-far identified gD receptors, nectin-1 is likely the most effective in terms of its wide usage by multiple alphaherpesviruses for cell entry. The molecular basis of nectin-1 recognition by the gD protein is therefore an interesting scientific question in the alphaherpesvirus field. Previous studies focused on the herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the Simplexvirus genus, for which both the free gD structure and the gD/nectin-1 complex structure were reported at high resolutions. The structural and functional features of other alphaherpesviral gDs, however, remain poorly characterized. In the current study, we systematically studied the characteristics of nectin-1 binding by the gD of a Varicellovirus genus member, the pseudorabies virus (PRV). We first showed that PRV infects host cells via both human and swine nectin-1, and that its gD exhibits similar binding affinities for nectin-1 of the two species. Furthermore, we demonstrated that removal of the PRV gD membrane-proximal residues could significantly increase its affinity for the receptor binding. The structures of PRV gD in the free and the nectin-1-bound states were then solved, revealing a similar overall 3D fold as well as a homologous nectin-1 binding mode to its HSV counterpart. However, several unique features were observed at the binding interface of PRV gD, enabling the viral ligand to utilize different gD residues (from those of HSV) for nectin-1 engagement. These observed binding characteristics were further verified by the mutagenesis study using the key-residue mutants of nectin-1. The structural and functional data obtained in this study, therefore, provide the basis of receptor recognition by PRV gD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Proficiency testing program providers respond to client concerns.

by Earley, Marie C., Astles, J. Rex [2016-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

The article presents the perspectives of proficiency testing (PT) program providers and clinical laboratory professionals to client concerns. Issues and concerns tackled are the influence of laboratory professionals on PT programs, role of PT providers in evaluating sample material performance, quality of microbiology PT, grading of PT laboratories, differences in providers' reporting, turnaround times for PT scores, and differences in costs of PT modules.


Microbiology and Chemistry for Environmental Scientists and Engineers

by Lester, J. N., Birkett, J. W. [1999-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

Biological and chemical processes play a key role in the treatment of domestic wastewater and are becoming increasingly important in tackling the problems caused by industrial wastes. The first edition of this popular text focused on microbial systems and wastewater processes that are implemented in a treatment plant. While maintaining this approach, this revised edition also incorporates components that cover the fundamental aspects of inorganic and organic chemistry relating to water treatment and pollution.Microbiology and Chemistry for Environmental Scientists and Engineers provides the reader with an understanding of the complex biological and chemical issues involved in environmental science and engineering. A chapter on water quality includes the revised chemical and microbiological standards, which will come into force under the new EC drinking water directive. Chemical aspects of water pollution emphasise some of the most dangerous chemical substances prevalent in the environment today.This book will be a valuable addition to the library of practising environmental engineers and scientists, and an essential text for undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in environmental, civil and public health engineering.


Microbiology in Action

by Heritage, J., Evans, E. G. V., Killington, R. A. [1999-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

Microbes play an important role in our everyday lives. As agents of infectious disease they cause untold human misery, yet their beneficial activities are manifold, ranging from the natural cycling of chemical elements through to the production of food, beverages and pharmaceuticals. In this introductory level text the authors provide a clear and accessible account of the interactions between microbes, their environment and other organisms, using examples of both beneficial and adverse activities. The book begins by considering beneficial activities, focusing on environmental microbiology and manufacturing, and then moves on to consider some of the more adverse aspects, particularly the myriad of diseases to which we are susceptible and the treatments currently in use. This book is the companion to Introductory Microbiology, also published in this series, and is essential reading for biological science and medical undergraduates, as well as being of interest to sixth form students and their teachers.


Microbiology for the Analytical Chemist

by Dart, R. K. [1996-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

Analytical chemists in industry are frequently faced with situations where a basic understanding of microbiology would be an advantage, for instance in the analysis of bacteria in food. Microbiology for the Analytical Chemist has been written specifically for analytical chemists who have little or no knowledge of microbiology, but might be required to interpret microbiological results. This book covers a wide range of microbiological situations in analysis. It deals with the question of establishing when a sample is contaminated, the problems of counting and identifying micro-organisms and establishing what effect they will have on the sample. The book examines the microbial contents of water and food. It also looks at the procedures for disinfecting and preservative testing. Traditional laboratory methods are discussed, and new rapid techniques are also considered. Microbiology for the Analytical Chemist is unusual in that it pulls together those aspects of microbiology which are of interest to analytical chemists and explains them at a basic level using practical situations as examples. This book will also be of interest to analytical chemists in academic or industrial laboratories, where there is no fund of microbiological experience to draw on.


The Periplasm

by Ehrmann, Michael [2007-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

Provides a thorough, state-of-the-art review of the periplasm, the extracytoplasmic compartment found in gram-negative bacteria.


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Is Increasing in Norway: A Time Series Analysis of Reported MRSA and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Cases, 1997–2010.

by Moxnes, John F., de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben, Leegaard, Truls Michael, Moen, Aina E. Fossum [2013-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: Accurate estimates of the incidence and prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are needed to inform public health policies. In Norway, where both MRSA infection and carriage are notifiable conditions, the reported incidence of MRSA is slowly increasing. However, the proportion of MRSA in relation to all S. aureus isolates is unknown, making it difficult to determine if the rising incidence is real or an artifact of an increasing number of tests performed. Aim: To characterize recent trends in MRSA infections and obtain a more complete understanding of the MRSA level in Norway. Methods: All reported cases of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from Oslo County (1997–2010) and Health Region East (2008–2008), representing approximately 11% and 36% of the Norwegian population, respectively, were analyzed using a stochastic time series analysis to characterize trends. Results: In Oslo County, the proportion of methicillin-resistant cases increased from 0.73% to 3.78% during the study period and was well modeled by an exponential growth with a doubling constant of 5.7 years (95% CI 4.5–7.4 years). In Health Region East, the proportion of MRSA cases increased from 0.4% to 2.1% from 2002 to 2008, with a best-fitting linear increase of 0.26% (95% CI 0.21–0.30%) per year. In both cases, the choice of a linear or exponential model for the time trend produced only marginally different model fits. We found no significant changes due to revised national MRSA guidelines published in June 2009. Significant variations in the increasing time trend were observed in the five hospitals within the region. The yearly reported incidence of MSSA was relatively stable in both study areas although we found seasonal patterns with peaks in August. Conclusion: The level of MRSA is increasing in Norway, and the proportion of methicillin resistance in all S. aureus isolates are higher than the reported proportion of MRSA in invasive infections. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Is Increasing in Norway: A Time Series Analysis of Reported MRSA and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Cases, 1997–2010.

by Moxnes, John F., de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben, Leegaard, Truls Michael, Moen, Aina E. Fossum [2013-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: Accurate estimates of the incidence and prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are needed to inform public health policies. In Norway, where both MRSA infection and carriage are notifiable conditions, the reported incidence of MRSA is slowly increasing. However, the proportion of MRSA in relation to all S. aureus isolates is unknown, making it difficult to determine if the rising incidence is real or an artifact of an increasing number of tests performed. Aim: To characterize recent trends in MRSA infections and obtain a more complete understanding of the MRSA level in Norway. Methods: All reported cases of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from Oslo County (1997–2010) and Health Region East (2008–2008), representing approximately 11% and 36% of the Norwegian population, respectively, were analyzed using a stochastic time series analysis to characterize trends. Results: In Oslo County, the proportion of methicillin-resistant cases increased from 0.73% to 3.78% during the study period and was well modeled by an exponential growth with a doubling constant of 5.7 years (95% CI 4.5–7.4 years). In Health Region East, the proportion of MRSA cases increased from 0.4% to 2.1% from 2002 to 2008, with a best-fitting linear increase of 0.26% (95% CI 0.21–0.30%) per year. In both cases, the choice of a linear or exponential model for the time trend produced only marginally different model fits. We found no significant changes due to revised national MRSA guidelines published in June 2009. Significant variations in the increasing time trend were observed in the five hospitals within the region. The yearly reported incidence of MSSA was relatively stable in both study areas although we found seasonal patterns with peaks in August. Conclusion: The level of MRSA is increasing in Norway, and the proportion of methicillin resistance in all S. aureus isolates are higher than the reported proportion of MRSA in invasive infections. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery: defining a model for antimicrobial stewardship--results from an international cross-sectional survey.

by Sartelli, Massimo, Labricciosa, Francesco M., Barbadoro, Pamela, Pagani, Leonardo, Ansaloni, Luca, Brink, Adrian J., Carlet, Jean, Khanna, Ashish, Chichom-Mefire, Alain, Coccolini, Federico, Di Saverio, Salomone, May, Addison K., Viale, Pierluigi, Watkins, Richard R., Scudeller, Luigia, Abbo, Lilian M., Abu-Zidan, Fikri M., Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid K., Al-Dahir, Sara, Al-Hasan, Majdi N. [2017-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Background: Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) have been promoted to optimize antimicrobial usage and patient outcomes, and to reduce the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. However, the best strategies for an ASP are not definitively established and are likely to vary based on local culture, policy, and routine clinical practice, and probably limited resources in middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate structures and resources of antimicrobial stewardship teams (ASTs) in surgical departments from different regions of the world. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in 2016 on 173 physicians who participated in the AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections) project and on 658 international experts in the fields of ASPs, infection control, and infections in surgery. Results: The response rate was 19.4%. One hundred fifty-six (98.7%) participants stated their hospital had a multidisciplinary AST. The median number of physicians working inside the team was five [interquartile range 4-6]. An infectious disease specialist, a microbiologist and an infection control specialist were, respectively, present in 80.1, 76.3, and 67.9% of the ASTs. A surgeon was a component in 59.0% of cases and was significantly more likely to be present in university hospitals (89.5%, p < 0.05) compared to community teaching (83.3%) and community hospitals (66.7%). Protocols for pre-operative prophylaxis and for antimicrobial treatment of surgical infections were respectively implemented in 96.2 and 82.3% of the hospitals. The majority of the surgical departments implemented both persuasive and restrictive interventions (72.8%). The most common types of interventions in surgical departments were dissemination of educational materials (62.5%), expert approval (61.0%), audit and feedback (55.1%), educational outreach (53.7%), and compulsory order forms (51.5%). Conclusion: The survey showed a heterogeneous organization of ASPs worldwide, demonstrating the necessity of a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach in the battle against antimicrobial resistance in surgical infections, and the importance of educational efforts towards this goal. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]