by Whipple, Mark E., Law, Anthony B., Bly, Randall A. [2019-02-01]
The residency match process for competitive specialties hinders programs' ability to holistically review applications. A computer simulation model of the residency application process was created to test the hypotheses that (1) it is advantageous to medical students to apply to the maximum number of programs under the current system, and (2) including a medical student's residency program preferences at the beginning of the application process improves the efficiency of the system for applicants and programs as quantified by the number of interview invitations received. The study was conducted in 2016 using 2014 Otolaryngology Match data. A computer model was created to perform simulations for multiple scenarios to test the hypotheses. Students were assigned scores representing easy and hard metrics and program preferences, simulating a mixture of individual student preference and general program popularity. We modeled a system of 99 otolaryngology residency programs with 292 residency spots and 460 student applicants. While it was individually advantageous for an applicant to apply to the maximum number of programs, this led to a poor result for the majority of students when all applicants undertook the strategy. The number of interview invitations improved for most applicants when preference was revealed. Offering applicants an option to provide program preference improves the practical number of interview invitations. This enables programs to review applicants holistically—instead of using single parameters such as United States Medical Licensing Examination scores—which facilitates a selection of applicants who will be successful in residency. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Tagliaferri, Luca, Budrukkar, Ashwini, Lenkowicz, Jacopo, Cambeiro, Mauricio, Bussu, Francesco, Guinot, Jose Luis, Hildebrandt, Guido, Johansson, Bengt, Meyer, Jens E., Niehoff, Peter, Rovirosa, Angeles, Tak'csi-Nagy, Zolt'n, Boldrini, Luca, Dinapoli, Nicola, Damiani, Vito Lanzotti1, Andrea, Fionda, Roberto Gatta1, Bruno, Lancellotta, Valentina, Soror, Tamer, Monge, Rafael Martìnez, Valentini, Prof. Vincenzo [2018-05-01]
Purpose: Clinical data collecting is expensive in terms of time and human resources. Data can be collected in different ways; therefore, performing multicentric research based on previously stored data is often difficult. The primary objective of the ENT COBRA (COnsortium for BRachytherapy data Analysis) ontology is to define a specific terminological system to standardized data collection for head and neck (H&N) cancer patients treated with interventional radiotherapy. Material and methods: ENT-COBRA is a consortium for standardized data collection for H&N patients treated with interventional radiotherapy. It is linked to H&N and Skin GEC-ESTRO Working Group and includes 11 centers from 6 countries. Its ontology was firstly defined by a multicentric working group, then evaluated by the consortium followed by a multi-professional technical commission involving a mathematician, an engineer, a physician with experience in data storage, a programmer, and a software expert. Results: Two hundred and forty variables were defined on 13 input forms. There are 3 levels, each offering a specific type of analysis: 1. Registry level (epidemiology analysis); 2. Procedures level (standard oncology analysis); 3. Research level (radiomics analysis). The ontology was approved by the consortium and technical commission; an ad-hoc software architecture ("broker") remaps the data present in already existing storage systems of the various centers according to the shared terminology system. The first data sharing was successfully performed using COBRA software and the ENT COBRA Ontology, automatically collecting data directly from 3 different hospital databases (Lübeck, Navarra, and Rome) in November 2017. Conclusions: The COBRA Ontology is a good response to the multi-dimensional criticalities of data collection, retrieval, and usability. It allows to create a software for large multicentric databases with implementation of specific remapping functions wherever necessary. This approach is well-received by all involved parties, primarily because it does not change a single center's storing technologies, procedures, and habits. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Lau, A.S., Krishnan, M., Williams, S.P., Mamais, C., Sweed, A., Bhat, J., Somashekar, S., Leong, S.C. [2016-12-01]
Objectives To review the rate of publication of papers in peer-reviewed journals after oral presentations at the Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings between 1996 and 2013 and to compare trends with the previous review (1979-1995). Design Literature review. Setting Merseyside ENT Research Collaborative. Participants The abstracts of presentations at Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings are published in Clinical Otolaryngology. A structured search of PubMed was undertaken to identify published Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations. Main outcome measures Publication rates. Results A total of 460 abstracts were identified. The interobserver reliability among reviewers was 98%. Of the total, 259 (56.3%) abstracts were published in peer-reviewed journals. The average time from Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentation to publication was 27.7 months (median 23), which was not significantly different from the previous review. Publication by subspeciality was as follows: head and neck (45.6%), otology (30.5%), rhinology (22%) and others (1.9%). Most published Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations were published in Clinical Otolaryngology (22.4%), followed by the Journal of Laryngology and Otology (8.1%) and the Laryngoscope (7.3%). Clinical research was the most common category of abstracts being presented at Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings, followed by laboratory-based research. Over half (56.5%) of laboratory research presented were head and neck themed, while otology and rhinology predominated clinical research presentations. Over half (52.1%) of Otorhinolaryngology Research Society abstracts originated from units in the North of England. Bristol presented the most abstracts (30.1%), followed by Newcastle (25.1%). Conclusions The publication rate of Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations remains high and many are subsequently published in high-impact factor otolaryngology journals. More Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations are now published in American and European journals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Carter, A., Skilbeck, C., Lee, A., Oakley, R. [2014-04-01]
The article discusses research study on the alignment between the aspirations of trainee ear, nose, throat (ENT) surgeons and the needs of patients. The study examined the level of training that trainees made their subspecialty choice, subspecialties that otolaryngology trainees would most like to work in as a consultant, the sufficiency of the six-year training scheme as preparatory for becoming an independent consultant practice, and competition with subspecialty fellowships.
by Zhao, Yali, Wang, Dayong, Zong, Liang, Zhao, Feifan, Guan, Liping, Zhang, Peng, Shi, Wei, Lan, Lan, Wang, Hongyang, Li, Qian, Han, Bing, Yang, Ling, Jin, Xin, Wang, Jian, Wang, Jun, Wang, Qiuju [2014-05-01]
Mutations in the transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) can cause both DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 hearing loss. More than thirty DFNB7/11 mutations have been reported, but only three DFNA36 mutations were reported previously. In this study, we found a large Chinese family with 222 family members showing post-lingual, progressive sensorineural hearing loss which were consistent with DFNA36 hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) test of the youngest patient showed a special result with nearly normal threshold but prolonged latency, decreased amplitude, and the abnormal waveform morphology. Exome sequencing of the proband found four candidate variants in known hearing loss genes. Sanger sequencing in all family members found a novel variant c.1253T>A (p.M418K) in TMC1 at DFNA36 that co-segregated with the phenotype. This mutation in TMC1 is orthologous to the mutation found in the hearing loss mouse model named Bth ten years ago. In another 51 Chinese autosomal dominant hearing loss families, we screened the segments containing the dominant mutations of TMC1 and no functional variants were found. TMC1 is expressed in the hair cells in inner ear. Given the already known roles of TMC1 in the mechanotransduction in the cochlea and its expression in inner ear, our results may provide an interesting perspective into its function in inner ear. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Pensak, Myles L. [2001-01-01]
Comprised of the expert opinions of several prominent otolaryngologists, Controversies in Otolaryngology offers the rationale and thinking behind 28 key topics in the field. In each easy-to-follow section, you will find an important topic debated by three prominent physicians. With a total of 84 different viewpoints on today's most thought-provoking issues, highlighted by nearly 200 drawings and dozens of tables, this book is an essential professional sourcebook. Covering topics ranging from the role of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer to cochlear implants in congenitally deaf children, this book is valuable to all specialists. Whether you are just entering the field, an experienced practitioner, or looking for guidance on specific topics, Controversies in Otolaryngology offers expert opinions that often validate or refute a practice protocol -- and always offers stimulating and informative reading.
by Shah, Rahul [2013-01-01]
This book serves both as a primer as well as an instant (ENT) reference for all medical practitioners caring for the pediatric patient. Topics covered in this e-book include hearing loss, otitis media, neck masses and infections, sinusitis, stridor and many more. Readers with find actionable education needed to help care for their patients presented within simple, easy to read chapters.
by Gavilán, Javier [2002-01-01]
For all surgeons who manage patients with head and neck cancer, this information-packed book offers both a new approach and a new philosophy of treatment-one that rejects radical procedures except in advanced disease and focuses on a combined functional and selective approach for optimal outcome. You will find the rationale, indications, surgical steps, and results of these procedures, and be better equipped to handle a wide range of complex clinical situations.Functional and Selective Neck Dissection begins with a full explanation of the fascial compartmentalization of the neck, and goes on to explain and illustrate the procedures. Step-by-step descriptions of functional dissection surgeries, demonstrated with more than 200 high-quality, sequential operative photographs and drawings, highlight and clarify all points. All head and neck surgeons, otolaryngologists, maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons, and residents will find this synthesis of neck dissection techniques both informative and necessary for effective decision-making. Special features: A thorough description of the fascial anatomy of the neck, vital for facilitating an effective surgical approach in head and neck cancer patients Step-by-step surgical descriptions of functional neck dissections, augmented by hundreds of sequential operative photographs A full list of technical hints and pitfalls acquired through many years of clinical experience A unique chapter answering the most frequently asked questions about available surgical techniques A synthesis of the American and Latin viewpoints on neck dissection, key to understanding the evolution of the field and integrating the best aspects of both
by Hill, John, Paleri, Vinidh [2010-01-01]
Description based on print version record.
by Staecker, Hinrich, Van de Water, Thomas R. [2006-01-01]
Here is a complete resource for all the basic science and clinical knowledge related to otolaryngology, from relevant molecular biology to physiology to clinical practice. It offers excellent coverage of all key topics with one goal in mind -- to provide a solid foundation for the understanding and practice of this diverse specialty. Both comprehensive and succinct, this book is an ideal review text and study tool for residents preparing for their board exams. Organized into six organ-specific sections, the book provides such key clinical information as: basic principles of allergic diseases, the oncology of head and neck tumors, the biology and testing of olfactory dysfunction, neurological disorders of the larynx, sleep apnea management, working with hearing aids and cochlear implants, and much more. Each chapter features a Chapter Outline, numerous tables, and Self-Test Questions with their answers to ensure thorough comprehension. You will also find more than 350 illustrations demonstrating important concepts. This book is an invaluable resource for residents taking their boards and a useful refresher for practicing otolaryngologists at all levels. It is the one reference you will turn to again and again.
by Donne, A. J., Keltie, K., Cole, H., Sims, A.J., Patrick, H., Powell, S. [2017-02-01]
Objectives To estimate the number of patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis currently managed in secondary and tertiary health care in the UK and the frequency of its treatment with radiofrequency cold ablation (Coblation™). Design Cross-sectional survey of ENT consultants in the UK with validation using Hospital Episode Statistics ( HES) inpatient data. Setting Online survey. Participants ENT consultants in the UK. Main outcome measures Number of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients currently managed in acute care in the UK and frequency of use of Coblation. Results A total of 283 ENT consultants from 128 UK NHS healthcare trusts and health boards completed the online survey. Responses were received from 86% of surveyed organisations, and an estimated 45% of all ENT consultants in UK. The estimated number of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients from the cross-sectional survey was 918 (at August 2015) which included 730 patients in England. The number of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients in England estimated from Hospital Episode Statistics (2014/15 financial year) was up to 741. A total of 42 Coblation procedures conducted in the UK were identified from the cross-sectional survey; 36 were conducted in England compared with 34 identified from Hospital Episode Statistics. Conclusions The numbers of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients and Coblation procedures identified in England from a cross-sectional survey and Hospital Episode Statistics were in broad agreement. Our study estimated 1.42 recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients per 100 000 in the general UK population. We also estimated that Coblation procedures accounted for 3% of interventional treatments conducted in the UK recurrent respiratory papillomatosis population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Kim, Ju Yeon, Byun, Sung Wan, Shin, Seung-Ho, Chun, Mi Sun
Background: When evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal cases, an average of thresholds at several frequencies is calculated using pure tone audiometry. Occasionally, there are instances in which thresholds at certain frequencies are omitted. One typical example is the threshold at 3 kHz (H3k). The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium (1995) suggested that the average of thresholds at 2 kHz and 4 kHz (H24k) could replace H3k for a comparison of results between studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature that compares H3k and H24k. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between H3k and H24k. Methods: This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012, which was conducted by the Korean government. A total of 18,472 participants (unweighted) who represented 39,357,497 Koreans (weighted) were included. To verify the agreement of H3k and H24k, a paired t-test, Cohen’s d, Pearson’s correlation, Cronbach’s coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), a Bland–Altman plot, and linear regression analysis were used. Results: The means of H3k and H24k were 16.2 dBHL and 16.6 dBHL, respectively. They were significantly different in a paired t-test (p
by Mazengenya, P., Bhikha, R.
Background: Avicenna (also known as Ibn Sina) was arguably one of the outstanding medical scientists and physicians of the time. He made significant contributions in the development of various medical fields in the golden age of Islamic medicine (9-12th century AD) and in Europe. Ibn Sina contributed immensely to human anatomy, physiology, pathology and management of most disorders of the human body. Of paramount importance was the systemic description of the anatomy of various organs and surgical interventions associated with the problems. Although neither formal dissection nor surgical training was recorded during his time, the anatomic and surgical information presented in the Canon of Medicine is congruent with modern advancement. The current study was undertaken to compare Avicenna's anatomy of the ear, nose, oral cavity, throat and larynx to modern anatomical texts. Methods: The current work analysed the anatomy information on the ear, nose, oral cavity, throat and the larynx as presented in volumes one and three of the Canon of Medicine. The information was compared to modern anatomic descriptions. Results: Avicenna described correctly the anatomy and functions of the external and internal ear, nose, oral cavity, parts of the throat and larynx. He described voice production in the larynx and subsequent contributions on the nose, uvula and tongue in shaping the syllables. The functional aspects, disorders and their management associated with the ear and the upper respiratory system were also described. Conclusions: The findings show that Ibn Sina's contributions had a major influence on the development and advancement of medical practise. His anatomic explanations are comparable to modern knowledge on the subject. They also show that the Canon of Medicine is still a valuable book in the study of the history of medicine. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk, Bienkowska, Katarzyna, Swierniak, Weronika, Ludwikowski, Maciej
by Ricci, E., Cavalot, A. L., Sanvito, F., Bussi, M., Albera, R., Staffieri, A., Cortesina, G., Marchisio, P. C.
This work describes the different patterns of expression of integrins and extracellular matrix proteins in normal and transformed mucosa in laryngeal and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Samples from each tumor group were sectioned and examined by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies raised against integrin chains ([sup α]2, [sup α]3, [sup α]6, [sup β]1 and [sup β]4) and their ligands (laminins 1 and 5, collagen type IV and two fibronectin isoforms: ED-A and ED-B). Controls were provided by samples of tumor-free laryngeal and oropharyngeal mucosa that had been removed during the surgical procedure. We found that the known distinct topographical pattern of integrins and the continuity of basement membrane components was altered in both groups but that the extent of changes was significantly more marked in oropharyngeal tumors, which are known to be more infiltrating and diffusive and to have a bad prognosis. These molecular patterns of expression can be used as an additional prognostic factor as they suggest a greater biological tumor aggressiveness of oropharyngeal tumors. We suggest that performing immunohistochemical analysis on biopsy samples may help in selecting the correct therapeutic strategy for these tumors and enable more accurate follow-up. The above-mentioned molecules may become part of the diagnostic toolbox of head and neck surgical pathologists. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Peter D. Bull 
A concise account of diseases of the ear, nose and throat--and head and neck-aimed primarily at the undergraduate-level student, this book will also be helpful to house officers in otolaryngology and a useful addition to the reference libraries of GPs