Clinical performance of an automated reader in interpreting malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Tanzania.

by Shekalaghe, Seif, Cancino, Marcela, Mavere, Caroline, Juma, Omar, Mohammed, Ali, Abdulla, Salim, Ferro, Santiago [2013-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Parasitological confirmation of malaria is now recommended in all febrile patients by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce inappropriate use of anti-malarial drugs. Widespread implementation of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is regarded as an effective strategy to achieve this goal. However, the quality of diagnosis provided by RDTs in remote rural dispensaries and health centres is not ideal. Feasible RDT quality control programmes in these settings are challenging. Collection of information regarding diagnostic events is also very deficient in low-resource countries. Methods: A prospective cohort of consecutive patients aged more than one year from both genders, seeking routine care for febrile episodes at dispensaries located in the Bagamoyo district of Tanzania, were enrolled into the study after signing an informed consent form. Blood samples were taken for thick blood smear (TBS) microscopic examination and malaria RDT (SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Pf/Pan™ (SD RDT)). RDT results were interpreted by both visual interpretation and Deki Reader™ device. Results of visual interpretation were used for case management purposes. Microscopy was considered the "gold standard test" to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader interpretation and to compare it to visual interpretation. Results: In total, 1,346 febrile subjects were included in the final analysis. The SD RDT, when used in conjunction with the Deki Reader and upon visual interpretation, had sensitivities of 95.3% (95% CI, 90.6-97.7) and 94.7% (95% CI, 89.8-97.3) respectively, and specificities of 94.6% (95% CI, 93.5-96.1) and 95.6% (95% CI, 94.2-96.6), respectively to gold standard. There was a high percentage of overall agreement between the two methods of interpretation. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader in interpretation of SD RDTs were comparable to previous reports and showed high agreement to visual interpretation (>98%). The results of the study reflect the situation in real practice and show good performance characteristics of Deki Reader on interpreting malaria RDTs in the hands of local laboratory technicians. They also suggest that a system like this could provide great benefits to the health care system. Further studies to look at ease of use by community health workers, and cost benefit of the system are warranted. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 13

Microbiology, developed in the decades before the First World War, encouraged a particular vision of disease and human social relationships. Some of the consequences of that can be seen in the way in which the Central Powers engaged with Romania during combat operations and during the occupation. Much as with colonial approaches to disease in tropical Africa, parasitology encouraged Germans to focus on bacteria and vectors of disease rather than on social relations or indigenous humans. As a consequence, medical care was segregated: it focused on protecting occupiers, and encouraged Germans to construct Romania and Romanians as colonial. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Parasitology should not be abandoned: data from outpatient parasitological testing in Guangdong, China.

by Lan-Gui Song, Xiao-Ying Zheng, Da-Tao Lin, Guang-Xi Wang, Zhong-Dao Wu [2017-09-04]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Over the past six decades, the Chinese government made parasitoses with a high disease burden, including soiltransmitted nematode infections, malaria, leishmaniasis, filariasis and schistosomiasis, a public health priority because they were seen to be crucial impediments to the development of rural areas. As a result, these debilitating parasitic diseases that used to be widely prevalent have been well controlled or eliminated. Consequently, less attention has been paid to parasitic infection during the rapid development of the economy, especially in developed areas. However, our investigations conducted in the parasitological laboratory of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) show that emerging parasitic diseases still threaten many people's health, with 340 of 880 outpatients (38.6%) receiving a diagnosis of parasitic disease, among whom 201 (59.1%) had clonorchiasis and 120 (35.3%) had taeniasis/cysticercosis. Furthermore, our doctors are not equipped with sufficient parasitology knowledge because this discipline is not able to maintain attraction. Many parasitic infections that result in severe consequences are treatable and preventable, but the phenomena of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis are common and merit attention. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Current Concepts in Parasitology

by Ko, Ronald C. [1989-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

This collection of essays describes emerging trends and key issues faced by Asian countries in combating computer-related crime.


The Cambodia Research Consortium: expediting research for malaria elimination with the emergency response to artemisinin resistance framework.

by Canavati, Sara E., Lawford, Harriet L. S., Fatunmbi, Bayo S., Lek, Dysoley, Leang, Rithea, Narann Top Samphor, Dondorp, Arjen M., Huy, Rekol, Kazadi, Walter M.

Academic Journal

pages 8

This commentary offers insight into how to best address barriers that may hinder the translation of malaria research findings into policy. It also proposes viable methods of implementing these policies in Cambodia. Currently, a wide range of malaria research is being conducted by in-country stakeholders, including Cambodia's National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control's (CNM), non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Coordinating research amongst these partners, as well as within the Ministry of Health, is a challenge. Results are rarely disseminated widely and seldom inform programme and policy decisions. CNM and its research partners have severely limited access to each other's databases. This lack of accessibility, timeliness, engagement and cooperation between CNM and its partners greatly impacts overall research efficiency in this field, and is stifling innovation both within and beyond CNM. Cambodia has set a goal to eradicate all forms of malaria by 2030. As countries approach the elimination phase, there is a greater need for sharing research-generated evidence amongst partners, in order to ensure that appropriate and impactful activities are conducted. The Cambodian Research Consortium was established to serve as a framework for partners, stakeholders and researchers to share research projects, information and results, and to promote the goals of CNM. The sharing of malaria research results will help to inform prevention, control and elimination activities in the country. It will also determine and address the country's operational research needs, and could potentially become a framework model to be used in other countries aiming to transition from malaria control to elimination. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso.

by Hien, Aristide S., Sangaré, Ibrahim, Coulibaly, Sanata, Namountougou, Moussa, Paré-Toé, Léa, Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges, Diabaté, Abdoulaye, Foy, Brian D., Dabiré, Roch K.

Academic Journal

pages 7

Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P>0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiological profile of malaria, contrary to the results obtained since the last publications. An entomological study correlated with this study is therefore necessary for effective decision-making for the malaria control in both areas. Future research must now focus on the impact that these profound environmental modifications of rice area are having on malaria control in Burkina Faso. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The detection of cryptic Plasmodium infection among villagers in Attapeu province, Lao PDR.

by Iwagami, Moritoshi, Keomalaphet, Sengdeuane, Khattignavong, Phonepadith, Soundala, Pheovaly, Lorphachan, Lavy, Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie, Strobel, Michel, Reinharz, Daniel, Phommasansack, Manisack, Hongvanthong, Bouasy, Brey, Paul T., Kano, Shigeyuki

Academic Journal

pages 16

Background: Although the malaria burden in the Lao PDR has gradually decreased, the elimination of malaria by 2030 presents many challenges. Microscopy and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used to diagnose malaria in the Lao PDR; however, some studies have reported the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium infections or asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers in endemic areas. Thus, highly sensitive detection methods are needed to understand the precise malaria situation in these areas. Methodology/Principal findings: A cross-sectional malaria field survey was conducted in 3 highly endemic malaria districts (Xaysetha, Sanamxay, Phouvong) in Attapeu province, Lao PDR in 2015, to investigate the precise malaria endemicity in the area; 719 volunteers from these villages participated in the survey. Microscopy, RDTs and a real-time nested PCR were used to detect Plasmodium infections and their results were compared. A questionnaire survey of all participants was also conducted to estimate risk factors of Plasmodium infection. Numbers of infections detected by the three methods were microscopy: P. falciparum (n = 1), P. vivax (n = 2); RDTs: P. falciparum (n = 2), P. vivax (n = 3); PCR: Plasmodium (n = 47; P. falciparum [n = 4], P. vivax [n = 41], mixed infection [n = 2]; 6.5%, 47/719). Using PCR as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy were 33.3% and 100.0%, respectively, for detecting P. falciparum infection, and 7.0% and 100.0%, for detecting P. vivax infection. Among the 47 participants with parasitemia, only one had a fever (≥37.5°C) and 31 (66.0%) were adult males. Risk factors of Plasmodium infection were males and soldiers, whereas a risk factor of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection was a history of ≥3 malaria episodes. Conclusions/Significance: There were many asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers in the study areas of Attapeu province in 2015. Adult males, probably soldiers, were at high risk for malaria infection. P. vivax, the dominant species, accounted for 87.2% of the Plasmodium infections among the participants. To achieve malaria elimination in the Lao PDR, highly sensitive diagnostic tests, including PCR-based diagnostic methods should be used, and plans targeting high-risk populations and elimination of P. vivax should be designed and implemented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Book

pages 397

Advances in Parasitology is a series of up-to-date reviews of all areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. It includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as typanosomiasis and scabies, and more traditional areas, such as zoology, taxonomy, and life history, which shape current thinking and applications


Advances in Parasitology [Vol 71]

by D. Rollinson [2010]

Book

pages 172

Contains comprehensive reviews in various areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. It includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as Plasmodium falciparum and trypanosomes


Book

pages 471

This volume of Advances in Parasitology has a predominantly protozoological flavor. The questionable pathogenicity of Blastocytis, a ptorist closely related to amoeboflagellates. Discussion of Giardia and the evidence of early branching of the eukaryotic stem. Full overview of current knowledge of the immunology of Leishmania. Explanation of the way trypanosomatids transport nutrients and ions across their membranes. A review of the biology of the coccidian parasites of fish with extensive illustrations. A review of the sexuality of parasitic crustaceans


Book

pages 425

This volume of Advances in Parasitology continues the policy established by Ben Dawes and developed by Professor Lumsden, of attempting to review any aspect of parasitology in which significant developments are being, or have recently been, made.


Advances In Parasitology [Vol 60]

by J. Baker, R. Muller, D. Rollinson [2006]

Book

pages 366

First published in 1963, Advances in Parasitology contains comprehensive and up-to-date reviews in all areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. Advances in Parasitology includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosomes. The series also contains reviews of more traditional areas, such as zoology, taxonomy, and life history, which shape current thinking and applications. With an impact factor of 3.9 the series ranks second in the ISI Parasitology subject category


Book

pages 321

First published in 1963, Advances in Parasitology contains comprehensive and up-to-date reviews in all areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. Now edited by J.R. Baker (Royal School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, UK), R. Muller (International Institute of Parasitology, UK) and D. Rollinson (The Natural History Museum, UK), supported by an international Editorial Board, Advances in Parasitology includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as typanosomiasis and scabies, and reviews of more traditional areas, such as zoology, taxonomy, and life history, which shape current thinking and applications. Eclectic volumes are supplemented by thematic volumes on such topics as Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems in Epidemiology


Advances in Parasitology

by Simon I. Hay [2006]

Book

pages 440

This special volume of Advances in Parasitology gives a comprehensive overview of the practical procedures involved in all aspects of global mapping. Coverage includes new research and new data, along with descriptions of new techniques in global mapping. With chapters written by leading experts in the field, it should be a standard for years to come. With an impact factor of 3.9, the series ranks second in the ISI Parasitology subject category. * Includes DVD of global environmental and global population data, including scripts for predicting disease distributions and evaluating the accuracy of these mapped products. * Valuable source of both technical and epidemiological data in this rapidly growing field. * Discusses practical applications of techniques to the study of parasitic and infectious diseases