Academic Journal

pages 9

Piroplasms are intraerythrocytic parasites that are often transmitted by ixodid ticks, but vertical transmission is an alternative route for some species. In the USA, raccoons (Procyon lotor) are hosts for two known species, a Babesia microti-like sp. and Babesia lotori (in Babesia sensu stricto group). To better understand the natural history of Babesia in raccoons, we tested young raccoons from Minnesota and Colorado for Babesia spp., examined them for ticks, and assessing for splenomegaly as a sign of clinical disease. Raccoons from both states were infected with B. microti-like sp. and Babesia sensu stricto spp. Infections of B. microti-like were common, even in 1-week-old raccoons, suggesting vertical transmission. Babesia sensu stricto infections were more common in older raccoons. Raccoons infected with Babesia sensu stricto had significantly higher spleen:body weight ratios compared with uninfected or B. microti-like sp.-infected raccoons. Ticks were only found on raccoons from Minnesota. The most common and abundant tick was Ixodes texanus but Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor variabilis were also found on raccoons. We report piroplasm infections and infestations with several tick species in very young raccoons. Young raccoons infected with Babesia sensu stricto spp. had higher spleen:body weight ratios, suggesting a disease risk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infected Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds.

by SONIBARE, Adekayode Olarinwaju, SOWANDE, Olusiji Sunday, IPOSU, Shamusideen Oladeinde, LUKA, Joshua, AYANKOSOI, Michael, EGBETADE, Adeniyi Olugbega [2016-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD) lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds. Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM) of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1) low energy low protein, group 2 (G2) low energy high protein, group 3 (G3) high energy low protein and group 4 (G4) high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC), worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and red blood cell count (RBC) were determined using standard methods. Results : Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309) among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P


Ecological and Parasitological Study on Cerithidea cingulata (Gastropoda) in Hormoz Strait Littoral, South of Iran.

by KALAT-MEIMARI, Mehdi, SHAMSEDDIN, Jebreil, SALAHI-MOGHADDAM, Abdoreza [2018-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Background: "Cerithidea cingulata" is reported from south of Iran, may act as intermediate host of Heterophyes heterophyes and cercaria dermatitis. As parasitological aspects of this brackish snail were not studied in Iran, this study was conducted in 2016, in Hormoz Strait, south of Iran. Methods: Totally 402 snails were collected from 36 locations of three main regions in Hormozgan Province, Iran in 2015. In each location, one square meter was checked, and snails were collected for parasitological study. Snails were crashed and cercariae were studied using light microscope, in some cases natural red staining was used for better resolution. Results: Mean length of snails was about 20.33 mm, width 5.57 mm. The aperture length was 5.10 and spire was 15.22. Important founded cercaria was cysticercus cercariae, echinostoma cercaria, furcocercus cercaria, furcocystocercous cercaria, gastrostomy cercaria, gymnocephalus cercaria, monostome cercaria, pelurolophocercus cercaria and xiphidiocercaria. Conclusion: The presence of this snail is reported from Persian Gulf to western Pacific in China. Our study showed a pattern of infection in local area and was compatible with other studies. Importance of C. cingulata as intermediate host of some medically important disease should be considered and other complementary molecular studies for exact identification of cercaria are necessary. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

Background and Aim: The use of bibliometric methods identify the best researchers in various fields on the one hand, and scientific mapping of specific disciplines on the other hand at the international level has become popular gradually. The aim of the present study was to determine top researchers in the field of parasitology based on centrality and combine indicators. Materials and Methods: The study uses a bibliometric methodology. The initial data of this study, which comprises Iranian Parasitology researchers have been retrieved from Web of Science during 1972-2015. After loading and storage of records, the researchers used scientometric software (UCINet, NetDraw, VOSviewer, and BibExcel) to answer research questions. Results: The results indicated there are 1271 scientific productions conducted by Iranians in the field of Parasitology.Mohebali, Vatandoost, and Oshagi are the most active researchers in Parasotology, respectively. Conclusions: Generally, according to findings from different parts of the current study (number of articles, h-index, and centrality indicators), it can be stated that Mohebali is the most influential parasitology researcher in Iran. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Quality of Methods Reporting in Parasitology Experiments.

by Flórez-Vargas, Oscar, Bramhall, Michael, Noyes, Harry, Cruickshank, Sheena, Stevens, Robert, Brass, Andy [2014-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

There is a growing concern both inside and outside the scientific community over the lack of reproducibility of experiments. The depth and detail of reported methods are critical to the reproducibility of findings, but also for making it possible to compare and integrate data from different studies. In this study, we evaluated in detail the methods reporting in a comprehensive set of trypanosomiasis experiments that should enable valid reproduction, integration and comparison of research findings. We evaluated a subset of other parasitic (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Trichuris and Schistosoma) and non-parasitic (Mycobacterium) experimental infections in order to compare the quality of method reporting more generally. A systematic review using PubMed (2000–2012) of all publications describing gene expression in cells and animals infected with Trypanosoma spp was undertaken based on PRISMA guidelines; 23 papers were identified and included. We defined a checklist of essential parameters that should be reported and have scored the number of those parameters that are reported for each publication. Bibliometric parameters (impact factor, citations and h-index) were used to look for association between Journal and Author status and the quality of method reporting. Trichuriasis experiments achieved the highest scores and included the only paper to score 100% in all criteria. The mean of scores achieved by Trypanosoma articles through the checklist was 65.5% (range 32–90%). Bibliometric parameters were not correlated with the quality of method reporting (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.05). Our results indicate that the quality of methods reporting in experimental parasitology is a cause for concern and it has not improved over time, despite there being evidence that most of the assessed parameters do influence the results. We propose that our set of parameters be used as guidelines to improve the quality of the reporting of experimental infection models as a pre-requisite for integrating and comparing sets of data. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Faecal Parasitology: Concentration Methodology Needs to be Better Standardised.

by Manser, Monika M., Saez, Agatha Christie Santos, Chiodini, Peter L. [2016-04-13]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Aim: To determine whether variation in the preservative, pore size of the sieve, solvent, centrifugal force and centrifugation time used in the Ridley-Allen Concentration method for examining faecal specimens for parasite stages had any effect on their recovery in faecal specimens. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all participants in the UK NEQAS Faecal Parasitology Scheme. The recovery of parasite stages was compared using formalin diluted in water or formalin diluted in saline as the fixative, 3 different pore sizes of sieve, ether or ethyl acetate as a solvent, 7 different centrifugal forces and 6 different centrifugation times according to the methods described by participants completing the questionnaire. Results: The number of parasite stages recovered was higher when formalin diluted in water was used as fixative, a smaller pore size of sieve was used, ethyl acetate along with Triton X 100 was used as a solvent and a centrifugal force of 3,000 rpm for 3 minutes were employed. Conclusions: This study showed that differences in methodology at various stages of the concentration process affect the recovery of parasites from a faecal specimen and parasites present in small numbers could be missed if the recommended methodology is not followed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 13

The prevalence of Eimeria in 50 examined rabbits was 84% (42/50). The prevalence was 92.6% in male rabbits while it was73.9% in female rabbits. According to age, the prevalence was determined 88% in rabbits less than 4 months of age while it was 80% in rabbits 4 months of age or more. No significant difference was recorded between rabbits in correlation to age and sex. Ten species of Eimeria infecting rabbits were isolated in Assiut by parasitological examination. The prevalence of Eimeria species were E. perforans (66.7%) followed by E. exigua (26.2%), E. media (26.2%), E. magna (21.4%), E. intestinalis (19%), E. coecicola (19%), E. irresidua (19%), E. piriformis (14.3%), E. flavescens (7.1%) and E. stiedae (7.1%). Single infection of Eimeria spp. was found in 23.8% of the infected rabbits, where as mixed infection involved two, three or four Eimeria spp. was observed in 76.2% of the infected rabbits. Clinical signs were depression, anorexia, diarrhea while postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of separate yellowish-white nodules of varying sizes spread over the surface with distended gall bladder. The intestinal lesions revealed varying degree of congestion, thickening of intestinal wall. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed dilated bile ducts and formation of papilliform projections of epithelium containing different developmental stages of Eimeria, associated with degeneration and pathological changes in hepatic parenchyma. The intestinal coccidiosis revealed hyperplasia of the epithelial cells and presence of Eimeria oocytes and gametocytes within the epithelial cells of the villi associated with lymphocytic infiltration in the lamina propria of the villi. The transmission electron microscope showed asexual and sexual developmental stages of rabbit Eimeria including developing schizont and macrogametocyte. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 4

In order to stimulate the students interest in the learning of parasitolohy, enable the students to master the professional knowledge of parasitology and basic skiils of experimental operation, improve the ability of integrating theory with practice and analyzing and solving problems, cultivate medical talents with high quality, meet the needs of development of medical education, experimental teaching method of parasitolog has to be reformed in the process of experiment teaching. The authors discuss the influence of the reform of parasitologocal experimental teaching method on teaching effect. The reform achieves the goal through methods of strengthening the teacher management, perfecting the experimental design, associating with real life, combining the traditional teaching method with modern technology, playing a role of teaching specimens, making effective use of resources in the laboratory and so on. It is proved that the teaching quality of parasitological experiment has been improved by means of the reform in teaching method. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 5

Purpose: PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology.Methodology: Second-year medical students received a series of lectures, half of the lectures used traditionally designed PPT™ and the rest used slides designed by Mayer's multimedia principles. Students answered pre and post-tests at the end of each lecture (test-I) and an essay test after six months (test-II) which assessed their short and long term knowledge retention respectively. Students' feedback on quality and content of lectures were collected.Results: Statistically significant difference was found between post test scores of traditional and modified lectures (P = 0.019) indicating, improved short-term memory after modified lectures. Similarly, students scored better in test II on the contents learnt through modified lectures indicating, enhanced comprehension and improved long-term memory (P < 0.001). Many students appreciated learning through multimedia designed PPT™ and suggested for their continued use.Conclusions: It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


How to Prevent Ticks and Still Enjoy the Outdoors.

by Dolesh, Richard [2018-08-01]

Periodical

pages 4

The article discusses the parasitology of ticks with a focus on their role as vectors of disease including Lyme, Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Best practices for park staff in tick-prone regions are outlined including brush clearance and trail maintenance, insect repellent, and proper outdoor clothing.


Schistosoma haematobium effects on Plasmodium falciparum infection modified by soil-transmitted helminths in school-age children living in rural areas of Gabon.

by Dejon-Agobé, Jean Claude, Zinsou, Jeannot Fréjus, Honkpehedji, Yabo Josiane, Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse, Edoa, Jean-Ronald, Adegbite, Bayodé Roméo, Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain, Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe, Ramharter, Michael, Kremsner, Peter Gottfried, Lell, Bertrand, Grobusch, Martin Peter, Adegnika, Ayôla Akim [2018-08-06]

Academic Journal

pages 17

Background: Malaria burden remains high in the sub-Saharan region where helminths are prevalent and where children are often infected with both types of parasites. Although the effect of helminths on malaria infection is evident, the impact of these co-infections is not clearly elucidated yet and the scarce findings are conflicting. In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis, considering soil-transmitted helminths (STH), on prevalence and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Methodology: This longitudinal survey was conducted in school-age children living in two rural communities in the vicinity of Lambaréné, Gabon. Thick blood smear light microscopy, urine filtration and the Kato-Katz technique were performed to detect malaria parasites, S. haematobium eggs and, STH eggs, respectively. P. falciparum carriage was assessed at inclusion, and incidence of malaria and time to the first malaria event were recorded in correlation with Schistosoma carriage status. Stratified multivariate analysis using generalized linear model was used to assess the risk of plasmodium infection considering interaction with STH, and survival analysis to assess time to malaria. Main findings: The overall prevalence on subject enrolment was 30%, 23% and 9% for S. haematobium, P. falciparum infections and co-infection with both parasites, respectively. Our results showed that schistosomiasis in children tends to increase the risk of plasmodium infection but a combined effect with Trichuris trichiura or hookworm infection clearly increase the risk (aOR = 3.9 [95%CI: 1.7–9.2]). The incidence of malaria over time was 0.51[95%CI: 0.45–0.57] per person-year and was higher in the Schistosoma-infected group compared to the non-infected group (0.61 vs 0.43, p = 0.02), with a significant delay of time-to first-malaria event only in children aged from 6 to 10-years-old infected with Schistosoma haematobium. Conclusions: Our results suggest that STH enhance the risk for P. falciparum infection in schistosomiasis-positive children, and when infected, that schistosomiasis enhances susceptibility to developing malaria in young children but not in older children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


History of Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Infections in Iran.

by Edrissian, Gholamhossein, Rokni, Mohammad Bagher, Mohebali, Mehdi, Nateghpour, Mehdi, Mowlavi, Gholamreza, Bahadori, Moslem [2016-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Parasites and parasitic diseases have been prevalent in Iran according to Iranian ancient scholars and physicians' inscriptions dating back to 865-1496. Some protozoan diseases such as malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis have been introduced by clinical manifestations and helminthic infections by size and morphology of the worms. Scientific studies of Parasitology started in Iran from 1833, first by foreign physicians and continued from 1909 by Iranian researchers. The pioneer medical parasitologists of Iran were DrN.Ansariand Dr. Sh. Mofidi who established the Department of Medical Parasitology in the School of Medicine, University of Tehran, 1939. Afterward, a considerable number of researchers and professors of parasitology have been active in training and research works in the fields of medical parasitology throughout the entire nation. At present, some significant parasitic diseases such as bilharsiasis and dracunculiasis are more or less eradicated and malaria is in the elimination phase. The prevalence of most helminthic infections has considerably decreased. Most of the departments of medical Parasitology in Iran are active in training MD, MSPH and PhD students. The Iranian Society of Parasitology established in 1994 is active with many eligible members and its creditable publication, the Iranian Journal of Parasitology, published seasonally since 2006. From 1833, when the scientific studies of Parasitology have started in Iran up to 2013, many researchers have been done on various fields of medical Parasitology and parasitic diseases in Iran and 2517 papers in English and 1890 papers in Persian have been published in national and international scientific journals. In addition, more than 420 books related in the field of medical parasitology field have been published in Persian language. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Parasite responses to pollution: what we know and where we go in 'Environmental Parasitology'.

by Sures, Bernd, Nachev, Milen, Selbach, Christian, Marcogliese, David J. [2017-02-06]

Academic Journal

pages 19

Environmental parasitology deals with the interactions between parasites and pollutants in the environment. Their sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbances makes many parasite taxa useful indicators of environmental health and anthropogenic impact. Over the last 20 years, three main research directions have been shown to be highly promising and relevant, namely parasites as accumulation indicators for selected pollutants, parasites as effect indicators, and the role of parasites interacting with established bioindicators. The current paper focuses on the potential use of parasites as indicators of environmental pollution and the interactions with their hosts. By reviewing some of the most recent findings in the field of environmental parasitology, we summarize the current state of the art and try to identify promising ideas for future research directions. In detail, we address the suitability of parasites as accumulation indicators and their possible application to demonstrate biological availability of pollutants; the role of parasites as pollutant sinks; the interaction between parasites and biomarkers focusing on combined effects of parasitism and pollution on the health of their hosts; and the use of parasites as indicators of contaminants and ecosystem health. Therefore, this review highlights the application of parasites as indicators at different biological scales, from the organismal to the ecosystem. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Clinical performance of an automated reader in interpreting malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Tanzania.

by Shekalaghe, Seif, Cancino, Marcela, Mavere, Caroline, Juma, Omar, Mohammed, Ali, Abdulla, Salim, Ferro, Santiago [2013-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Parasitological confirmation of malaria is now recommended in all febrile patients by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce inappropriate use of anti-malarial drugs. Widespread implementation of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is regarded as an effective strategy to achieve this goal. However, the quality of diagnosis provided by RDTs in remote rural dispensaries and health centres is not ideal. Feasible RDT quality control programmes in these settings are challenging. Collection of information regarding diagnostic events is also very deficient in low-resource countries. Methods: A prospective cohort of consecutive patients aged more than one year from both genders, seeking routine care for febrile episodes at dispensaries located in the Bagamoyo district of Tanzania, were enrolled into the study after signing an informed consent form. Blood samples were taken for thick blood smear (TBS) microscopic examination and malaria RDT (SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Pf/Pan™ (SD RDT)). RDT results were interpreted by both visual interpretation and Deki Reader™ device. Results of visual interpretation were used for case management purposes. Microscopy was considered the "gold standard test" to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader interpretation and to compare it to visual interpretation. Results: In total, 1,346 febrile subjects were included in the final analysis. The SD RDT, when used in conjunction with the Deki Reader and upon visual interpretation, had sensitivities of 95.3% (95% CI, 90.6-97.7) and 94.7% (95% CI, 89.8-97.3) respectively, and specificities of 94.6% (95% CI, 93.5-96.1) and 95.6% (95% CI, 94.2-96.6), respectively to gold standard. There was a high percentage of overall agreement between the two methods of interpretation. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader in interpretation of SD RDTs were comparable to previous reports and showed high agreement to visual interpretation (>98%). The results of the study reflect the situation in real practice and show good performance characteristics of Deki Reader on interpreting malaria RDTs in the hands of local laboratory technicians. They also suggest that a system like this could provide great benefits to the health care system. Further studies to look at ease of use by community health workers, and cost benefit of the system are warranted. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 13

Microbiology, developed in the decades before the First World War, encouraged a particular vision of disease and human social relationships. Some of the consequences of that can be seen in the way in which the Central Powers engaged with Romania during combat operations and during the occupation. Much as with colonial approaches to disease in tropical Africa, parasitology encouraged Germans to focus on bacteria and vectors of disease rather than on social relations or indigenous humans. As a consequence, medical care was segregated: it focused on protecting occupiers, and encouraged Germans to construct Romania and Romanians as colonial. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Parasitology should not be abandoned: data from outpatient parasitological testing in Guangdong, China.

by Lan-Gui Song, Xiao-Ying Zheng, Da-Tao Lin, Guang-Xi Wang, Zhong-Dao Wu [2017-09-04]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Over the past six decades, the Chinese government made parasitoses with a high disease burden, including soiltransmitted nematode infections, malaria, leishmaniasis, filariasis and schistosomiasis, a public health priority because they were seen to be crucial impediments to the development of rural areas. As a result, these debilitating parasitic diseases that used to be widely prevalent have been well controlled or eliminated. Consequently, less attention has been paid to parasitic infection during the rapid development of the economy, especially in developed areas. However, our investigations conducted in the parasitological laboratory of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) show that emerging parasitic diseases still threaten many people's health, with 340 of 880 outpatients (38.6%) receiving a diagnosis of parasitic disease, among whom 201 (59.1%) had clonorchiasis and 120 (35.3%) had taeniasis/cysticercosis. Furthermore, our doctors are not equipped with sufficient parasitology knowledge because this discipline is not able to maintain attraction. Many parasitic infections that result in severe consequences are treatable and preventable, but the phenomena of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis are common and merit attention. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Current Concepts in Parasitology

by Ko, Ronald C. [1989-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

This collection of essays describes emerging trends and key issues faced by Asian countries in combating computer-related crime.


The Cambodia Research Consortium: expediting research for malaria elimination with the emergency response to artemisinin resistance framework.

by Canavati, Sara E., Lawford, Harriet L. S., Fatunmbi, Bayo S., Lek, Dysoley, Leang, Rithea, Narann Top Samphor, Dondorp, Arjen M., Huy, Rekol, Kazadi, Walter M.

Academic Journal

pages 8

This commentary offers insight into how to best address barriers that may hinder the translation of malaria research findings into policy. It also proposes viable methods of implementing these policies in Cambodia. Currently, a wide range of malaria research is being conducted by in-country stakeholders, including Cambodia's National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control's (CNM), non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Coordinating research amongst these partners, as well as within the Ministry of Health, is a challenge. Results are rarely disseminated widely and seldom inform programme and policy decisions. CNM and its research partners have severely limited access to each other's databases. This lack of accessibility, timeliness, engagement and cooperation between CNM and its partners greatly impacts overall research efficiency in this field, and is stifling innovation both within and beyond CNM. Cambodia has set a goal to eradicate all forms of malaria by 2030. As countries approach the elimination phase, there is a greater need for sharing research-generated evidence amongst partners, in order to ensure that appropriate and impactful activities are conducted. The Cambodian Research Consortium was established to serve as a framework for partners, stakeholders and researchers to share research projects, information and results, and to promote the goals of CNM. The sharing of malaria research results will help to inform prevention, control and elimination activities in the country. It will also determine and address the country's operational research needs, and could potentially become a framework model to be used in other countries aiming to transition from malaria control to elimination. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso.

by Hien, Aristide S., Sangaré, Ibrahim, Coulibaly, Sanata, Namountougou, Moussa, Paré-Toé, Léa, Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges, Diabaté, Abdoulaye, Foy, Brian D., Dabiré, Roch K.

Academic Journal

pages 7

Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P>0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiological profile of malaria, contrary to the results obtained since the last publications. An entomological study correlated with this study is therefore necessary for effective decision-making for the malaria control in both areas. Future research must now focus on the impact that these profound environmental modifications of rice area are having on malaria control in Burkina Faso. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The detection of cryptic Plasmodium infection among villagers in Attapeu province, Lao PDR.

by Iwagami, Moritoshi, Keomalaphet, Sengdeuane, Khattignavong, Phonepadith, Soundala, Pheovaly, Lorphachan, Lavy, Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie, Strobel, Michel, Reinharz, Daniel, Phommasansack, Manisack, Hongvanthong, Bouasy, Brey, Paul T., Kano, Shigeyuki

Academic Journal

pages 16

Background: Although the malaria burden in the Lao PDR has gradually decreased, the elimination of malaria by 2030 presents many challenges. Microscopy and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used to diagnose malaria in the Lao PDR; however, some studies have reported the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium infections or asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers in endemic areas. Thus, highly sensitive detection methods are needed to understand the precise malaria situation in these areas. Methodology/Principal findings: A cross-sectional malaria field survey was conducted in 3 highly endemic malaria districts (Xaysetha, Sanamxay, Phouvong) in Attapeu province, Lao PDR in 2015, to investigate the precise malaria endemicity in the area; 719 volunteers from these villages participated in the survey. Microscopy, RDTs and a real-time nested PCR were used to detect Plasmodium infections and their results were compared. A questionnaire survey of all participants was also conducted to estimate risk factors of Plasmodium infection. Numbers of infections detected by the three methods were microscopy: P. falciparum (n = 1), P. vivax (n = 2); RDTs: P. falciparum (n = 2), P. vivax (n = 3); PCR: Plasmodium (n = 47; P. falciparum [n = 4], P. vivax [n = 41], mixed infection [n = 2]; 6.5%, 47/719). Using PCR as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy were 33.3% and 100.0%, respectively, for detecting P. falciparum infection, and 7.0% and 100.0%, for detecting P. vivax infection. Among the 47 participants with parasitemia, only one had a fever (≥37.5°C) and 31 (66.0%) were adult males. Risk factors of Plasmodium infection were males and soldiers, whereas a risk factor of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection was a history of ≥3 malaria episodes. Conclusions/Significance: There were many asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers in the study areas of Attapeu province in 2015. Adult males, probably soldiers, were at high risk for malaria infection. P. vivax, the dominant species, accounted for 87.2% of the Plasmodium infections among the participants. To achieve malaria elimination in the Lao PDR, highly sensitive diagnostic tests, including PCR-based diagnostic methods should be used, and plans targeting high-risk populations and elimination of P. vivax should be designed and implemented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Book

pages 397

Advances in Parasitology is a series of up-to-date reviews of all areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. It includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as typanosomiasis and scabies, and more traditional areas, such as zoology, taxonomy, and life history, which shape current thinking and applications


Advances in Parasitology [Vol 71]

by D. Rollinson [2010]

Book

pages 172

Contains comprehensive reviews in various areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. It includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as Plasmodium falciparum and trypanosomes