by Previsani, Nicoletta, Tangermann, Rudi, Tallis, Graham, Jafaria, Hamid [2015-08-07]
The article reports on the implementation of World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution 68.3, the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018, for the worldwide eradication of polio. Topics discussed include the incidence of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan, containment of type 2 WPV, and measures to stop the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) due to risks of transmission. Implications of reintroducing WPV are also mentioned.
by Song, Yan, Bian, Ying, Zhen, Tianmin [2018-08-02]
Objective: To assess changes in medicine availability and prices as well as subsequent affordability during the early years of the National Essential Medicine System (NEMS) reform in China. Methods: Data were obtained from four provinces through a field survey conducted in 2010–2011. Outcome measures were percentage availability, delivery efficiency, ratios of local prices to international reference prices (MPRs), and number of days’ household income needed to purchase medicines. Prices were adjusted for inflation/deflation and purchasing power parity. Results: Under NEMS, the median MPR for essential medicines decreased from 3.27 times to 1.59 times from 2009 to 2010. The median medicine expenditure under standard treatments in 2010 equaled 1.06 days household income at a low-income level and 0.25 days household income at a middle-income level. A 25.67% reduction was observed in the average number of medicines stocked by primary healthcare facilities in 2011 compared with 2009 and the availability of essential medicines was 66.83%. During 2009–2011, suppliers could respond to 98.24% of the purchasing orders raised by primary healthcare facilities, and 89.32% of the order amounts could be delivered. Conclusions: The market prices of essential medicines greatly decreased in China after the establishment of NEMS and showed improved affordability in the short term. However, current medicine prices remain high compared to international reference prices. Medicines were often unaffordable for economically backward residents. Future policies still need to target medicine availability as well as affordability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Abraham, John, Davis, Courtney [2007-05-01]
This paper develops a framework with which to interrogate how well pharmaceutical innovation and regulation are performing to produce drugs that improve health. That framework comprises five key dimensions: therapeutic advance of drug product innovations; safety standards in drug testing; use of surrogate measures of clinical benefit; independence of regulatory agencies; and public access to regulatory science. It is concluded that: more demanding regulatory intervention is required in order to increase the proportion of drug innovation that actually offers therapeutic benefits over existing products; drug regulatory agencies need much greater independence from the pharmaceutical industry; the erosion of safety standards since 1990 needs to be reversed; accelerated approvals of drugs based on surrogate, rather than clinical endpoints, require much greater critical attention; and much more extensive public access to regulatory science is required in order for regulatory decision-making to be thoroughly accountable to the public and the wider scientific community. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Bergsbaken, Jason, Roman, Danielle, Earl, Marc A., McBride, Ali, Olin, Jacqueline L., Peele, Adam, Reichard, Jeffrey S. [2018-09-01]
The article discusses guidelines from the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the roles and duties of the pharmacy technician in ambulatory oncology pharmacy. Topics covered include nationwide variations in the regulatory aspects of drug preparation and dispensing, the impact of U.S. Pharmacopeia chapter 800 on the handling of hazardous drugs, and the definition of the ambulatory setting for the purposes of the guidelines.
by Dawes, G. J. S., Fratila-Apachitei, L. E., Mulia, K. [2009-05-01]
Drug delivery systems (DDS) based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres and nanospheres have been separately studied in previous works as a means of delivering bioactive compounds over an extended period of time. In the present study, two DDS having different sizes of the PLGA spheres were compared in morphology, drug (dexamethasone) loading efficiency and drug release kinetics in order to investigate their feasibility with regard to production of medical combination devices for orthopedic applications. The loaded PLGA spheres have been produced by the oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method following two different schemes. Their morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug release was monitored in phosphate buffer saline solution at 37°C for 550 h using high performance liquid chromatography. The synthesis schemes used produced spheres with two different and reproducible size ranges (20 ± 10 and 1.0 ± 0.4 μm) having a smooth outer surface and regular shape. The drug loading efficiency of the 1.0 μm spheres was found to be 11% as compared to just 1% for the 20 μm spheres. Over the 550 h release period, the larger spheres (diameter 20 ± 10 μm) released 90% of the encapsulated dexamethasone in an approximately linear fashion whilst the relatively small spheres (diameter 1.0 ± 0.4 μm) released only 30% of the initially loaded dexamethasone, from which 20% within the first 25 h. The changes observed were mainly attributed to the difference in surface area between the two types of spheres as the surface texture of both systems was visibly similar. As the surface area per unit volume increases in the synthesis mixture, as is the case for the 1.0 μm spheres formulation, the amount of polymer-water interfaces increases allowing more dexamethasone to be encapsulated by the emerging polymer spheres. Similarly, during the release phase, as the surface area per unit volume increases, the rate of inclusion of water into the polymer increases, permitting faster diffusion of dexamethasone. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Singh, Baljit, Bala, Ritu, Chauhan, Nirmala [2008-08-01]
Psyllium is medicinally important gel forming polysaccharides. Keeping in view, the pharmacological importance of psyllium and drug delivery devices based on hydrogels, psyllium, if suitably tailored to prepare the hydrogels, can act as the double potential candidates for the novel drug delivery systems. Therefore, it is an attempt to prepared psyllium and acrylic acid based pH sensitive novel hydrogels by using N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide ( N, N-MBAAm) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator for the use in colon specific drug delivery. The present paper discusses the swelling kinetics of the hydrogels and release dynamics of model drugs (tetracycline hydrochloride, insulin and tyrosine) from drug-loaded hydrogels, for the evaluation of the swelling mechanism and drug release mechanism from the polymeric networks .The effect of pH on the swelling kinetics and release pattern of drugs have been studied by varying the pH of the release medium. It has been observed that swelling and release of drugs from the hydrogels occurred through non-Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism in distilled water and pH 7.4 buffer. It shows that the rate of polymer chain relaxation and the rate of drug diffusion from these hydrogels are comparable. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Elsinga, Philip H., Paans, Anne M. J., Van Waarde, Aren [2012-01-01]
Drug development is very expensive and a fight against time. PET offers possibilities to speed up this process by adding unique in vivo information on pharmacokinetics/dynamics of a drug at an early stage. This information can help decision makers to move the drug in the drug development process or to decide to stop further developments. This unique and complete book highlights the different ways PET can be used and describes the latest trends in the various disciplines within nuclear medicine to further improve methodologies and increase the number of tools to accelerate drug development. Various topics within tracer development, instrumentation, data analysis and many clinical and preclinical topics are described by leading scientists from industry and academia.
by Matsoukas, J., Mavromoustakos, T. [2002-01-01]
'This volume is a potpourri of review articles and research articles related to the'Bioactive Drugs in Drug Discovery and Design'. It can be regarded as a continuation of Volume 22 published by IOS Press in the series Biomedical and Health Research.'--P. v.
by Rathbone, Michael J. [2013-01-01]
This two volume Second Edition describes the anatomical, physiological, pharmaceutical, and technological aspects of delivery routes, found in areas like: Oral Ocular Dermal and transdermal Vaginal Colonic Oral mucosal Nasal Pulmonary Providing insight and critical assessment of the many available and emerging modified release drug delivery systems for their current and future value, topics include: Intellectual property rights and regulatory issues and challenges osmotic systems and Qtrol. Qdis. Matrix Systems thiolated polymers for CR, Oradur. IDD technology, and chronotherapy technology Oral-lyn™ (RapidMist™ Technology) Dentipatch drug delivery system ORAVESCENT™: a novel technology for the transmucosal delivery of drugs Egalet and COLAL technologies
by Schneider, Philip J., Buchanan, E. Clyde, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists [2009-01-01]
Empower your staff to improve safety, quality and compliance with the help of new guidelines and standards. We've updated every chapter of this popular review of the fundamentals of preparing sterile products in hospital, home-care, and community pharmacy settings to reflect the most recent revisions to USP. Included are the latest guidelines for the compounding process, quality assurance methods, and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the dispensing process. Comprehensive documentation for the guidelines is included in the appendices.Chapters new to this edition focus on: Gap analysis and action plans Safe use of automatic compounding devices Cleaning and disinfecting Radiopharmaceuticals as CSPs Allergen extracts as CSPs.
by Buchanan, E. Clyde, Schneider, Phillip J., Forrey, Ryan [2016-01-01]
The essential sterile compounding reference every pharmacist needs – now with important updates.Compounding Sterile Preparations, Fourth Edition, by E. Clyde Buchanan, Philip J. Schneider, and Ryan A. Forrey, is the most comprehensive and authoritative reference available on sterile compounding. It's a trusted resource that every pharmacist needs. The newest edition of this publication now includes:Coverage of new USP Chapter on the compounding of hazardous drugs and the existing USP Chapter Updates on regulations related to the Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA)Seven new chapters and 16 new contributorsAppendices offering more extensive reference to online resourcesSince the last edition published in 2009, much has changed in the world of compounding. Don't miss out on the latest updated information in this important field.
by Xu Wu, Shengpeng Wang, Junrong Lu, Yong Jing, Mingxing Li, Jiliang Cao, Baolin Bian, Changjiang Hu [2018-01-17]
Processing (Paozhi) represents a unique Chinese pharmaceutic technique to facilitate the use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for a specific clinical need in the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. Traditionally, most CHMs require a proper processing to meet the needs of specific clinical syndromes before being prescribed by TCM practitioners. During processing, significant changes in chemical profiles occur, which inevitably influence the associated pharmacological properties of a CHM. However, although processing is formed in a long-term practice, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear for most CHMs. The deepening understanding of the mechanism of processing would provide scientific basis for standardization of processing. This review introduced the role of processing in TCM and several typical methods of processing. We also summarized the up-to-date efforts on the mechanistic study of CHM processing. The processing mechanisms mainly include the following aspects: (i) directly reducing contents of toxic constituents; (ii) structural transformation of constituents; (iii) improving solubility of constituents; (iv) physically changing the existing form of constituents; (v) and influence by excipients. These progress may give new insights into future researches. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by North, Nigel [2000-03-01]
Managing the implementation of new technology in a pharmaceutical development environment has provided challenges and opportunities to obtain benefits from technologies, e.g. laboratory automation. Successful application of new techniques requires a dedicated resource. Within Pharmaceutical Technologies, this was initially a single person, who has since evolved into a team dedicated to the investigation and development of robotics and non-invasive analytical techniques. Pharmaceutical development is an important interface between research and commercial manufacturing. In research, the success of genomics and combinatorial chemistry will result in a significant increase in the number of development compounds, and this, combined with the desire of commercial manufacturing to move towards parametric release, puts an emphasis on the need for rapid analytical methods. Some ideas on the techniques that will be required to meet these goals will be described together with their impact on automation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Nasybullina, N. M., Sidullina, S. A.
The Latin term for pharmacist is provisor, which literally means "the one who foresees" or prepares or cares about something in advance. This is a specialist with a higher education degree in pharmaceutics. This article tells us about what the professional activities of pharmacists consist of and how students are taught at the department of pharmaceutics at Kazan State University of Medicine, as well as about the interrelation between the pharmaceutical disciplines. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Karra-Chaabouni, Maha, Trigui, Mohamed, Yust, María M., Awad, Mireille K., García-Moreno, Pedro J.
by Yue Zhou, Brasel, Trevor L., Kracko, Dean, Yung-Sung Cheng, Ahuja, Amitkumar, Norenberg, Jeffrey P., Kelly, H. William
When a nebulizer is evaluated by the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI), the flow rate is generally maintained at 28.3 L/min, as recommended by the manufacturer. However, the nebulizer flow rate that a patient inhales is only around 18 L/min. Because the drive flow of a nebulizer is approximately 6-8 L/min, the nebulized drug is mixed with outside air when delivered. Evaluating impactor performance at the 28.3 L/min flow rate is less than ideal because an additional 10 L/min of outside air is mixed with the drug, thereby affecting the drug size distribution and dose before inhalation and deposition in the human lung. In this study we operated the ACI at an 18.0 L/min flow rate to test whether the effect of the changing ambient humidity was being exaggerated by the 28.3 L/min flow rate. The study was carried out at three different relative humidity levels and two different impactor flow rates with four commercially available nebulizers. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the droplets were found to increase when the impactor was operated at a flow rate of 18 L/min compared to that of 28.3 L/min. The higher MMAD and GSD could cause the patient to inhale less of the drug than expected if the nebulizer was evaluated by the ACI at the operating flow rate of 28.3 L/min. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by C. Kim 
Discussing a comprehensive range of topics, this book reviews various aspects of physical pharmacy. It explains the basic, mechanistic, and quantitative interpretation skills needed to solve physical pharmacy related problems. It outlines the research on diffusion through a membrane and the use of polymers in dosage forms