Performance testing protocol for closed-system transfer devices used during pharmacy compounding and administration of hazardous drugs.

by Wilkinson, Alan-Shaun, Allwood, Michael Charles, Morris, Colin Patrick, Wallace, Andrew, Finnis, Rebecca, Kaminska, Ewelina, Stonkute, Donata, Szramowska, Maja, Miller, Joe, Pengelly, Ian, Hemingway, Michael [2018-10-31]

Academic Journal

pages 15

Objectives: The United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a protocol to assess the containment performance of closed system transfer devices (CSTDs) when used for drug preparation (task 1) and administration (task 2) and published a draft protocol in September 2016. Nine possible surrogates were proposed by NIOSH for use in the testing. The objectives of this study were to: (A) select the most appropriate surrogate; (B) validate the NIOSH protocol using this surrogate; and (C) determine the containment performance of four commercial CSTDs as compared with an open system of needle and syringe using the validated NIOSH protocol. Methods: 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-POE) was selected as a surrogate based on its water solubility, Henry’s volatility constant, detectability by mass spectrometry, and non-toxicity. Standard analytical validation methods including system suitability, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ) as well as system cleaning validation were performed. The amount of 2-POE released when the CSTDs were manipulated according to two tasks defined by NIOSH was determined using mass spectrometry coupled to thermal desorption and gas chromatography. This approach allows sensitivity of detection below 1 part per billion (ppb). Equashield, Tevadaptor (OnGuard), PhaSeal, and ChemoClave were assessed according to manufacturers’ instructions for use. Results: 2-POE was tested and validated for suitability of use within the NIOSH protocol. A simple and efficient cleaning protocol achieved consistently low background values, with an average value, based on 85 measurements, of 0.12 ppb with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ±0.16 ppb. This gives an LOD for the tests of 0.35 ppb and an LOQ of 0.88 ppb. The Equashield, Tevadaptor (OnGuard), and PhaSeal devices all showed average releases, based on 10 measurements from five tests, that were less than the LOQ (i.e. < 0.88 ppb), while the ChemoClave Vial Shield with Spinning Spiros showed average releases of 2.9±2.3 ppb and 7.5±17.9 ppb for NIOSH tasks 1 and 2 respectively at the 95% confidence level. The open system of needle and syringe showed releases, based on two measurements from a single test, of 4.2±2.2 ppb and 5.1±1.7 ppb for NIOSH tasks 1 and 2 respectively at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions: 2-POE proved to be an ideal surrogate for testing of CSTDs using the NIOSH protocol. We propose that a CSTD can be qualified using the NIOSH testing approach if the experimental LOQ is less than 1 ppb and the release values are below the LOQ. Equashield, Tevadaptor (OnGuard), and PhaSeal meet these acceptance criteria and can therefore all be qualified as CSTDs, but the ChemoClave system does not and so would not qualify as a CSTD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Pharmacy Preceptor Judgments of Student Performance and Behavior During Experiential Training.

by Wilbur, Kerry, Wilby, Kyle J., Pawluk, Shane [2018-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Objective. To report the findings of how Canadian preceptors perceive and subsequently evaluate diverse levels of trainees during pharmacy clerkships. Methods. Using modified Delphi technique, 17 Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) preceptors from across Canada categorized 16 student narrative descriptions pertaining to their perception of described student performance: exceeds, meets, or falls below their expectations. Results. Twelve (75%) student narratives profiles were categorized unanimously in the final round, six of which were below expectations. Out of 117 ratings of below expectations by responding preceptors, the majority (115, 98%) of post-baccalaureate PharmD students described would fail. Conversely, if the same narrative instead profiled a resident or an entry-to-practice PharmD student, rotation failure decreased to 95 (81%) and 89 (76%), respectively. Conclusion. Pharmacy preceptors do not uniformly judge the same described student performance and inconsistently apply failing rotation grades when they do agree that performance falls below expectations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Books Received.

No author [2004-08-15]

Academic Journal

pages 2

Lists books on pharmacy received by the "American Journal of Health System Pharmacy," as of August 15, 2004. "The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs"; "Adherence to Long-Term Therapies: Evidence for Action"; "Allen's Compounded Formulations: The Complete U.S. Pharmacist Collection".


QSAR: Prediction Beyond the Fourth Dimension.

by Greener, Mark [2005-05-01]

Periodical

pages 3

Discusses challenges relating to the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to anticipate new drug activities. Identification of relationships between some aspects of molecular structure and properties; Refinement of equations designed to predict liabilities or physical properties; Shift in the application of QSAR to drug development.


Uptake and Acceptability of Oral HIV Self-Testing among Community Pharmacy Clients in Kenya: A Feasibility Study.

by Mugo, Peter M., Micheni, Murugi, Shangala, Jimmy, Hussein, Mohamed H., Graham, Susan M., Rinke de Wit, Tobias F., Sanders, Eduard J. [2017-01-26]

Academic Journal

pages 15

Background: While HIV testing and counselling is a key entry point for treatment as prevention, over half of HIV-infected adults in Kenya are unaware they are infected. Offering HIV self-testing (HST) at community pharmacies may enhance detection of undiagnosed infections. We assessed the feasibility of pharmacy-based HST in Coastal Kenya. Methods: Staff at five pharmacies, supported by on-site research assistants, recruited adult clients (≥18 years) seeking services indicative of HIV risk. Participants were offered oral HST kits (OraQuick®) at US$1 per test. Within one week of buying a test, participants were contacted for post-test data collection and counselling. The primary outcome was test uptake, defined as the proportion of invited clients who bought tests. Views of participating pharmacy staff were solicited in feedback sessions during and after the study. Results: Between November 2015 and April 2016, 463 clients were invited to participate; 174 (38%) were enrolled; and 161 (35% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 31–39%]) bought a test. Uptake was higher among clients seeking HIV testing compared to those seeking other services (84% vs. 11%, adjusted risk ratio 6.9 [95% CI 4.9–9.8]). Only 4% of non-testers (11/302) stated inability to pay as the reason they did not take up the test. All but one tester reported the process was easy (29%) or very easy (70%). Demand for HST kits persisted after the study and participating service providers expressed interest in continuing to offer the service. Conclusions: Pharmacy HST is feasible in Kenya and may be in high demand. The uptake pattern observed suggests that a client-initiated approach is more feasible compared to pharmacy-initiated testing. Price is unlikely to be a barrier if set at about US$1 per test. Further implementation research is required to assess uptake, yield, and linkage to care on a larger scale. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Evaluating patients’, physicians’ and pharmacy professionals’ perception and concern regarding generic medicines in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia: A multi-stakeholder, cross-sectional survey.

by Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku, Belachew, Sewunet Admasu, Tefera, Yonas Getaye, Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu, Mekuria, Abebe Basazn, Haile, Kaleab Taye, Erku, Daniel Asfaw [2018-11-09]

Academic Journal

pages 13

Background: Generic medicine prescribing has become common practice in many countries. However, data regarding the perceptions of stakeholders (patients, prescribers and dispensers) regarding generic medicines in Ethiopia is scarce. The present survey aimed to investigate the perception of patients, physicians and pharmacy professionals regarding generic medicines in Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia between January 1 and February 1, 2017. The questionnaire, comprised of 5-point Likert scale items on perception and concerns regarding generic medicine, was administered to patients, physicians and pharmacy professionals working in the community drug retail outlets. Frequencies, percentages, and median were calculated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 for Windows to describe different variables. Results: The survey was completed by 612 participants. More than half of patients, 56% (n = 219) knew about the term brand and generic medicines and 38.7% (n = 151) of patients agreed/strongly agreed that brand medicines are more effective. Nearly half, 47% (n = 184) of patients agreed that they should have the option of choosing between generic and brand medicines and 61.4% (n = 240) of patients believed that cost should be considered before a medicineis prescribed. The majority of physicians 70.6% (n = 101) indicated a very low generic medicine prescription rate. 56% (n = 130) of physicians and 87.2% (n = 68) of pharmacy professionals agreed that they need a standard guideline to both prescribers and pharmacists on brand substitution process. Furthermore, 39.9% (n = 57) of the physicians and 87.2% (n = 68) of pharmacy professionals agreed that drug advertisements by the manufacturers would influence their prescribing/dispensing practice. Conclusions: Overall, our findings demonstrate a knowledge gap among patients towards the perception of generics, perceiving generics are less effective and inferior in quality compared to their branded equivalents. The majority of physicians reported a very low generic medicine prescribing rate and the majority pharmacy professionals’ dispensing practice was influenced by drug advertisements. Hence, a customized educational program should be developed and implemented to patients, prescribers and dispensers so as to boost the acceptability of generic medicines and increase generic prescribing and/or substitution. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Study on the Perception of Staff and Students of a University on Community Pharmacy Practice in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

by Mathews, Allan, Azad, Abul Kalam, Abbas, Syed A., Che Rose, Farid Z. Bin, Uddin, A. B. M. Helal [2018-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Background: In Malaysia, community pharmacies play an important and vital role in both urban and rural areas with approximately 30% of 12,000 registered pharmacists with annual retention certificate practicing in community pharmacies. The main objective of this study was to find the perception of respondents on the value and necessity of pharmacists. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section assessed the visits to community pharmacies, purpose, interaction with pharmacy staffs, professional fee, and improvements to pharmacy practices; the second section evaluated the characteristics of respondents including an e-consent form. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 11.5). Results: The highest number of respondents (66.1%) consulted with the pharmacists for cough and cold, 33.1% for gastric and stomach ailments, and 28.9% for diarrhea and constipation. Only 34% of cases were handled by the pharmacists, whereas 52.1% by the sales assistant. Approximately 88.5% showed satisfaction with the counseling provided. A total of 46.3% did not know whom they dealt with, whereas 51.2% wanted personal attention of the pharmacists instead of the sales assistants. However, 66.9% of respondents preferred to a private consultation room. Records of only 32.2% of respondents were secured by the pharmacies, whereas 42.1% showed interest to pay a professional fee. Moreover, 83.3% agreed the fee of RM5 only, whereas 20.8% agreed to RM10. Among the respondents, majority agreed to pay a fee willingly, but approximately 30% stayed neutral. Conclusion: There is a need for the community pharmacists to play vital roles firsthand at the front desk to serve the patients professionally instead of handing over the responsibilities to the sales assistant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Factors Influencing the Implementation of Quality Use of Medicines in Residential Aged Care.

by Cheek, Julianne, Gilber, Andrew, Ballantyne, Alison, Penhal, Rober [2004-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: In response to concerns about, and issues pertaining to, medication use practices in residential aged-care facilities (RACFs), the Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Council (APAC) established a working party on quality use of medicines (QUM) in nursing homes and hostels. The APAC is a representative ministerial advisory forum bringing together key stakeholders from the medical, nursing and pharmacy professions, as well as pharmaceutical industry, consumer and government sectors. The working party developed the integrated best practice model for medication management in RACFs. Objectives: This study arose from concerns that, despite the availability of such guidelines to inform best practice in RACFs, there remain barriers to its implementation. Thus, the focus of this research was to explore factors influencing the implementation of best practice with respect to QUM in RACFs. Methods: This multimethod, multidisciplinary study was conducted in a representative sample of 12 RACFs in one Australian state - South Australia. The methods used were Critical Incident Technique (CIT) interviews, focus groups, nominal groups and Participatory Action Research. Results: In stage one of the research the CIT interviews identified four major issues/factors influencing the implementation of best practice: contextual/structural, boundaries, day-to-day practices and keeping up. These themes were developed in the focus and nominal group sessions and the project team prepared a discussion paper summarising stage one results. In stage two participants were asked to use the discussion paper to develop a way forward. Medication Advisory Committees (MACs) emerged as a key strategy. Each participating RACF was then supported to establish and maintain a MAC. A second workshop heard feedback from the facilities on factors supporting the MACs and barriers to their functioning. Eleven of the 12 RACFs had a functioning MAC at the end of the project. Key support factors included: an external facilitator to help organise MAC meetings, provision of resources, such as terms of reference, agendas, policy statements and the sharing of information between MACs. In stage three a set of agreed recommendations was prepared and submitted to the funding body. The recommendations reported here informed the development of the peak guidelines for medication management and administration in Australia. Conclusion: This project has been groundbreaking in its impact on Australian aged-care practice. A major outcome has been significantly improved communication and collaboration between industry organisations, academic disciplines, professional bodies and educators involved in the RACFs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Behavioral Coping Strategies of First Year Students from the Romanian Medical Education System.

by NECHITA, D., ALEXANDRU, D. O., NECHITA, FLORINA [2016-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

A number of 333 medical students from the faculties of General Medicine, Pharmacy and Medical Nursing took part in a study which aimed at ascertaining what behavioral coping strategies they use most frequently. By employing SACS (Strategic Approach to Coping Scale), it has been ascertained that the students at the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy from Craiova function in a relatively different way from the general population and that they preponderantly use coping strategies which tend to be active and pro-social, such as: cautious action, social relating, assertive action and search for social support. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 12

Pharmacoeconomics is vitally important to drug manufacturers in terms of communicating to external decision-makers (payers, prescribers, patients) the value of their products, achieving regulatory and reimbursement approval and contributing to commercial success. Since development of new drugs is long, costly and risky, and decisions must be made how to allocate considerable research and development (R&D) resources, pharmacoeconomics also has an essential role informing internal decision-making (within a company) during drug development. The use of pharmacoeconomics in early development phases is likely to enhance the efficiency of R&D resource use and also provide a solid foundation for communicating product value to external decision-makers further downstream, increasing the likelihood of regulatory (reimbursement) approval and commercial success. This paper puts the case for use of pharmacoeconomic analyses earlier in the development process and outlines five techniques (clinical trial simulation [CTS], option pricing [OP], investment appraisal [IA], threshold analysis [TA] and value of information [VOI] analysis) that can provide useful input into the design of clinical development programmes, portfolio management and optimal pricing strategy. CTS can estimate efficacy and tolerability profiles before clinical data are available. OP can show the value of different clinical programme designs, sequencing of studies and stop decisions. IA can compare expected net present value (NPV) of different product profiles or study designs. TA can be used to understand development drug profile requirements given partial data. VOI can assist risk management by quantifying uncertainty and assessing the economic viability of gathering further information on the development drug. No amount of pharmacoeconomic data can make a bad drug good; what it can do is enhance the drug developers understanding of the characteristics of that drug. Decision-making, in light of this information, is likely to be better than that without it, whether it leads to faster termination of uneconomic projects or the allocation of more appropriate resources to attractive projects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Methodological considerations in clinical outcomes assessment of pharmacy-based minor ailments management: A systematic review.

by Paudyal, Vibhu, Cunningham, Scott, Gibson Smith, Kathrine, MacLure, Katie, Ryan, Cristin, Cordina, Maria [2018-10-04]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Background: The accessibility of services within community pharmacies provides an ideal opportunity to manage minor ailments, yet over £1.1 billion is spent by the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (UK) in managing minor ailments in high cost settings. There is a need to review the evidence base around clinical effectiveness of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments since the absence of such may lead to under-utilisation of pharmacy services and non-implementation of available pharmacy service models. This study aimed to systematically review the methodological approaches used to assess clinical outcomes of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments in the research literature. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant literature using the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA, CRD, CDSR, and Google Scholar from publication year 2000 onwards. Studies were included if they evaluated clinical outcomes of pharmacy-based management of any minor ailments, with or without a comparator setting such as Emergency Departments (EDs) or general practices. Screening and selection of titles, abstracts and full texts followed by data extraction and quality assessment (QA) was conducted. Paired researchers, from the team, reviewed papers using a protocol based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). QA was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Reporting was conducted in accordance with PRISMA checklist and statements. Results: A total of 19 studies were included. The majority of studies were observational, conducted in community pharmacies, and did not use a comparator participant group nor a comparator setting. Interventions included counselling, medicines supply and provision of advice on the management of minor ailments. One study used the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design with majority of the study utilising observational design. A range of clinical outcomes including symptom severity, pattern, resolution, and quality of life were reported. Methods used for the assessment of clinical outcomes were, overall, poorly reported. This included a lack of information on the development and validation of the data collection tools and the timing of baseline and follow-up data collection. Adverse clinical outcomes data were collected by only seven studies. Conclusions: Currently, there are methodological limitations in the studies that have sought to assess clinical outcomes of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments. Such lack of high quality evidence may contribute to failings to shift care from high cost settings, such as EDs and general practices. Generation of high quality evidence is likely to influence public choices when seeking care for minor ailments. There is scope for development of a core outcomes set specific to minor ailments management and development of a validated methodology for measuring such outcomes in a research study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Research Involvement of Pharmacy Faculties in India.

by Deshpande, Prasanna R., Chandrakar, Vikas R., Bhusare, Kiran, Lalwani, Tarachand, Prasanna, M. Naga Lakshmi, Kanhed, Ashish, Pawar, Atmaram P. [2018-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Objective: The contribution of Indian pharmacy research is unremarkable in the world. Hence, we aimed to determine the research involvement and research productivity of Indian pharmacy faculties. Methods: A questionnaire evaluating research involvement and research productivity of the faculties was developed, validated and sent to 7536 email addresses. The main question categories in the questionnaire were- demographics, journal related research activities, conference related research activities, opinions about research and others. Results: We received 295 responses with the response rate of 3.91%. The male: female ratio was 2.78. The important average values in the survey were- experience in teaching/research= 12.51 years, Time spent on research/related activities=131.56 min/day, Research based publications= 34.3, Patents received=0.90. Conclusion: Although our study generates huge 'quantitative' data, serious inputs are needed to improve the overall 'quality' of Indian pharmacy academic research. Further research is indeed required to strengthen the field. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 19

Background: Equitable access to essential medicines is a major challenge for policy-makers world-wide, including Central and Eastern European countries. Member States of the European Union situated in Central and Eastern Europe have publicly funded pharmaceutical reimbursement systems that should promote accessibility and affordability of, at least essential medicines. However, there is no knowledge whether socioeconomic inequalities exist in these countries. Against this backdrop, this study analyses whether socioeconomic determinants influence the use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in eight Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia). Further, the study discusses observed (in)equalities in medicine use in the context of the pharmaceutical policy framework and the implementation in these countries. Methods: The study is based on cross-sectional data from the first wave of the European Health Interview Survey (2007-2009). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the association between socioeconomic status (measured by employment status, education, income; controlled for age, gender, health status) and medicine use (prescribed and non-prescribed medicines). This was supplemented by a pharmaceutical policy analysis based on indicators in four policy dimensions (sustainable funding, affordability, availability and accessibility, and rational selection and use of medicines). Results: Overall, the analysis showed a gradient favouring individuals from higher socioeconomic groups in the consumption of non-prescribed medicines in the eight surveyed countries, and for prescribed medicines in three countries (Latvia, Poland, Romania). The pharmaceutical systems in the eight countries were, to varying degrees, characterized by a lack of (public) funding, thus resulting in high and growing shares of private financing (including co-payments for prescribed medicines), inefficiencies in the selection of medicines into reimbursement and limitations in medicines availability. Conclusion: Pharmaceutical policies aiming at reducing inequalities in medicine use require not only a consideration of the role of co-payments and other private expenditure but also adequate investment in medicines and transparent and clear processes regarding the inclusion of medicines into reimbursement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


BOOKS RECEIVED.

No author [2010-12-15]

Academic Journal

pages 2

The article presents a list of books on pharmacy received which include "Fundamentals of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy: An Evidence-Based Approach," by Lisa C. Hutchison and Rebecca B. Sleeper, "Handbook of Extemporaneous Preparation," edited by Mark Jackson and Andrew Lowey, and "BNF 59," edited by Joint Formulary Committee.


Review

pages 3

The article reviews the book "Communication Skills in Pharmacy Practice: A Practical Guide for Students and Practitioners," 5th Edition, by William N. Tindall, Robert S. Beardsley and Carole L. Kimberlin.


Books Received.

No author [2004-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 2

The article presents a list of books related to pharmacy. Some of the books enlisted are, "Advancing Patient Safety in U.S. Hospitals: Basic Strategies for Success," edited by Diane D. Cousins, "Basic Clinical Pharmacokinetics," 4th ed., by Michael B. Winter, "The Big Fix: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Rips Off American Consumers," by Katharine Greider, "Breast Health and Common Breast Problems: A Practical Approach," edited by Pamela S. Ganschow, Frances B. Norlock, Elizabeth A. Jacobs and others, "The British National Formulary," 46th ed., by Dinesh K. Mehta, "Cannabis: From Pariah to Prescription," edited by Ethan Russo, "Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms," by Frank A. Barile, "Clinician's Pocket Reference," 10th ed., edited by Leonard C. Gomella and Steven A. Haist.


A study on the present status of Pharmacy and Pharmacists in health care sector.

by Khan, Najam Ali, Singh, Pawan, Abid, M., Verma, Anurag, Kishore, Kamal [2013-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

The observance of pharmacy practice to an authorizing pharmacist study was carried out during February to April 2013 in Moradabad (U.P) selected randomly with a total of 75 prescriptions in the hospital, urban and rural pharmacy practice. The practice of pharmaceutical care should be new, indifference to what pharmacists should have done now the present time, Because pharmacists frequently fail to accept responsibility for this care, they may not sufficiently document, monitor and review the care given. Therefore, In the present study, we have assessed the behavior, communication skill, qualification of the pharmacist, handled the doctor`s prescription, frequency of dose, drug food interaction, prescription records and changing of drugs and error of medication In this survey, the pharmacist was not taken care the patient and they were not given proper guidelines to the patient. As per the rules and guidelines given by the Food and drug administration and Indian pharmacopeia commission was not followed by the pharmacist. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 4

Discusses the reasons for the continued lack of access to essential medicines, drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population at a price they and the community can afford, in developing countries. High prices of drugs; Exclusivity of the production of goods including medicines under the World Trade Organization agreement on trade-related intellectual property rights; Lack of commitment to research and product development for the least developed countries; Suggestions on how to enhance access to essential drugs.


COMPUTER FUZZY MODEL REGARDING PHARMACIES INTEGRAL PERCEPTIONS BY VISITORS.

by DOROKHOVA, Liudmyla, DOROKHOV, Oleksandr [2017-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 16

The paper considers the development of a computer model for the task of determining consumer estimates of pharmacy institutions by visitors and clients in terms of quality and service conditions. The main criteria and parameters for such an assessment were chosen, and their hierarchical tree was constructed. Then, the units of measurement and the ranges of the parameters to be evaluated were determined. Given the lack of certainty of opinions and assessments of consumers, it is advisable to solve the problem on the basis of fuzzy modeling methods. Thus the most appropriate computer simulation tool, the FuzzyTECH specialized software has been chosen. In this environment, an appropriate model has been created. For this, input and output linguistic variables, as well as their terms, has been defined. Then the corresponding membership functions and fuzzy logic inference rules were constructed. Further, the corresponding surfaces of the fuzzy inference were obtained. The developed computer model was tested during the evaluation of a group of pharmacies in the city of Kharkiv. The calculated resulting estimates are fairly close to those obtained using other, more cumbersome methods. The approached described and the model presented showed fairly valid results, despite its relative simplicity. Thus, the described implementation of the fuzzy-multiple model of generalized customer service evaluation in pharmacy institutions is a very useful practical computer tool for solving problems of improving the level of pharmaceutical service. The proposed computer model is also applicable to other tasks of assessing the quality of service in conditions of uncertainty. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Changes and specificities in health behaviors among healthcare students over an 8-year period.

by Tavolacci, M. P., Delay, J., Grigioni, S., Déchelotte, P., Ladner, J. [2018-03-22]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Background: Healthcare students are future health care providers and serve as role models and coaches to enhance behaviors for healthy lifestyles. However healthcare students face multiple stressors that could lead to adopting risk behaviors. Objectives: To assess the changes in health risk factors among healthcare students between 2007 and 2015, and to identify specific health behaviors based on the curriculum in a population of healthcare students: Methods: Two cross sectionnal studies were conducted in 2007 and 2015 among nursing, medical, pharmacy, and physiotherapy students (Rouen, France). During compulsory courses and examination sessions students filled self-administered questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics and behavior as: tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis consumption, eating disorders, regular practice of sport, perceived health, stress and use of psychotropic drugs. Results: 2,605 healthcare students were included (1,326 in 2007 and 1,279 in 2015), comprising 1,225 medical students (47.0%), 738 nursing students (28.3%), 362 pharmacy students (13.9%), and 280 physiotherapy students (10.8%). Between 2007 and 2015, occasional binge drinking and regular practice of sport increased significantly among healthcare students, respectively AOR = 1.48 CI95% (1.20–1.83) and AOR = 1.33 CI95% (1.11–1.60), regular cannabis consumption decreased significantly, AOR = 0.32 CI95% (0.19–0.54). There was no change in smoking or overweight/obese. There was a higher risk of frequent binge drinking and a lower risk of tobacco smoking in all curricula than in nursing students. Medical students practiced sport on a more regular basis, were less overweight/obese, had fewer eating disorders than nursing students. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate a stable frequency of classic behaviors as smoking but a worsening of emerging behaviors as binge drinking among healthcare students between 2007 and 2015. Health behaviors differed according to healthcare curricula and nursing students demonstrated higher risks. As health behaviors are positively related to favorable attitudes towards preventive counseling, therefore healthcare students should receive training in preventive counseling and develop healthy lifestyles targeted according to the health curriculum. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Relationship Between Admission Data and Pharmacy Student Involvement in Extracurricular Activities.

by Kiersma, Mary E., Plake, Kimberly S., Mason, Holly L. [2011-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Objectives. To assess pharmacy student involvement in leadership and service roles and to evaluate the association between admissions data and student involvement. Methods. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were invited to complete a 56-item online survey instrument containing questions regarding leadership and service involvement, work experiences, perceived contribution of involvement to skill development, and perceived importance of involvement. Responses were linked to admissions data to identify possible associations. Results. Five hundred fourteen (82.4%) pharmacy students completed the survey instrument. Students with higher admissions application and interview scores were more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles, while students with higher admissions grade point averages were less likely to be involved in organizations and leadership roles. Conclusions. Assessing students' involvement in leadership and service roles can assist in the evaluation of students' leadership skills and lead to modification of curricular and co-curricular activities to provide development opportunities. Student involvement in extracurricular activities may encourage future involvement in and commitment to the pharmacy profession. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]