Changes and specificities in health behaviors among healthcare students over an 8-year period.

by Tavolacci, M. P., Delay, J., Grigioni, S., Déchelotte, P., Ladner, J. [2018-03-22]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Background: Healthcare students are future health care providers and serve as role models and coaches to enhance behaviors for healthy lifestyles. However healthcare students face multiple stressors that could lead to adopting risk behaviors. Objectives: To assess the changes in health risk factors among healthcare students between 2007 and 2015, and to identify specific health behaviors based on the curriculum in a population of healthcare students: Methods: Two cross sectionnal studies were conducted in 2007 and 2015 among nursing, medical, pharmacy, and physiotherapy students (Rouen, France). During compulsory courses and examination sessions students filled self-administered questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics and behavior as: tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis consumption, eating disorders, regular practice of sport, perceived health, stress and use of psychotropic drugs. Results: 2,605 healthcare students were included (1,326 in 2007 and 1,279 in 2015), comprising 1,225 medical students (47.0%), 738 nursing students (28.3%), 362 pharmacy students (13.9%), and 280 physiotherapy students (10.8%). Between 2007 and 2015, occasional binge drinking and regular practice of sport increased significantly among healthcare students, respectively AOR = 1.48 CI95% (1.20–1.83) and AOR = 1.33 CI95% (1.11–1.60), regular cannabis consumption decreased significantly, AOR = 0.32 CI95% (0.19–0.54). There was no change in smoking or overweight/obese. There was a higher risk of frequent binge drinking and a lower risk of tobacco smoking in all curricula than in nursing students. Medical students practiced sport on a more regular basis, were less overweight/obese, had fewer eating disorders than nursing students. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate a stable frequency of classic behaviors as smoking but a worsening of emerging behaviors as binge drinking among healthcare students between 2007 and 2015. Health behaviors differed according to healthcare curricula and nursing students demonstrated higher risks. As health behaviors are positively related to favorable attitudes towards preventive counseling, therefore healthcare students should receive training in preventive counseling and develop healthy lifestyles targeted according to the health curriculum. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Relationship Between Admission Data and Pharmacy Student Involvement in Extracurricular Activities.

by Kiersma, Mary E., Plake, Kimberly S., Mason, Holly L. [2011-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Objectives. To assess pharmacy student involvement in leadership and service roles and to evaluate the association between admissions data and student involvement. Methods. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were invited to complete a 56-item online survey instrument containing questions regarding leadership and service involvement, work experiences, perceived contribution of involvement to skill development, and perceived importance of involvement. Responses were linked to admissions data to identify possible associations. Results. Five hundred fourteen (82.4%) pharmacy students completed the survey instrument. Students with higher admissions application and interview scores were more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles, while students with higher admissions grade point averages were less likely to be involved in organizations and leadership roles. Conclusions. Assessing students' involvement in leadership and service roles can assist in the evaluation of students' leadership skills and lead to modification of curricular and co-curricular activities to provide development opportunities. Student involvement in extracurricular activities may encourage future involvement in and commitment to the pharmacy profession. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Ritzman elevates expectations for Rx.

by Walden, Geoff [2016-04-04]

Periodical

pages 2

The article informs that drug retailing chain Ritzman has opened a pharmacy counter to increase customer expectation for a pharmacy interaction.


ASHP-HOPA guidelines on the roles and responsibilities of the pharmacy technician in ambulatory oncology pharmacy.

by Bergsbaken, Jason, Roman, Danielle, Earl, Marc A., McBride, Ali, Olin, Jacqueline L., Peele, Adam, Reichard, Jeffrey S. [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

The article discusses guidelines from the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the roles and duties of the pharmacy technician in ambulatory oncology pharmacy. Topics covered include nationwide variations in the regulatory aspects of drug preparation and dispensing, the impact of U.S. Pharmacopeia chapter 800 on the handling of hazardous drugs, and the definition of the ambulatory setting for the purposes of the guidelines.


The Benefit of Continuing Professional Development for Continuing Pharmacy Education.

by Wheeler, James S., Chisholm-Burns, Marie [2018-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The article discusses the benefit of continuing professional development (CPD) for continuing pharmacy education (CPE). Topics include the impact of continuing education in the health professions in the literature, classification of accredited CPE activities, and the definition of the CPD approach. The implications of CPD for continuing education providers are also discussed.


Pharmacy integrated care: the Northumberland Vanguard model.

by BAQIR, WASIM, PAES, PAUL, STOKER, ANDREA, MORRIS, EMMA, MCWHIR, RACHEL, RIDLEY, HELEN, BARRETT, SCOTT, COPELAND, RICHARD, HUDSON, ROBIN, BARRETT, STEVEN, BALLANTYNE, JACQUELINE, CAMPBELL, DAVID [2018-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The Northumberland Vanguard model of care has pharmacists and technicians working in both hospital and primary care settings, and based in geographical hubs. Each team is part of a wider enhanced care team including community nursing, social care and general practice. The model stratifies patients from low to high need for support with medicines, and a range of clinical pharmacy services are provided to improve patient care and outcomes while reducing costs and hospital admissions/readmissions. The care home model ensures rapid follow-up and support for new and discharged residents, including community pharmacy reviews. Since July 2016, over 15 months, the integrated pharmacy team has made 5,124 interventions for 2,445 patients through their caseload, with an estimated 223 hospital admissions avoided. The service continues to evolve and is currently being scaled and further evaluated. In addition, the foundation training programme has allowed newly qualified pharmacists to develop clinical skills in hospital and general practice. This article describes the Northumberland Vanguard model of care and how it has benefitted patients. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


CLINICAL TRIALS AND RESEARCH.

by Poole, S.G., Eaton, K., Dooley, M.J., Goffredo, F., Ortega, C., Pirazzoli, A., Scroccaro, G., Venturini, F., MacLean, Robert, Taylor, Suzanne C. Malfair, Barnett, Jeff B., Moravan, Veronika, Uyeno, Kelly T., Shah, Amil, Müller, Marlen, Junker, Annette, Dionne, Anne, Cormier, Julie, Mandalá, M. [2001-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Presents abstracts of studies related to oncology pharmacy. 'Off-label Prescribing in Oncology: The Australian Experience,' by S.G. Poole, K. Eaton and M.J. Dooley; 'Italian Proposed Guideline on Pharmacogenetic Research,' by F. Goffredo, C. Ortega et al.



Comparison of losartan with ACE inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists: a pilot study of prescription-event monitoring in Japan.

by Samizo, K., Kawabe, E., Hinotsu, S., Sato, T., Kageyama, S., Hamada, C., Ohashi, Y., Kubota, K., Samizo, Kazuo, Kawabe, Eri, Hinotsu, Shiro, Sato, Tsugumichi, Kageyama, Shigeru, Hamada, Chikuma, Ohashi, Yasuo, Kubota, Kiyoshi [2002-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Introduction: Two pilot studies for prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM) were launched in 1997 and 1998. Here we present data regarding adverse events that were reported in the second pilot J-PEM study where losartan was compared with ACE inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists.Study Design: We conducted a cohort study with a concurrent control. METHODS/PATIENT GROUP: Study subjects prescribed losartan, an ACE inhibitor or a calcium channel antagonist were identified from prescriptions in hospital or community pharmacies. Events and other information were collected from doctors and pharmacists by mailed questionnaires. Events were coded and analysed using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terminology. Crude event rates were calculated and compared between patients treated with losartan and those receiving control drugs. When the difference was statistically significant, the event was further examined in several ways, including follow-up studies and by comparison with the data of the UK PEM study on losartan.Results: Pharmacists were sent 4344 questionnaires and returned 3591 (83%), while doctors were sent 3517 questionnaires and returned 1380 (39%). In the doctors' data, the adverse event rate for losartan treatment was greater than that for ACE inhibitors and/or calcium channel antagonists for the following seven events: headache, palpitations, anaemia, insomnia, feeling abnormal, increased blood pressure and asthma. Most of these are known adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of losartan except for two events: increased blood pressure and asthma. In pharmacists' data, the event rate for losartan was significantly greater than that for control drugs for the following ten events: hot flushes, abnormal hepatic function, oedema, peripheral swelling, decreased blood pressure, increased blood pressure, rhinitis, contact dermatitis, dry skin and heat rash. The first five events were known ADRs of losartan but the other five were not. When the two sets of data were combined, the rate of an additional event, increased blood creatinine phosphokinase, which is a known ADR of losartan, was significantly greater than that for the control drugs. The six events that were not documented as ADRs for losartan were not judged to be ADRs based on the results of follow-up studies and comparison with the UK PEM study on losartan. The crude rate of cough with losartan treatment was similar to that with calcium channel antagonists, but was significantly less than that with ACE inhibitors.Conclusion: No novel safety problems were found in this observational cohort study on losartan. The rates of some known ADRs differed significantly between patients treated with losartan and those in the control groups. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Adoption of duty-hour standards in a pharmacy residency program.

by Smith, Kelly M., Trapskin, Philip J., Armitstead, John A. [2005-04-15]

Academic Journal

pages 4

The article discusses an adoption of duty-hour standards in a pharmacy residency program. On July 1, 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented new common duty-hour minimum standards for all accredited medical residency programs. Participants in pharmacy residencies (including pharmacy practice, critical care, oncology, pediatrics, and primary care) are classified as house-staff officers and governed by the same general policies set forth by graduate medical education office for medical, surgical, and dental residents.


The Pharmacy Informatics Primer

by Dumitru, Doina [2009-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

The information technology revolution has fueled the demand in hospitals and health systems for accomplished experts who can help select, implement and maintain CPOE, BCMA, EHR and other systems. As the use of IT in healthcare expands and the complexity of medication therapy increases, there has been a correspondingly rapid growth in the practice of pharmacy informatics and a basic need for an understanding of key elements.The Pharmacy Informatics Primer provides a foundational understanding and offers “pearls of wisdom” for pharmacy professionals involved in informatics. This introductory resource outlines key concepts in understanding, developing, implementing, and maintaining clinical information and automation systems.This essential guide is designed for all pharmacists and covers an introduction to major concepts of informatics such as ePrescribing, CPOE, bar-coding, smart pumps, and the pharmacist's role in EHR. Chapter features include key terms and definitions, and a comprehensive table of pearls, specific to each subject to present a clear understanding of all concepts.


Community Pharmacists' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Dispensing Antibiotics without Prescription (DAwP).

by Thamir Alotaibi, Fakhir, Abdullrhman Khobrani, Attiah, Safar Almalki, Mesfer, Abdullah Aljabri, Hassan [2018-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Background: As a result of the wide antibiotic abuse in many communities all over, bacterial resistance against different antibiotic formulas has aroused. It is an actual matter of importance because it touches up the most crucial principles of pharmacy and devoted work for medicine field in general. Objectives: We have come to the aim of assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacists concerning dispensing antibiotics without prescription. We are discussing the ethical and legal elements contributing in the judgment of the final results and decision about the matter. Material and methods: We are using the questionnaire test method to assess the knowledge and measure the attitude and practice of those pharmacists in marks and degrees. Results: the pharmacists working in community pharmacies lack the knowledge of the legality of DAwD, though they know the greatly bad influence of it over the resistivity in bacteria and viruses. That of course goes along with the knowledge degree of the patients themselves Conclusion: We have come to a conclusion that most of the pharmacists had no prior knowledge of the illegality of dispensing antibiotics without prescription "DAwP". And of course, we recommend to enhance the awareness and knowledge of them by raising educational training programs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Pharmacy in Public Health : Basics and Beyond

by Carter, Jean, Slack, Marion, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists [2010-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

Pharmacy in Public Health: Basics and Beyond outlines what public health is and why it is so important for today's pharmacists to know. This practical book covers key areas like the foundations of public health, concepts and tools of policy, and models of public health programs run by pharmacists. It provides pharmacists and pharmacy students all of the tools they need to get started making an impact in their communities. Readers are guided through three sections that progressively build knowledge of concepts, tools, and models of pharmacist participation in public health activities.Be prepared for21st century challenges such as: - Disease prevention- Immunization programs- Public health crises such as Avian Influenza and H1N1 virus- The obesity and diabetes epidemics- Government health programs n Health care reform- Tobacco cessation- And much moreThis publication answers these tough issues and prepares you for public health challenges ahead.


Report of the Journal Editor.

by DiPiro, Joseph T. [2014-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 1

The article reports statistics and activity compilation of the "American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education" 2013 Volume 77. Topics include the number of manuscripts that were submitted, accepted and published in the journal, the appointment of Doctor Gayle Brazeau as the new Editor, and the appointment of new editorial board members Margatita DiVall and Tyler Rose. Also mentioned is the Rufus A. Lyman Award which gives recognition to the best pharmacy education paper published in the journal.


A Recent Review on Chemiluminescence Reaction, Principle and Application on Pharmaceutical Analysis.

by Fereja, Tadesse Haile, Hymete, Ariaya, Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan [2013-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

This paper provides a general review on principle of chemiluminescent reactions and their recent applications in drug analysis. The structural requirements for chemiluminescent reactions and the different factors that affect the efficiency of analysis are included in the review. Chemiluminescence application in immunoassay is the new version for this review. Practical considerations are not included in the review since the main interest is to state, through the aforementioned applications, that chemiluminescence has been, is, and will be a versatile tool for pharmaceutical analysis in future years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 8

Background: An investigation was undertaken to determine whether pharmacists at one independently owned retail pharmacy were compliant with Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) standards for the provision of pharmaceutical care to patients. It was hypothesised that the pharmacy's performance management system (PMS) undermines compliance with these standards, and thus the provision of pharmaceutical care. Method: A triangulation approach was used. The quantitative research method involved 200 patients who completed a questionnaire. The qualitative research method involved conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with all four dispensary employees. Results: At least 50% of patients perceived that only two out of 10 pharmaceutical care services were always provided. All pharmacists agreed that the provision of pharmaceutical care was a key performance area, and there were several commendable aspects of the PMS. However, nine key weaknesses in the PMS were identified. These included inadequacies relating to the pharmacy's vision and mission statement; poor awareness of GPP standards; the absence of fundamental documentation, such as job descriptions, and performance appraisals; confusion regarding performance objectives; inadequate training and development; and misunderstandings regarding remuneration. Prominent findings are that time pressures contributed to difficulties in providing pharmaceutical care, and that a key performance target was to serve customers as quickly and efficiently as possible. Conclusion: These weaknesses in the PMS may have undermined compliance with GPP standards. Non-compliance increased the potential for patient harm, and posed operational risks that could have undermined the business's financial performance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Description and Evaluation of a Hypercholesterolemia Certification Program.

by Spruill, William J., Wade, William E., Leslie, Ryan B., Brooks, Paul J.

Academic Journal

pages 5

The National Cholesterol Education Program provides guidelines to healthcare professionals for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP). An estimated 52 million Americans require dietary therapy and 12.7 million Americans require drug therapy for hypercholesterolemia. Many practicing pharmacists desire formal training in hypercholesterolemia disease state management to become both board certified in this sub-specialty and to meet the needs of their patients. The University of Georgia College of Pharmacy developed an ACPE approved Certificate Program to provide pharmacists with additional education and experience in this area. The program consisted of two phases with 23 h of study and interaction over 6 months that utilized lectures, written assignments, internet based exams, case studies and asynchronous discussions. Lastly, this program allowed pharmacists to develop necessary patient care skills by creating a pharmacy site-specific care plan that was then implemented on selected patients over a three-month period. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 13

To investigate a new method for evaluating counselling performance of staff in community pharmacies and to assess the quality of patient counselling.Trained pseudo customers, instructed to play their role according to two different self-medication scenarios, visited voluntarily participating community pharmacies in Berlin. After documenting the counselling process, immediately after each visit, outside the pharmacy on an assessment form, the pseudo customer re-entered the pharmacy and gave detailed performance feedback to the counsellor and the pharmacist in charge in order to provide support for improving counselling skills and practice behaviour, when appropriate. This was followed with a written summary of the general performance of all participating pharmacies and additional individual feedback and suggestions for improvement. Educational needs were identified for subsequent performance-based educational strategies such as group-workshops, team-training and on-site team-coaching.Forty-nine community pharmacies in Berlin volunteered to participate in this pilot study. Ninety-eight per cent of the participating pharmacies offered advice. However, in 36% of the cases, advice was only given on request. The different types of scenarios– presentation of a symptom or request for a specific product– made a great difference to the spontaneity of questions and advice. At least one question to check on accuracy of self-diagnosis was asked in 95% of the cases of symptom presentation but in only 47% of the cases of specific product request. Information on appropriate self-medication was provided on at least one item in 74% of pseudo customer visits, but most of the time the information was not sufficient. Communication skills (nonverbal elements, comprehensibility etc.) were very good or good in 54% of the visits. Potential for improvement was mainly in relation to the use of open-ended questions to gain more information and on counselling about appropriate self-medication. Direct feedback was given in 96% of the pharmacies (one person refused to accept feedback and one feedback had to be postponed because of time shortage). All of the participants regarded counselling as an important subject in pharmacy practice.The pseudo customer method was successfully used in this study of German community pharmacies. It was shown that pseudo customer visits and performance feedback following the counselling process, were feasible in daily practice and well accepted by the participants. A training program, focussing on areas in most need of improvement, has been developed. The promising results have led to the Federal Chamber of Pharmacists in Germany adopting this method as part of a continuous quality improvement program in community pharmacies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 6

Objective. To determine the benefit of pharmacy work experience on the development of student pharmacists' professional identity. Methods. Students in all four professional years were surveyed using a validated Professional Selfidentity Questionnaire (PSIQ). They were also asked about pharmacy experience prior to matriculation and their performance on Drug Information tests given midway through the P1 year and at the beginning of the P3 year. PSIQ responses and test results were compared based on pharmacy experience. Results. The PSIQ was completed by 293 student pharmacists, for a 67% response rate, with 76% of respondents reporting pharmacy experience prior to matriculation. Statistically higher scores on responses to 6 of the 9 PSIQ Likert-type items were observed from students in the first professional year for those with pharmacy experience; however, only one item in the second year showed differences with none in the third and fourth years. No impact of experience was observed on Top 100 or Top 300 grades. Conclusion. Pre-matriculation pharmacy experience may increase development of professional identity early in the student experience but may have little impact on academic readiness. Schools and colleges of pharmacy hoping to recruit students with an early sense of professional identity should consider adding such experience to their admissions requirements. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A Pilot Study on an Interprofessional Course Involving Pharmacy and Dental Students in a Dental Clinic.

by Pogge, Elizabeth K., Hunt, Ronald J., Patton, Lynn R., Reynolds, Steven C., Davis, Lindsay E., Storjohann, Tara D., Tennant, Shawn E., Call, Steven R.

Academic Journal

pages 7

Objective. To assess the effect of a dental clinical rotation program involving pharmacy students and dental students. Methods. An interprofessional education (IPE) course was offered as an elective to second-year pharmacy students and required for third-year dental students. The course included two in-class sessions, one online lecture, and five clinic sessions. Program evaluation analyses included a comparison of participating versus nonparticipating students on a knowledge survey of pharmacotherapy and IPE, and a descriptive analysis of IPE course evaluation results. Results. Among pharmacy students, mean scores were significantly higher for participants than nonparticipants on the 31-item pharmacy knowledge component of the survey. On the eight-item IPE component of the survey, scores were significantly higher for participants than for nonparticipants, both among pharmacy students and among dental students. Awareness and attitudes about IPE were generally high among course participants. Conclusion. An IPE course that integrates second-year pharmacy students with third-year dental students in the dental clinic to provide medication history, education, and identification of potential drug-related problems improved pharmacy students' knowledge of pharmacotherapy related to or associated with dental conditions and improved pharmacy and dental students' knowledge and attitudes about IPE. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 15

Introduction: This is the first exploration of service providers’ attitudes and beliefs of quality and quality improvement in the community pharmacy setting in the UK. Materials and methods: A series of interviews and focus groups was conducted with stakeholders from the pharmacy profession in the UK. Interviews were semi-structured and conducted face-to-face or by telephone. Focus groups were conducted with naturally-occurring groups i.e. at pharmacy conferences. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed systematically using an interpretive approach. Results: Forty-two individuals participated across four focus groups and four interviews. A maximum variation sample was achieved in terms of pharmacist and pharmacy characteristics. Participants were generally positive about the need for quality and quality improvement and provided multifaceted and interlinked interpretations of quality and acknowledged its dynamic nature “quality moves forward”. The challenge of standardising practice whilst providing person-centred care emerged: “you don’t want to lose the personal touch, but you can’t have people having a variable experience and one day it’s fantastic and the next day it isn’t”. A variety of quality measurement methods were identified including direct observation (by internal and external agents) and feedback (mystery shoppers, colleagues, regulatory inspectors, service users), suggesting that standardisation was also needed in terms of future quality measurement. There was a tendency to report negative events as triggers for improvement. Future initiatives could adopt more positive approaches including positive deviants “There’s nothing more powerful than people who’ve come up with something really good sharing it with their other colleagues”. Discussion: The results are being used to develop and evaluate future quality improvement initiatives in this sector. These are likely to be targeted at organisational, team and individual levels. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Use of Portfolios in US Pharmacy Schools.

by Daugherty, Kimberly K., Cumberland, Denise M.

Academic Journal

pages 13

Objective. To conduct a review of the pharmacy literature on the use of portfolios in US pharmacy schools. Findings. This study provides examples of how pharmacy schools are using portfolios in various parts and across their curricula, however, assessment/outcome data is lacking. These examples can be used as a starting point for schools as they begin to design their own use of portfolios. Overall, students indicated that the use of portfolios is important in their professional development, but significant time is needed to complete. Summary. Things to consider when implementing a portfolio system include how it will be used, who will review it, and what resources will be needed to sustain the project. It is important for schools to consider these items at the start of the process to ensure the portfolio process that is created is useful for assessing the overall programmatic or course outcomes being proposed by their use. More scholarly work needs to be published on the use of portfolios. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 6

Objective. To assess the level of publication rates from 2011 through 2015 by Social and Administrative Sciences (SAS) faculty at non-research intensive pharmacy schools. Methods. The Web of Science database was searched using faculty names identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty and professional staff roster. Publication rates of SAS faculty were calculated and compared using several demographic subcategories such as public/private school, part of an academic health center, schools with PhD program, funding status, etc. Results. The 208 SAS faculty members from 59 colleges contributed to 478 publications with a mean of 95.6 publications per year and 1.62 publications per institution per year. The number of publications increased 45% over the five years from 67 publications in 2011 to 122 in 2015.The average number of publications was 0.92 per year per SAS faculty compared to 0.82 publications per year per faculty from other basic pharmaceutical sciences divisions. The most commonly published research was research articles in the area of scholarship of teaching and learning. The significant predictors of publications were being part of an academic health center, having a PhD program, and higher percent of faculty members who are SAS faculty. Conclusion. Despite being affiliated with institutions with missions less targeted on research, this study showed SAS faculty members at non-research intensive institutions consistently contribute to published literature. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the lack of publishing by almost half of the SAS faculty and ways to increase research and publication in the field of SAS. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]