Methodological considerations in clinical outcomes assessment of pharmacy-based minor ailments management: A systematic review.

by Paudyal, Vibhu, Cunningham, Scott, Gibson Smith, Kathrine, MacLure, Katie, Ryan, Cristin, Cordina, Maria [2018-10-04]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Background: The accessibility of services within community pharmacies provides an ideal opportunity to manage minor ailments, yet over £1.1 billion is spent by the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (UK) in managing minor ailments in high cost settings. There is a need to review the evidence base around clinical effectiveness of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments since the absence of such may lead to under-utilisation of pharmacy services and non-implementation of available pharmacy service models. This study aimed to systematically review the methodological approaches used to assess clinical outcomes of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments in the research literature. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant literature using the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA, CRD, CDSR, and Google Scholar from publication year 2000 onwards. Studies were included if they evaluated clinical outcomes of pharmacy-based management of any minor ailments, with or without a comparator setting such as Emergency Departments (EDs) or general practices. Screening and selection of titles, abstracts and full texts followed by data extraction and quality assessment (QA) was conducted. Paired researchers, from the team, reviewed papers using a protocol based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). QA was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Reporting was conducted in accordance with PRISMA checklist and statements. Results: A total of 19 studies were included. The majority of studies were observational, conducted in community pharmacies, and did not use a comparator participant group nor a comparator setting. Interventions included counselling, medicines supply and provision of advice on the management of minor ailments. One study used the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design with majority of the study utilising observational design. A range of clinical outcomes including symptom severity, pattern, resolution, and quality of life were reported. Methods used for the assessment of clinical outcomes were, overall, poorly reported. This included a lack of information on the development and validation of the data collection tools and the timing of baseline and follow-up data collection. Adverse clinical outcomes data were collected by only seven studies. Conclusions: Currently, there are methodological limitations in the studies that have sought to assess clinical outcomes of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments. Such lack of high quality evidence may contribute to failings to shift care from high cost settings, such as EDs and general practices. Generation of high quality evidence is likely to influence public choices when seeking care for minor ailments. There is scope for development of a core outcomes set specific to minor ailments management and development of a validated methodology for measuring such outcomes in a research study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Research Involvement of Pharmacy Faculties in India.

by Deshpande, Prasanna R., Chandrakar, Vikas R., Bhusare, Kiran, Lalwani, Tarachand, Prasanna, M. Naga Lakshmi, Kanhed, Ashish, Pawar, Atmaram P. [2018-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Objective: The contribution of Indian pharmacy research is unremarkable in the world. Hence, we aimed to determine the research involvement and research productivity of Indian pharmacy faculties. Methods: A questionnaire evaluating research involvement and research productivity of the faculties was developed, validated and sent to 7536 email addresses. The main question categories in the questionnaire were- demographics, journal related research activities, conference related research activities, opinions about research and others. Results: We received 295 responses with the response rate of 3.91%. The male: female ratio was 2.78. The important average values in the survey were- experience in teaching/research= 12.51 years, Time spent on research/related activities=131.56 min/day, Research based publications= 34.3, Patents received=0.90. Conclusion: Although our study generates huge 'quantitative' data, serious inputs are needed to improve the overall 'quality' of Indian pharmacy academic research. Further research is indeed required to strengthen the field. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 19

Background: Equitable access to essential medicines is a major challenge for policy-makers world-wide, including Central and Eastern European countries. Member States of the European Union situated in Central and Eastern Europe have publicly funded pharmaceutical reimbursement systems that should promote accessibility and affordability of, at least essential medicines. However, there is no knowledge whether socioeconomic inequalities exist in these countries. Against this backdrop, this study analyses whether socioeconomic determinants influence the use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in eight Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia). Further, the study discusses observed (in)equalities in medicine use in the context of the pharmaceutical policy framework and the implementation in these countries. Methods: The study is based on cross-sectional data from the first wave of the European Health Interview Survey (2007-2009). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the association between socioeconomic status (measured by employment status, education, income; controlled for age, gender, health status) and medicine use (prescribed and non-prescribed medicines). This was supplemented by a pharmaceutical policy analysis based on indicators in four policy dimensions (sustainable funding, affordability, availability and accessibility, and rational selection and use of medicines). Results: Overall, the analysis showed a gradient favouring individuals from higher socioeconomic groups in the consumption of non-prescribed medicines in the eight surveyed countries, and for prescribed medicines in three countries (Latvia, Poland, Romania). The pharmaceutical systems in the eight countries were, to varying degrees, characterized by a lack of (public) funding, thus resulting in high and growing shares of private financing (including co-payments for prescribed medicines), inefficiencies in the selection of medicines into reimbursement and limitations in medicines availability. Conclusion: Pharmaceutical policies aiming at reducing inequalities in medicine use require not only a consideration of the role of co-payments and other private expenditure but also adequate investment in medicines and transparent and clear processes regarding the inclusion of medicines into reimbursement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


BOOKS RECEIVED.

No author [2010-12-15]

Academic Journal

pages 2

The article presents a list of books on pharmacy received which include "Fundamentals of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy: An Evidence-Based Approach," by Lisa C. Hutchison and Rebecca B. Sleeper, "Handbook of Extemporaneous Preparation," edited by Mark Jackson and Andrew Lowey, and "BNF 59," edited by Joint Formulary Committee.


Review

pages 3

The article reviews the book "Communication Skills in Pharmacy Practice: A Practical Guide for Students and Practitioners," 5th Edition, by William N. Tindall, Robert S. Beardsley and Carole L. Kimberlin.


Books Received.

No author [2004-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 2

The article presents a list of books related to pharmacy. Some of the books enlisted are, "Advancing Patient Safety in U.S. Hospitals: Basic Strategies for Success," edited by Diane D. Cousins, "Basic Clinical Pharmacokinetics," 4th ed., by Michael B. Winter, "The Big Fix: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Rips Off American Consumers," by Katharine Greider, "Breast Health and Common Breast Problems: A Practical Approach," edited by Pamela S. Ganschow, Frances B. Norlock, Elizabeth A. Jacobs and others, "The British National Formulary," 46th ed., by Dinesh K. Mehta, "Cannabis: From Pariah to Prescription," edited by Ethan Russo, "Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms," by Frank A. Barile, "Clinician's Pocket Reference," 10th ed., edited by Leonard C. Gomella and Steven A. Haist.


A study on the present status of Pharmacy and Pharmacists in health care sector.

by Khan, Najam Ali, Singh, Pawan, Abid, M., Verma, Anurag, Kishore, Kamal [2013-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

The observance of pharmacy practice to an authorizing pharmacist study was carried out during February to April 2013 in Moradabad (U.P) selected randomly with a total of 75 prescriptions in the hospital, urban and rural pharmacy practice. The practice of pharmaceutical care should be new, indifference to what pharmacists should have done now the present time, Because pharmacists frequently fail to accept responsibility for this care, they may not sufficiently document, monitor and review the care given. Therefore, In the present study, we have assessed the behavior, communication skill, qualification of the pharmacist, handled the doctor`s prescription, frequency of dose, drug food interaction, prescription records and changing of drugs and error of medication In this survey, the pharmacist was not taken care the patient and they were not given proper guidelines to the patient. As per the rules and guidelines given by the Food and drug administration and Indian pharmacopeia commission was not followed by the pharmacist. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 4

Discusses the reasons for the continued lack of access to essential medicines, drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population at a price they and the community can afford, in developing countries. High prices of drugs; Exclusivity of the production of goods including medicines under the World Trade Organization agreement on trade-related intellectual property rights; Lack of commitment to research and product development for the least developed countries; Suggestions on how to enhance access to essential drugs.


COMPUTER FUZZY MODEL REGARDING PHARMACIES INTEGRAL PERCEPTIONS BY VISITORS.

by DOROKHOVA, Liudmyla, DOROKHOV, Oleksandr [2017-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 16

The paper considers the development of a computer model for the task of determining consumer estimates of pharmacy institutions by visitors and clients in terms of quality and service conditions. The main criteria and parameters for such an assessment were chosen, and their hierarchical tree was constructed. Then, the units of measurement and the ranges of the parameters to be evaluated were determined. Given the lack of certainty of opinions and assessments of consumers, it is advisable to solve the problem on the basis of fuzzy modeling methods. Thus the most appropriate computer simulation tool, the FuzzyTECH specialized software has been chosen. In this environment, an appropriate model has been created. For this, input and output linguistic variables, as well as their terms, has been defined. Then the corresponding membership functions and fuzzy logic inference rules were constructed. Further, the corresponding surfaces of the fuzzy inference were obtained. The developed computer model was tested during the evaluation of a group of pharmacies in the city of Kharkiv. The calculated resulting estimates are fairly close to those obtained using other, more cumbersome methods. The approached described and the model presented showed fairly valid results, despite its relative simplicity. Thus, the described implementation of the fuzzy-multiple model of generalized customer service evaluation in pharmacy institutions is a very useful practical computer tool for solving problems of improving the level of pharmaceutical service. The proposed computer model is also applicable to other tasks of assessing the quality of service in conditions of uncertainty. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Changes and specificities in health behaviors among healthcare students over an 8-year period.

by Tavolacci, M. P., Delay, J., Grigioni, S., Déchelotte, P., Ladner, J. [2018-03-22]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Background: Healthcare students are future health care providers and serve as role models and coaches to enhance behaviors for healthy lifestyles. However healthcare students face multiple stressors that could lead to adopting risk behaviors. Objectives: To assess the changes in health risk factors among healthcare students between 2007 and 2015, and to identify specific health behaviors based on the curriculum in a population of healthcare students: Methods: Two cross sectionnal studies were conducted in 2007 and 2015 among nursing, medical, pharmacy, and physiotherapy students (Rouen, France). During compulsory courses and examination sessions students filled self-administered questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics and behavior as: tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis consumption, eating disorders, regular practice of sport, perceived health, stress and use of psychotropic drugs. Results: 2,605 healthcare students were included (1,326 in 2007 and 1,279 in 2015), comprising 1,225 medical students (47.0%), 738 nursing students (28.3%), 362 pharmacy students (13.9%), and 280 physiotherapy students (10.8%). Between 2007 and 2015, occasional binge drinking and regular practice of sport increased significantly among healthcare students, respectively AOR = 1.48 CI95% (1.20–1.83) and AOR = 1.33 CI95% (1.11–1.60), regular cannabis consumption decreased significantly, AOR = 0.32 CI95% (0.19–0.54). There was no change in smoking or overweight/obese. There was a higher risk of frequent binge drinking and a lower risk of tobacco smoking in all curricula than in nursing students. Medical students practiced sport on a more regular basis, were less overweight/obese, had fewer eating disorders than nursing students. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate a stable frequency of classic behaviors as smoking but a worsening of emerging behaviors as binge drinking among healthcare students between 2007 and 2015. Health behaviors differed according to healthcare curricula and nursing students demonstrated higher risks. As health behaviors are positively related to favorable attitudes towards preventive counseling, therefore healthcare students should receive training in preventive counseling and develop healthy lifestyles targeted according to the health curriculum. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Relationship Between Admission Data and Pharmacy Student Involvement in Extracurricular Activities.

by Kiersma, Mary E., Plake, Kimberly S., Mason, Holly L. [2011-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Objectives. To assess pharmacy student involvement in leadership and service roles and to evaluate the association between admissions data and student involvement. Methods. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were invited to complete a 56-item online survey instrument containing questions regarding leadership and service involvement, work experiences, perceived contribution of involvement to skill development, and perceived importance of involvement. Responses were linked to admissions data to identify possible associations. Results. Five hundred fourteen (82.4%) pharmacy students completed the survey instrument. Students with higher admissions application and interview scores were more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles, while students with higher admissions grade point averages were less likely to be involved in organizations and leadership roles. Conclusions. Assessing students' involvement in leadership and service roles can assist in the evaluation of students' leadership skills and lead to modification of curricular and co-curricular activities to provide development opportunities. Student involvement in extracurricular activities may encourage future involvement in and commitment to the pharmacy profession. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Ritzman elevates expectations for Rx.

by Walden, Geoff [2016-04-04]

Periodical

pages 2

The article informs that drug retailing chain Ritzman has opened a pharmacy counter to increase customer expectation for a pharmacy interaction.


ASHP-HOPA guidelines on the roles and responsibilities of the pharmacy technician in ambulatory oncology pharmacy.

by Bergsbaken, Jason, Roman, Danielle, Earl, Marc A., McBride, Ali, Olin, Jacqueline L., Peele, Adam, Reichard, Jeffrey S. [2018-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 8

The article discusses guidelines from the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the roles and duties of the pharmacy technician in ambulatory oncology pharmacy. Topics covered include nationwide variations in the regulatory aspects of drug preparation and dispensing, the impact of U.S. Pharmacopeia chapter 800 on the handling of hazardous drugs, and the definition of the ambulatory setting for the purposes of the guidelines.


The Benefit of Continuing Professional Development for Continuing Pharmacy Education.

by Wheeler, James S., Chisholm-Burns, Marie [2018-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The article discusses the benefit of continuing professional development (CPD) for continuing pharmacy education (CPE). Topics include the impact of continuing education in the health professions in the literature, classification of accredited CPE activities, and the definition of the CPD approach. The implications of CPD for continuing education providers are also discussed.


Pharmacy integrated care: the Northumberland Vanguard model.

by BAQIR, WASIM, PAES, PAUL, STOKER, ANDREA, MORRIS, EMMA, MCWHIR, RACHEL, RIDLEY, HELEN, BARRETT, SCOTT, COPELAND, RICHARD, HUDSON, ROBIN, BARRETT, STEVEN, BALLANTYNE, JACQUELINE, CAMPBELL, DAVID [2018-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The Northumberland Vanguard model of care has pharmacists and technicians working in both hospital and primary care settings, and based in geographical hubs. Each team is part of a wider enhanced care team including community nursing, social care and general practice. The model stratifies patients from low to high need for support with medicines, and a range of clinical pharmacy services are provided to improve patient care and outcomes while reducing costs and hospital admissions/readmissions. The care home model ensures rapid follow-up and support for new and discharged residents, including community pharmacy reviews. Since July 2016, over 15 months, the integrated pharmacy team has made 5,124 interventions for 2,445 patients through their caseload, with an estimated 223 hospital admissions avoided. The service continues to evolve and is currently being scaled and further evaluated. In addition, the foundation training programme has allowed newly qualified pharmacists to develop clinical skills in hospital and general practice. This article describes the Northumberland Vanguard model of care and how it has benefitted patients. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


CLINICAL TRIALS AND RESEARCH.

by Poole, S.G., Eaton, K., Dooley, M.J., Goffredo, F., Ortega, C., Pirazzoli, A., Scroccaro, G., Venturini, F., MacLean, Robert, Taylor, Suzanne C. Malfair, Barnett, Jeff B., Moravan, Veronika, Uyeno, Kelly T., Shah, Amil, Müller, Marlen, Junker, Annette, Dionne, Anne, Cormier, Julie, Mandalá, M. [2001-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Presents abstracts of studies related to oncology pharmacy. 'Off-label Prescribing in Oncology: The Australian Experience,' by S.G. Poole, K. Eaton and M.J. Dooley; 'Italian Proposed Guideline on Pharmacogenetic Research,' by F. Goffredo, C. Ortega et al.



Comparison of losartan with ACE inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists: a pilot study of prescription-event monitoring in Japan.

by Samizo, K., Kawabe, E., Hinotsu, S., Sato, T., Kageyama, S., Hamada, C., Ohashi, Y., Kubota, K., Samizo, Kazuo, Kawabe, Eri, Hinotsu, Shiro, Sato, Tsugumichi, Kageyama, Shigeru, Hamada, Chikuma, Ohashi, Yasuo, Kubota, Kiyoshi [2002-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Introduction: Two pilot studies for prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM) were launched in 1997 and 1998. Here we present data regarding adverse events that were reported in the second pilot J-PEM study where losartan was compared with ACE inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists.Study Design: We conducted a cohort study with a concurrent control. METHODS/PATIENT GROUP: Study subjects prescribed losartan, an ACE inhibitor or a calcium channel antagonist were identified from prescriptions in hospital or community pharmacies. Events and other information were collected from doctors and pharmacists by mailed questionnaires. Events were coded and analysed using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terminology. Crude event rates were calculated and compared between patients treated with losartan and those receiving control drugs. When the difference was statistically significant, the event was further examined in several ways, including follow-up studies and by comparison with the data of the UK PEM study on losartan.Results: Pharmacists were sent 4344 questionnaires and returned 3591 (83%), while doctors were sent 3517 questionnaires and returned 1380 (39%). In the doctors' data, the adverse event rate for losartan treatment was greater than that for ACE inhibitors and/or calcium channel antagonists for the following seven events: headache, palpitations, anaemia, insomnia, feeling abnormal, increased blood pressure and asthma. Most of these are known adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of losartan except for two events: increased blood pressure and asthma. In pharmacists' data, the event rate for losartan was significantly greater than that for control drugs for the following ten events: hot flushes, abnormal hepatic function, oedema, peripheral swelling, decreased blood pressure, increased blood pressure, rhinitis, contact dermatitis, dry skin and heat rash. The first five events were known ADRs of losartan but the other five were not. When the two sets of data were combined, the rate of an additional event, increased blood creatinine phosphokinase, which is a known ADR of losartan, was significantly greater than that for the control drugs. The six events that were not documented as ADRs for losartan were not judged to be ADRs based on the results of follow-up studies and comparison with the UK PEM study on losartan. The crude rate of cough with losartan treatment was similar to that with calcium channel antagonists, but was significantly less than that with ACE inhibitors.Conclusion: No novel safety problems were found in this observational cohort study on losartan. The rates of some known ADRs differed significantly between patients treated with losartan and those in the control groups. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Adoption of duty-hour standards in a pharmacy residency program.

by Smith, Kelly M., Trapskin, Philip J., Armitstead, John A. [2005-04-15]

Academic Journal

pages 4

The article discusses an adoption of duty-hour standards in a pharmacy residency program. On July 1, 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented new common duty-hour minimum standards for all accredited medical residency programs. Participants in pharmacy residencies (including pharmacy practice, critical care, oncology, pediatrics, and primary care) are classified as house-staff officers and governed by the same general policies set forth by graduate medical education office for medical, surgical, and dental residents.


The Pharmacy Informatics Primer

by Dumitru, Doina [2009-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

The information technology revolution has fueled the demand in hospitals and health systems for accomplished experts who can help select, implement and maintain CPOE, BCMA, EHR and other systems. As the use of IT in healthcare expands and the complexity of medication therapy increases, there has been a correspondingly rapid growth in the practice of pharmacy informatics and a basic need for an understanding of key elements.The Pharmacy Informatics Primer provides a foundational understanding and offers “pearls of wisdom” for pharmacy professionals involved in informatics. This introductory resource outlines key concepts in understanding, developing, implementing, and maintaining clinical information and automation systems.This essential guide is designed for all pharmacists and covers an introduction to major concepts of informatics such as ePrescribing, CPOE, bar-coding, smart pumps, and the pharmacist's role in EHR. Chapter features include key terms and definitions, and a comprehensive table of pearls, specific to each subject to present a clear understanding of all concepts.


Community Pharmacists' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Dispensing Antibiotics without Prescription (DAwP).

by Thamir Alotaibi, Fakhir, Abdullrhman Khobrani, Attiah, Safar Almalki, Mesfer, Abdullah Aljabri, Hassan [2018-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Background: As a result of the wide antibiotic abuse in many communities all over, bacterial resistance against different antibiotic formulas has aroused. It is an actual matter of importance because it touches up the most crucial principles of pharmacy and devoted work for medicine field in general. Objectives: We have come to the aim of assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacists concerning dispensing antibiotics without prescription. We are discussing the ethical and legal elements contributing in the judgment of the final results and decision about the matter. Material and methods: We are using the questionnaire test method to assess the knowledge and measure the attitude and practice of those pharmacists in marks and degrees. Results: the pharmacists working in community pharmacies lack the knowledge of the legality of DAwD, though they know the greatly bad influence of it over the resistivity in bacteria and viruses. That of course goes along with the knowledge degree of the patients themselves Conclusion: We have come to a conclusion that most of the pharmacists had no prior knowledge of the illegality of dispensing antibiotics without prescription "DAwP". And of course, we recommend to enhance the awareness and knowledge of them by raising educational training programs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Pharmacy in Public Health : Basics and Beyond

by Carter, Jean, Slack, Marion, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists [2010-01-01]

eBook

pages unknown

Pharmacy in Public Health: Basics and Beyond outlines what public health is and why it is so important for today's pharmacists to know. This practical book covers key areas like the foundations of public health, concepts and tools of policy, and models of public health programs run by pharmacists. It provides pharmacists and pharmacy students all of the tools they need to get started making an impact in their communities. Readers are guided through three sections that progressively build knowledge of concepts, tools, and models of pharmacist participation in public health activities.Be prepared for21st century challenges such as: - Disease prevention- Immunization programs- Public health crises such as Avian Influenza and H1N1 virus- The obesity and diabetes epidemics- Government health programs n Health care reform- Tobacco cessation- And much moreThis publication answers these tough issues and prepares you for public health challenges ahead.