by Dickson, Michael, Valentini, Antony [2005-02-01]
Highlights the works and achievements of a professor in Physics and Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana, James T. Cushing. Death of the professor; Family background of Cushing; Contribution of Cushing in the modern physics.
by Strzalkowski, Adam [2004-09-01]
I provide a guided tour of historical and modern sites related to the history of physics in Cracow. These include the Jagellonian University, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, and the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques of the AGH-University of Science and Technology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Findlen, Paula [2007-03-01]
“Historians of early modern science have especially embraced the idea of rethinking their field by following the activities of prominent Jesuit mathematicians and natural philosophers . . . and by considering the place of scientific knowledge within the Society [of Jesus] as a whole. Marcus Hellyer's Catholic Physics is a book in this genre. It explores the relations between knowledge and faith in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries through a careful examination of the Jesuit physics curriculum in the colleges established in a loose-knit and complex political definition of their German province. . . . Hellyer writes a history that eschews the idea of focusing on a handful of charismatic individuals in favor of a broader social and religious history that seeks to understand the place of science with the activities of the German Jesuit colleges. The result is a highly informative account of the transformation of natural philosophy in the era of the scientific revolution.”
by Rosen, Steven M. [2013-07-01]
This paper brings to light the significance of Merleau-Ponty's thinking for contemporary physics. The point of departure is his 1956-57 College de France lectures on Nature, coupled with his reflections on the crisis in modern physics appearing in The Visible and the Invisible. Developments in theoretical physics after his death are then explored and a deepening of the crisis is disclosed. The upshot is that physics' intractable problems of uncertainty and subject-object interaction can only be addressed by shifting its philosophical base from objectivism to phenomenology, as Merleau-Ponty suggested. Merleau-Ponty's allusion to "topological space" in The Visible and the Invisible provides a clue for bridging the gap between "hard science" and "soft philosophy." This lead is pursued in the present paper by employing the paradoxical topology of the Klein bottle. The hope is that, by "softening" physics and "hardening" phenomenology, the "two cultures" (cf. C. P. Snow) can be wed and a new kind of science be born. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by AUGUŞCIUK, E., DZIĄG, D. [2010-12-01]
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland The multilayer planar step index waveguides have been studied in detail for many years now. We examined gradient index waveguide, which was not thoroughly studied. In this article we have studied structures made from three, four, and five layers. We also used different substrates for this experiment. Gradient index waveguides were made in Bk7 and Gevert's glass by the ion-exchange method. Then we put on it a thin layer of polymer and examined it again. Afterwards we applied a second layer of polymer achieving five-layer planar waveguide. Layers deposited on gradient index waveguide change the propagating conditions of light beam in waveguide structures. Using a generalized m-line spectroscopy method we determine thickness and refractive index of each layer of waveguide structure. In the next step, a simulation for step index planar waveguides was run. The values for each layer were taken from previously calculated thickness and refractive index for multilayer gradient index waveguides. Beam propagation method was used to obtain Neff only for step index waveguide structures to compare with Neff of gradient index waveguide structure. The changes in propagation of a light beam not only in waveguide (several modes) layer may be applied to sensing and controlling the direction of light in the waveguide structure (by depositing on it a polymer layer with the appropriate refractive index). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
No author [2005-05-01]
Presents a schedule of conferences related medical and biological engineering and computing in 2005. Third International Conference on Ethical Issues in Biomedical Engineering; World Conference on Physics and Sustainable Development; World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering.
by Azami, Hamed, Fernández, Alberto, Escudero, Javier [2017-11-01]
Multiscale entropy (MSE) has been a prevalent algorithm to quantify the complexity of biomedical time series. Recent developments in the field have tried to alleviate the problem of undefined MSE values for short signals. Moreover, there has been a recent interest in using other statistical moments than the mean, i.e., variance, in the coarse-graining step of the MSE. Building on these trends, here we introduce the so-called refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy based on the standard deviation (RCMFEσ) and mean (RCMFEμ) to quantify the dynamical properties of spread and mean, respectively, over multiple time scales. We demonstrate the dependency of the RCMFEσ and RCMFEμ, in comparison with other multiscale approaches, on several straightforward signal processing concepts using a set of synthetic signals. The results evidenced that the RCMFEσ and RCMFEμ values are more stable and reliable than the classical multiscale entropy ones. We also inspect the ability of using the standard deviation as well as the mean in the coarse-graining process using magnetoencephalograms in Alzheimer's disease and publicly available electroencephalograms recorded from focal and non-focal areas in epilepsy. Our results indicated that when the RCMFEμ cannot distinguish different types of dynamics of a particular time series at some scale factors, the RCMFEσ may do so, and vice versa. The results showed that RCMFEσ-based features lead to higher classification accuracies in comparison with the RCMFEμ-based ones. We also made freely available all the Matlab codes used in this study at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1477 . [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Whitley, Richard D. [1978-03-01]
The article discusses the organization of scientific work in configurational and restricted sciences. Organizational arrangements that do not recognize the distinctive characteristics of the science being worked on are less likely to be successful than those that do. Strategies appropriate to research in parts of physics may well be highly inappropriate in certain biomedical sciences. This article further discusses the results of a study of research laboratories in a number of different sciences, like high energy physics, geology, cancer research, and other biomedical fields. It focus on how differences in the ways scientific work was organized in relation to stated and implicit organizational goals can be understood in terms of differences in intellectual structures and the consequences of these differences for research training. The particular ways in which these sciences vary have major repercussions on the nature of higher education for neophyte sciences and hence on the type of skills and expertise they acquire and bring to research organizations. This in turn affects organizational recruitment policies and, thus, together with institutional goals and the structure of the science, the organization of the laboratory.
by Von Baeyer, Hans Christian [1999-01-01]
Focuses the influence of an effective symbol system on the development of physics. Background of arguments on which types of notation system are suitable for scientific purposes; Breakthroughs in 20th century physics that illustrate the need for an effective notation system.
by Dobesova, Zdena [2013-06-01]
Entity relation (ERA) diagrams are use in the stage of conceptual design of database. Geographic information systems are often based on a geodatabase where the spatial data and attribute data are stored together. Software ArcGIS Diagrammer is used for the design of ArcGIS geodatabase. A set of graphical symbol is used for geodatabase design. The symbols are boxes with color fill. Arrow connectors join some elements. The aesthetic, cognitive and perceptual quality of geodatabase diagram is important for comprehension by user. The perception depends on several aspects. A scientific method called the Physics of Notation was suggested by Daniel Moody. The theory of visual notation design is focused on the physical (perceptual) properties of notations rather than their logical (semantic) properties . Some of the nine principles from the Physics of Notations will be applied for ArcGIS Diagrammer. The main aim of this article is an evaluation of visual notation in ArcGIS Diagrammer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Van Dyck, Maarten, Heeffer, Albrecht [2014-03-01]
We introduce the question whether there are specific kinds of writing modalities and practices that facilitated the development of modern science and mathematics. We point out the importance and uniqueness of symbolic writing, which allowed early modern thinkers to formulate a new kind of questions about mathematical structure, rather than to merely exploit this structure for solving particular problems. In a very similar vein, the novel focus on abstract structural relations allowed for creative conceptual extensions in natural philosophy during the scientific revolution. These preliminary reflections are meant to set the stage for the following contributions in this volume. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ramabrahmam, Varanasi [2018-05-01]
The nature of time is yet to be fully grasped and finally agreed upon among physicists, philosophers, psychologists and scholars from various disciplines. Present paper takes clue from the known assumptions of time as - movement, change, becoming - and the nature of time will be thoroughly discussed. The real and unreal existences of time will be pointed out and presented. The complex number notation of nature of time will be put forward. Natural scientific systems and various cosmic processes will be identified as constructing physical form of time and the physical existence of time will be designed. The finite and infinite forms of physical time and classical, quantum and cosmic times will be delineated and their mathematical constructions and loci will be narrated. Thus the physics behind timeconstruction, time creation and time-measurement will be given. Based on these developments the physics of Timelessness will be developed and presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ravindra Kumar, G. [2018-11-25]
The article profiles the recipients of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics which are Arthur Ashkin for optical tweezers and their application to biological systems and Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland for their method for generating optical pulses.
by Min Chi, VanLehn, Kurt [2010-01-01]
Certain learners are less sensitive to learning environments and can always learn, while others are more sensitive to variations in learning environments and may fail to learn (Cronbach & Snow, 1977). We refer to the former as high learners and the latter as low learners. One important goal of any learning environment is to bring students up to the same level of mastery. We showed that an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) teaching a domain-independent problem-solving strategy indeed closed the gap between high and low learners, not only in the domain where it was taught (probability) but also in a second domain where it was not taught (physics). The strategy includes two main components: one is solving problems via backward chaining (BC) from goals to givens, called the BC strategy, and the other is drawing students' attention to the characteristics of each individual domain principle, called the principle-emphasis skill. Evidence suggests that the low learners transferred the principle-emphasis skill to physics while the high learners seemingly already had such skill and thus mainly transferred the other skill, the BC strategy. Surprisingly, the low learners learned just as effectively as the high learners in physics. We concluded that the effective element of transfer seemed not to be the BC strategy, but the principle-emphasis skill. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Nualláin, Seán Ó [2018-05-01]
The "foundations of mind" series (O Nualláin 2014a, 2015, 2016a, 2016b, 2017, 2018) which began on Cosmos and History in 2014 is now the most downloaded series of conferences proceedings in the history of modern science of mind and possibly alt science in general. Perhaps not coincidentally, it is also the most various and here we review it. It is fair to say that the project took on a life of its own and far exceeded my relatively humble plans for it as I sat in my garden in Normandy in late 2013. As ever, this collection features a wide range of papers from the rehabilitation of the ether by Rubik and Jabs that has perhaps been presaged by Nobel laureate Wilczek's notion of the "grid" to a revisionist history of the field in physics by Meucci; moving from physics, Chris Langan continues his life project of metalevel thinking and writing; Shinninck et al explore the field in a context defined by Sheldrake; we continue to publish systems thought, as we do crossover from psychoanalysis to spirituality. Our meeting with gestalt therapists in Italy bore fruit as expected with work on quantum mechanics and psychoanalysis and less expectedly Islamic spirituality; Cynthia Larson deals explicitly with the Wheeler "20 questions" as reformulated by Stapp. As ever there is a concern about health and some lost papers of the great Richard Strohman and Walter Freeman are interpreted to presage a new science of metabolism and health. My papers attempt to synthesize these and others' diverse thrusts. In this introduction I review the contributions we have made to the foundations of mind, foundations of physics, foundations of biology, and science/religion dialogue over the history of these conferences and point several paths forward. Consciousness studies is seen to emerge from consideration of the foundations of mind and its relation to the world. In particular, cognitive processes typically admit of the time intervals appropriate for the sampling speed of consciousness in tenths of seconds. At a certain point, mind breaks free from its fetters in biology with observer status requiring that the laws of physics exert a top-down influence on biology. The fact that the brain is now capable of arbitrary levels of hierarchy changes the dynamics of biological fields at lower levels of the hierarchy. The observer is described with physics concepts like relativity and measurement in quantum mechanics; again, the sampling speed of consciousness can be achieved through the quantum zeno effect as Stapp has shown. The overarching goal remains to ground higher-order speculation about healing, mentation and metabolism in insights and observations that are attested cutting-edge science often from the world's greatest universities. It cannot be long now before a hierophant, perhaps from the community of creation spirituality, generates a powerful new expression of what it is to be in the world defined by these new discoveries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Morton, Oliver [2000-06-01]
David Deutsch is one of the few people who holds to the view that we live in an uncountably large—possibly infinite—family of parallel universes. In the 1980s, Deutsch developed the idea of a quantum computer, which, he explained, uses information from more than one universe. Deutsch is aiming to deduce what actually constitutes reality and to know how physics and information meet in the creation of the world. He believes that the connection between following physical laws and doing computations is that being computable is a fundamental aspect of the universe. Everything that can exist, including everything in all the quantum universes, can be computed. The impossible and the uncomputable amount to the same thing. Deutsch maintains that in the future, such a principle of universality will become an established theory in physics.
by Harvey, Jonathan [1999-06-01]
Part of a special issue on live electronic music. The writer reflects on the question of performance in live electronic works. He raises several relevant aesthetic and musical issues and illustrates some of these preoccupations through a number of recent pieces, including Madonna of Winter and Spring (1986), Inquest of Love (1992), and One Evening (1993).
by GOVE, ROBERT P., RYCHTÁŘ, JAN [2009-05-01]
The article discusses the natural exponential function of numbers as derived from their natural properties. As stated, the applications of the exponential function include mathematics, statistics and physics. It is noted that there are five definitions as presented in the mathematical expressions discussed where each one has a right approach to the function. Also discussed are the characteristics of the definitions, several motivational examples and the properties of exponential numbers.
by Hansson, Sven Ove [2013-12-01]
The author claims that the use of formal methods in philosophy is not overwhelming compared with the empirical disciplines, such as mathematics and physics. He notes that physics had access to the mathematical medium centuries before it learnt how to avail itself of the bridge, unlike philosophy wherein it has a mathematical medium but do not have the bridge of measurement. He says that in philosophy, empirical observations cannot support or disprove a theoretical statement very clearly.
by Cat, Jordi [2007-06-01]
The distinction between science and philosophy plays a central role in methodological, programmatic and institutional debates. Discussions of disciplinary identities typically focus on boundaries or else on genealogies, yielding models of demarcation and models of dynamics. Considerations of a discipline's self-image, often based on history, often plays an important role in the values, projects and practices of its members. Recent focus on the dynamics of scientific change supplements Kuhnian neat model with a role for philosophy and yields a model of the evolution of philosophy of science. This view illuminates important aspects of science and itself contributes to philosophy of science. This interactive model is general yet based on exclusive attention to physics. In this paper and two sequels, I focus on the human sciences and argue that their role in the history of philosophy of science is just as important and it also involves a close involvement of the history of philosophy. The focus is on Gestalt psychology and it points to some lessons for philosophy of science. But, unlike the discussion of natural sciences, the discussion here brings out more complication than explication, and skews certain kinds of generalizations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Komur, Baran, Lohse, Tim, Merve Can, Hatice, Khalilova, Gulnar, Nur Geçimli, Zeynep, Onur Aydoğdu, Mehmet, Kalkandelen, Cevriye, Stan, George E., Muge Sahin, Yesim, Zeki Sengil, Ahmed, Suleymanoglu, Mediha, Erdem Kuruca, Serap, Nuzhet Oktar, Faik, Salman, Serdar, Ekren, Nazmi, Ficai, Anton, Gunduz, Oguzhan, Can, Hatice Merve, Geçimli, Zeynep Nur, Aydoğdu, Mehmet Onur [2016-07-07]
Background: We evaluated the Bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) structure. BHA powder was admixed with 5 and 10 wt% natural pumice (NP). Compression strength, Vickers micro hardness, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction studies were performed on the final NP-BHA composite products. The cells proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and SEM. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of NP-BHA samples was interrogated.Results: Variances in the sintering temperature (for 5 wt% NP composites) between 1000 and 1300 °C, reveal about 700 % increase in the microhardness (~100 and 775 HV, respectively). Composites prepared at 1300 °C demonstrate the greatest compression strength with comparable result for 5 wt% NP content (87 MPa), which are significantly better than those for 10 wt% and those that do not include any NP (below 60 MPa, respectively).Conclusion: The results suggested the optimal parameters for the preparation of NP-BHA composites with increased mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Changes in micro-hardness and compression strength can be tailored by the tuning the NP concentration and sintering temperature. NP-BHA composites have demonstrated a remarkable potential for biomedical engineering applications such as bone graft and implant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Quigley, Brian [2000-10-01]
Compares two physics databases with the Los Alamos e-Print Archive. INSPEC, which stands for Information Services in Physics, Electronics and Computing, database; SPIN Web database.
by Zhao, Hongyang, Huang, Zhideng, Ma, Zhibin, Jia, Tingting, Kimura, Hideo, Fu, Qiuming, Wang, Geming, Tao, Hong, Cai, Kang, Fan, Ziran [2017-10-01]
The multiferroic phenomenon has interdisciplinary applications in the fields of chemistry, physics, electronics, materials, crystallography, and mechanics. Compared to traditional limited pure inorganic multiferroics, hybrid metal-organic frameworks are numerous and more flexible, and can be tailored to become different types of multiferroic materials. We synthesized [(CH)NH] FeMn(HCOO) and four crystals were obtained, with x = 0 (Mn), 0.1 (FeMn), 0.2 (FeMn), and 0.3 (FeMn). At the maximum Fe doping of FeMn, we observed magnetic properties different from lower-level-doped crystals. The magnetizations at 3 K were 3.50 emu/g, 3.87 emu/g, 3.89 emu/g and 7.38 emu/g corresponding to Mn, FeMn, FeMn and FeMn, respectively. FeMn has three magnetic transitions, at 118.3 K, 40.3 K, and 8.3 K. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]