Signaling pathways induced by serine proteases to increase intestinal epithelial barrier function.

by Lahey, Kelcie A., Ronaghan, Natalie J., Shang, Judie, Dion, Sébastien P., Désilets, Antoine, Leduc, Richard, MacNaughton, Wallace K. [2017-07-03]

Academic Journal

pages 27

Changes in barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract are thought to contribute to the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Previous work in our lab demonstrated that apical exposure of intestinal epithelial cell lines to serine proteases results in an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). However, the underlying mechanisms governing this response are unclear. We aimed to determine the requirement for proteolytic activity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and downstream intracellular signaling in initiating and maintaining enhanced barrier function following protease treatment using a canine intestinal epithelial cell line (SCBN). We also examined the role of phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain on the serine protease-induced increase in TER through. It was found that proteolytic activity of the serine proteases trypsin and matriptase is required to initiate and maintain the protease-mediated increase in TER. We also show that MMP-independent EGFR activation is essential to the sustained phase of the protease response, and that Src kinases may mediate EGFR transactivation. PI3-K and ERK1/2 signaling were important in reaching a maximal increase in TER following protease stimulation; however, their upstream activators are yet to be determined. CK2 inhibition prevented the increase in TER induced by serine proteases. The bradykinin B(2) receptor was not involved in the change in TER in response to serine proteases, and no change in phosphorylation of MLC was observed after trypsin or matriptase treatment. Taken together, our data show a requirement for ongoing proteolytic activity, EGFR transactivation, as well as downstream PI3-K, ERK1/2, and CK2 signaling in protease-mediated barrier enhancement of intestinal epithelial cells. The pathways mediating enhanced barrier function by proteases may be novel therapeutic targets for intestinal disorders characterized by disrupted epithelial barrier function. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Subdivision of Broca's region based on individual-level functional connectivity.

by Jakobsen, Estrid, Böttger, Joachim, Bellec, Pierre, Geyer, Stefan, Rübsamen, Rudolf, Petrides, Michael, Margulies, Daniel S., Molholm, Sophie [2016-02-15]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Broca's region is composed of two adjacent cytoarchitectonic areas, 44 and 45, which have distinct connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions in both macaque monkeys and humans. The current study aimed to make use of prior knowledge of sulcal anatomy and resting-state functional connectivity, together with a novel visualization technique, to manually parcellate areas 44 and 45 in individual brains in vivo. One hundred and one resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from the Human Connectome Project were used. Left-hemisphere surface-based correlation matrices were computed and visualized in brainGL. By observation of differences in the connectivity patterns of neighbouring nodes, areas 44 and 45 were manually parcellated in individual brains, and then compared at the group-level. Additionally, the manual labelling approach was compared with parcellation results based on several data-driven clustering techniques. Areas 44 and 45 could be clearly distinguished from each other in all individuals, and the manual segmentation method showed high test-retest reliability. Group-level probability maps of areas 44 and 45 showed spatial consistency across individuals, and corresponded well to cytoarchitectonic probability maps. Group-level connectivity maps were consistent with previous studies showing distinct connectivity patterns of areas 44 and 45. Data-driven parcellation techniques produced clusters with varying degrees of spatial overlap with the manual labels, indicating the need for further investigation and validation of machine learning cortical segmentation approaches. The current study provides a reliable method for individual-level cortical parcellation that could be applied to regions distinguishable by even the most subtle differences in patterns of functional connectivity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 3

The article focuses on neurovascular assessment in the nursing practice. Topics discussed include assessment of extremities for sensory and motor function and peripheral circulation including bilateral pulse assessments, assessment of capillary refill and assessment of changes in skin color and temperature. It also discusses neurovascular impairment, protocols for assessments and implications of timely communication of any change in assessments to the nursing practice.


Adipose-derived aldehyde dehydrogenase-expressing cells promote dermal regenerative potential with collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold.

by Matsumine, Hajime, Numakura, Kazuyuki, Tsunoda, Satoshi, Wang, Huan, Matsumine, Rui, Climov, Mihail, Giatsidis, Giorgio, Sukhatme, Vikas P., Orgill, Dennis P. [2017-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme that plays an important role in retinoid metabolism and highly expressed in stem cells. This study isolated ALDH-expressing cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue and investigated their potential to enhance healing in a full-thickness skin wound in rats by co-implanting them with collagen-glycosaminoglycan (c-GAG) scaffolds. ALDH-positive cells were isolated by a fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique from Lewis rat's stromal-vascular-fraction (SVF) and transplanted with c-GAG scaffolds in a rat full-thickness skin wound model. At 7 days after surgery, the microscopic appearance of c-GAG scaffolds seeded with ALDH-positive was compared with those of uncultured-SVF, and cultured-SVF adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). The thickness of cellular ingrowth in the ASC group (630 ± 180 μm) was significantly thicker than that in the control (390 ± 120 μm) or SVF (380 ± 140 μm) groups, but non-significantly thicker than that in the ALDH-positive group (570 ± 220 μm). The thickness of regenerated collagen layer was significantly thicker in the ALDH-positive group (160 ± 110 μm) than in the ASCs (81 ± 41 μm), the control (65 ± 24 μm), or SVF (64 ± 34 μm) groups. Immunofluorescent staining with CD31 proved that transplanted ALDH-positive cells differentiated into vascular endothelial cells in c-GAG scaffolds. Combined transplantation with c-GAG scaffolds and adipose-derived ALDH-positive cells promoted dermal regeneration, giving a possibility that ALDH-positive cells would greatly shorten the waiting period before secondary autologous skin grafting was possible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Accelerating Performance.

by Nyiri, Alyson [2014-09-01]

Periodical

pages 4

The article discusses the views of Flow Genome Project director and "The Rise of Superman" author Steven Kotler on the impact of ultimate human performance. Topics include definition of flow performance as the psychology of optimal experience, cutting in half the 10,000-hour rule on mastery and achieving peak performance through the combination of intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional quotient (EQ) and meaning quotient (MQ). Also mentioned are vertical and horizontal mobility in organizations.


Function and failure of the fetal membrane: Modelling the mechanics of the chorion and amnion.

by Verbruggen, Stefaan W., Oyen, Michelle L., Phillips, Andrew T. M., Nowlan, Niamh C. [2017-03-28]

Academic Journal

pages 14

The fetal membrane surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is a thin tissue composed of two layers, the chorion and the amnion. While rupture of this membrane normally occurs at term, preterm rupture can result in increased risk of fetal mortality and morbidity, as well as danger of infection in the mother. Although structural changes have been observed in the membrane in such cases, the mechanical behaviour of the human fetal membrane in vivo remains poorly understood and is challenging to investigate experimentally. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop simplified finite element models to investigate the mechanical behaviour and rupture of the fetal membrane, particularly its constituent layers, under various physiological conditions. It was found that modelling the chorion and amnion as a single layer predicts remarkably different behaviour compared with a more anatomically-accurate bilayer, significantly underestimating stress in the amnion and under-predicting the risk of membrane rupture. Additionally, reductions in chorion-amnion interface lubrication and chorion thickness (reported in cases of preterm rupture) both resulted in increased membrane stress. Interestingly, the inclusion of a weak zone in the fetal membrane that has been observed to develop overlying the cervix would likely cause it to fail at term, during labour. Finally, these findings support the theory that the amnion is the dominant structural component of the fetal membrane and is required to maintain its integrity. The results provide a novel insight into the mechanical effect of structural changes in the chorion and amnion, in cases of both normal and preterm rupture. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Sitting ability and function are commonly impaired after stroke. Balance training has been shown to be helpful, but abundant repetitions are required for optimal recovery and patients must be motivated to perform rehabilitation exercises repeatedly to maximize treatment intensity. Virtual reality training (VRT), which allows patients to interact with a virtual environment using computer software and hardware, is enjoyable and may encourage greater repetition of therapeutic exercises. However, the potential for VRT to promote sitting balance has not yet been explored. The objective of this study is to determine if supplemental VRT-based sitting balance exercises improve sitting balance ability and function in stroke rehabilitation inpatients. Methods/design: This is a single-site, single-blind, parallel-group randomized control trial. Seventy six stroke rehabilitation inpatients who cannot stand independently for greater than one minute but can sit for at least 20 minutes (including at least one minute without support) are being recruited from a tertiary-care dedicated stroke rehabilitation unit. Participants are randomly allocated to experimental or control groups. Both participate in 10-12 sessions of 30-45 minutes of VRT performed in sitting administered by a single physiotherapist, in addition to their traditional therapy. The experimental group plays five games which challenge sitting balance while the control group plays five games which minimize trunk lean. Outcome measures of sitting balance ability (Function in Sitting Test, Ottawa Sitting Scale, quantitative measures of postural sway) and function (Reaching Performance Scale, Wolf Motor Function Test, quantitative measures of the limits of stability) are administered prior to, immediately following, and one month following the intervention by a second physiotherapist blind to the participant's group allocation. Discussion: The treatment of sitting balance post-stroke with VRT has not yet been explored. Results from the current study will provide important evidence for the use of low-cost, accessible VRT as an adjunct intervention to increase sitting balance in lower-functioning patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation. The motivating and enjoyable attributes of VRT may increase exercise dosage, leading to improved function and optimal results from rehabilitation. Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/; Identifier: NCT02285933. Registered 06 November 2014. Funded by the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada and a generous donation from Tony & Elizabeth Graham. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 2

The article focuses on the utilization of skate flap technique utilizing the native nipple-areola complex (NAC) for correcting nipple deflation following nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM). It mentions preservation of the nipple is predicated on the ability to ensure that there is no cancer remaining in the NAC. It also mentions removal of the ductal tissue contributes to postoperative loss of projection due to loss of connective tissue support for the skin.


Rapidly dissociated autologous meniscus tissue enhances meniscus healing: An in vitro study.

by Numpaisal, Piya-on, Rothrauff, Benjamin B., Gottardi, Riccardo, Chien, Chung-Liang, Tuan, Rocky S. [2017-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Purpose:Treatment of meniscus tears is a persistent challenge in orthopedics. Although cell therapies have shown promise in promoting fibrocartilage formation inin vitroand preclinical studies, clinical application has been limited by the paucity of autologous tissue and the need forex vivocell expansion. Rapid dissociation of the free edges of the anterior and posterior meniscus with subsequent implantation in a meniscus lesion may overcome these limitations. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of rapidly dissociated meniscus tissue in enhancing neotissue formation in a radial meniscus tear, as simulated in anin vitroexplant model.Materials and Methods:All experiments in this study, performed at minimum with biological triplicates, utilized meniscal tissues from hind limbs of young cows. The effect of varying collagenase concentration (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% w/v) and treatment duration (overnight and 30 minutes) on meniscus cell viability, organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and gene expression was assessed through a cell metabolism assay, microscopic examination, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Thereafter, an explant model of a radial meniscus tear was used to evaluate the effect of a fibrin gel seeded with one of the following: (1) fibrin alone, (2) isolated and passaged (P2) meniscus cells, (3) overnight digested tissue, and (4) rapidly dissociated tissue. The quality ofin vitrohealing was determined through histological analysis and derivation of an adhesion index.Results:Rapid dissociation in 0.2% collagenase yielded cells with higher levels of metabolism than either 0.1% or 0.5% collagenase. When seeded in a three-dimensional fibrin hydrogel, both overnight digested and rapidly dissociated cells expressed greater levels of collagens type I and II than P2 meniscal cells at 1 week. At 4 and 8 weeks, collagen type II expression remained elevated only in the rapid dissociation group. Histological examination revealed enhanced healing in all cell-seeded treatment groups over cell-free fibrin controls at weeks 1, 4, and 8, but there were no significant differences across the treatment groups.Conclusions:Rapid dissociation of meniscus tissue may provide a single-step approach to augment regenerative healing of meniscus repairs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Hip Morphology Changes with Ageing in Asian Population.

by Yin, Yingchao, Zhang, Ruipeng, Jin, Lin, Li, Shilun, Hou, Zhiyong, Zhang, Yingze [2018-09-27]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Objectives. This study aims to determine the changing in hip anatomy parameters with age and reveals the reason for the extorsion of lower extremity in the aged. Design. Retrospective study. Participants. One hundred and forty patients who had received imaging check of the femur and acetabulum between October 2013 and October 2016 were included in this study. Main Outcome Measures. The femoral neck torsion angle (FNTA), neck-shaft angle (NSA), and acetabular anteversion angle (AVA) were measured by an experienced orthopedic surgeon. All the patients’ demographic and physical characteristics including age, sex, body laterality, height, and weight were recorded. The Student t-test, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The mean age for male and female was 45.01±15.38 and 49.30±17.63 years, respectively. Outcomes revealed that the NSA on the right side of the body, 133.46±4.46° in male and 134.36±4.71° in female, was statistically higher than the left side. Female FNTA had significantly higher values than male (P


Reflection impulsivity in binge drinking: behavioural and volumetric correlates.

by Banca, Paula, Lange, Iris, Worbe, Yulia, Howell, Nicholas A., Irvine, Michael, Harrison, Neil A., Moutoussis, Michael, Voon, Valerie [2016-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

The degree to which an individual accumulates evidence prior to making a decision, also known as reflection impulsivity, can be affected in psychiatric disorders. Here, we study decisional impulsivity in binge drinkers, a group at elevated risk for developing alcohol use disorders, comparing two tasks assessing reflection impulsivity and a delay discounting task, hypothesizing impairments in both subtypes of impulsivity. We also assess volumetric correlates of reflection impulsivity focusing on regions previously implicated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Sixty binge drinkers and healthy volunteers were tested using two different information-gathering paradigms: the beads task and the Information Sampling Task (IST). The beads task was analysed using a behavioural approach and a Bayesian model of decision making. Delay discounting was assessed using the Monetary Choice Questionnaire. Regression analyses of primary outcomes were conducted with voxel-based morphometry analyses. Binge drinkers sought less evidence prior to decision in the beads task compared with healthy volunteers in both the behavioural and computational modelling analysis. There were no group differences in the IST or delay discounting task. Greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the beads task was associated with smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal volumes. In contrast, greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the IST was associated with greater dorsal cingulate and precuneus volumes. Binge drinking is characterized by impaired reflection impulsivity suggesting a deficit in deciding on the basis of future outcomes that are more difficult to represent. These findings emphasize the role of possible therapeutic interventions targeting decision-making deficits. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Periodical

pages 1

Social media posts from the microblogging website Twitter, or Tweets, are presented that relate to the Applied Ergonomics Conference (AEC) held in March 2014 in Orlando, Florida. Topics include standards for tractor-trailer seating, the benefits of transitioning from seated to standing positions, and negative reinforcement of deviations from procedure.


Quantitative analysis of visually induced courtship elements in Drosophila subobscura.

by Higuchi, Tomohiro, Kohatsu, Soh, Yamamoto, Daisuke [2017-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

We developed a new paradigm for quantitative analysis of courtship behavior in flies,FlyMotion-detector with anActuator-CoupledStimulator (FlyMacs), in which the stimulation of a fly with a moving visual target and recording of induced behaviors are automated under computer control. We employ FlyMacs for the identification of motion features that trigger specific courtship elements inDrosophila subobscura, whose mating is suggested to be strongly vision dependent. A female abdomen attached to the actuator, when moved in an appropriate pattern, evokes in the test male tapping-like foreleg motions, midleg swing and proboscis extension, which are considered to be elementary actions in male courtship behavior. Tapping is primarily induced when the target is moving, whereas midleg swing and proboscis extension are most frequently observed after the target stops moving. In contrast to midleg swing, which tends to occur immediately after target cessation (∼3000 ms), the incidence of proboscis extension gradually increases with time after target cessation, reaching a plateau at 3000 ms. The results suggest that tapping, midleg swing and proboscis extension are each induced by different movement features of the visual target. These findings do not support the view that a single key stimulus induces the entire courtship ritual. Rather, courtship behaviors inD. subobscuraare correlated with movement and position of the target, which suggests thatD. subobscurauses sensory information to pattern its courtship. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Sclerosing mesenteritis and mesenteric panniculitis - clinical experience and radiological features.

by Nyberg, Lisa, Björk, Jan, Björkdahl, Peter, Ekberg, Olle, Sjöberg, Klas, Vigren, Lina [2017-06-13]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Background: Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is sometimes used as an umbrella-term for idiopathic inflammatory conditions in the mesentery. Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is a radiological finding and its relation to clinical SM is not fully understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether any correlation could be found between the radiological findings and the clinical disease course.Methods: Patients observed due to idiopathic inflammation of the mesentery were identified. If SM could be verified histologically or MP radiologically, the patients were included in this descriptive retro perspective study.Results: Typical radiological changes were observed in 27 patients. A majority (23/27) of these patients had mild to moderate symptoms. This group with typical radiology was labelled MP. Four patients were included due to histologically verified disease but had uncharacteristic radiology involving multiple compartments of the abdomen. All four had marked systemic inflammation, fever and fluctuating radiologic findings. Three had severe disease with multiple hospitalisations and complications but responded promptly to corticosteroids. This group was denoted SM.Conclusions: We have identified two subgroups of patients; firstly, MP with stable and characteristic radiologic changes and secondly SM with atypical radiology and a more aggressive clinical course. We propose that the term SM should be reserved for this latter condition. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Personality Types as Predictors of Decision Making Styles.

by Riaz, Muhammad Naveed, Riaz, Muhammad Akram, Batool, Naila [2012-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 17

The present research aims to examine the role of big five personality types in the prediction of decision making styles among university students. Mini-Marker Personality Inventory (McCrae & Costa, 1990) and General Decision Making Styles Questionnaire (Scott & Bruce, 1995) were used for data collection. The sample comprised of 300 university students. Multiple Regression analysis (Enter Method) was applied to analyze the data. Extroversion positively predicted intuitive and spontaneous decision making style. Openness to experience positively predicted intuitive decision making style. Agreeableness positively predicted dependent decision making style. Conscientiousness positively predicted rational decision making style. Neuroticism positively predicted avoidant decision making style. The current research provides an insight in the role of personality in decision making. The present research extends the past research limited to two personality traits (Nygren & White, 2005) based on the big-five trait theory of McCrae and Costa (1990) and suggests the theoretical and practical implications of personality-decision associations in a collectivist culture. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 18

The South Australian members of the flat-millipede genera Oncocladosoma Jeekel, 1985 and Somethus Chamberlin, 1920 are revised using an integrative approach incorporating sequence data and morphology. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene and partial nuclear ribosomal 28S rRNA were amplified and sequenced for 15 Oncocladosoma specimens and 10 Somethus specimens and the datasets were used for molecular phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance determination. Both morphology and molecular data indicate that all species of Oncocladosoma fall within Somethus, and therefore, Oncocladosoma is synonymised with Somethus. Within those species supported by molecular data, features of the solenomere tip are relatively stable and useful for species identification. 28S rRNAhas proven to provide sufficient nucleotide variation to provisionally discriminate species. Oncocladosoma castaneum ingens Jeekel, 1985, O. clavigerum Jeekel, 1985 and O. conigerum Jeekel, 1985 are junior synonyms of Somethus castaneus, comb. nov., and Somethus modicus Jeekel, 2002 is a synonym of S. scopiferus Jeekel, 2002. New records and electron scanning micrographs of gonopods are provided for S. castaneus, comb. nov., S. inflatus (Jeekel, 2002), comb. nov., S. lancearius Jeekel, 2002, S. scopiferus Jeekel, 2002, and Somethus grossi Jeekel, 1985, together with a key to the South Australian species of Somethus. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice.

by Nilsson, Jessica, Ericsson, Madelene, Motamedi Joibari, Masoumeh, Anderson, Fredrick, Carlsson, Leif, Nilsson, Stefan K., Sjödin, Anna, Burén, Jonas [2016-11-15]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids. Here we investigated the metabolic and physiological consequences of a diet with a macronutrient composition similar to the Scandinavian LCHF diet and its effects on the organs, tissues, and metabolism of weight stable mice. Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice were iso-energetically pair-fed for 4 weeks with standard chow or a LCHF diet. We measured body composition using echo MRI and the aerobic capacity before and after 2 and 4 weeks on diet. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography before and after 4 weeks on diet. The metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry the fourth week of the diet. Mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the organ weight, triglyceride levels, and blood chemistry were analyzed, and the expression of key ketogenic, metabolic, hormonal, and inflammation genes were measured in the heart, liver, and adipose tissue depots of the mice using real-time PCR. Results: The increase in body weight of mice fed a LCHF diet was similar to that in controls. However, while control mice maintained their body composition throughout the study, LCHF mice gained fat mass at the expense of lean mass after 2 weeks. The LCHF diet increased cardiac triglyceride content, impaired cardiac function, and reduced aerobic capacity. It also induced pronounced alterations in gene expression and substrate metabolism, indicating a unique metabolic state. Conclusions: Pair-fed mice eating LCHF increased their percentage of body fat at the expense of lean mass already after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks the function of the heart deteriorated. These findings highlight the urgent need to investigate the effects of a LCHF diet on health parameters in humans. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Interleukin 1-beta analysis in chronically inflamed and healthy human dental pulp.

by Šubarić, Ljiljana, Mitić, Aleksandar, Matvijenko, Vladimir, Jovanović, Radovan, Živković, Dušan, Perić, Dejan, Vlahović, Zoran [2017-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5


Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy session in patients with LRTI: a pre/post-test study.

by Oliveira, Ana, Pinho, Cátia, Marques, Alda [2017-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Introduction The role of respiratory physiotherapy (RP) in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) has been questioned. However, studies have focused on hospitalised patients, and the presence/absence of an underlying disease has been neglected. Objectives To assess the effects of a RP session in community patients with LRTI and to explore the differences between patients with pneumonia (restrictive disease - AR) and those with exacerbations of an obstructive disease (AO). Methods A pre/post-test study was conducted. A RP session was applied to patients with LRTI and crackles, wheezes, dyspnoea, perception of sputum and oxygen saturation were collected pre/post session. Comparisons were performed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests. Results Thirty patients (14 males, 55.23 ± 17.78 years) with pneumonia (AR, n = 12), exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute bronchitis and asthma (AO, n = 18) were enrolled. After treatment, the total sample presented lower wheeze rates at trachea ( P = 0.02; r = −0.54) and less sputum ( P = 0.01; r = −0.47). AR patients presented a decrease in the number of crackles ( P < 0.05; 0.30 < dz < 0.26) and number and rate of wheezes at chest locations ( P < 0.05; −0.56 < r < −0.48). AO patients showed an increase in the number of crackles ( P < 0.05; 0.20 < dz


Dealing with the tension: how residents seek autonomy and participation in the workplace.

by Olmos‐Vega, Francisco M, Dolmans, Diana H J M, Vargas‐Castro, Nicolas, Stalmeijer, Renée E [2017-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

CONTEXT The workplace can be a strenuous setting for residents: although it offers a wealth of learning opportunities, residents find themselves juggling their responsibilities. Even though supervisors regulate what is afforded to residents, the former find it difficult to strike the proper balance between residents' independence and support, which could create tensions. But what tensions do residents experience during clinical supervision and how do they cope with them to maximise their learning opportunities? Understanding how residents act on different affordances in the workplace is of paramount importance, as it influences their learning. METHOD Residents from different levels of training and disciplines participated in three focus groups (n = 19) and 10 semi-structured interviews (n = 10). The authors recruited these trainees using purposive and convenience sampling. Audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and the ensuing scripts were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. RESULTS Residents reported that the autonomy and practice opportunities given by their supervisors were either excessive or too limited, and both were perceived as tensions. When in excess, trainees enlisted the help of their supervisor or peers, depending on how safe they recognised the learning environment to be. When practice opportunities were curtailed, trainees tried to negotiate more if they felt the learning environment was safe. When they did not, trainees became passive observers. Learning from each engagement was subject to the extent of intersubjectivity achieved between the actors involved. CONCLUSIONS Tensions arose when supervisors did not give trainees the desired degree of autonomy and opportunities to participate. Trainees responded in various ways to maximise their learning opportunities. For these different engagement-related responses to enhance workplace learning in specialty training, achieving intersubjectivity between trainee and supervisor seems foundational. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Why do they engage in such hard programs? The search for excellence in youth basketball.

by Gonçalves, Carlos E., e Silva, Manuel J. Coelho, Carvalho, Humberto M., Gonçalves, Ângela [2011-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Excellent performance in sport has a strong positive relationship with the accumulated hours of practice. The specialization years are seen as a decisive moment to lift the skill level, athletic readiness and commitment but the selection and orientation of talent has been strongly dependent of biological and motor variables. The purpose of this study is to describe the achievement and motivation variables that can explain the belonging to an elite competitive level of young basketball players. Eightytwo basketball players under 16 years fulfilled the WOFO Questionnaire (Spence and Helmreich, 1983), and an adapted version of the DPMQ (De Bruin, Rikers and Schmidt, 2007). Forty players (mean age 15.8 ± 0.96) were engaged in high performance centres and forty-two (mean age 15.6 ± 1.01) played in national level clubs. A decision tree and a random forest analysis between elite and national level players were performed. The most discriminant variable was Will to Excel, with 85,2% true positives in elite or national level. Mastery and competitiveness did not enter the final model. The will to reach excellence in performance can be considered as a condition to engage in more specialized and demanding practice. The assessment of the path to expertise only through motor variables or through the accumulated hours of deliberate practice is limited and can lead to mistaken identification or orientation of young sport talents. The use of a more comprehensive model is needed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on female reproductive system in juvenile rats.

by Yoshikazu Taketa, Hiroshi Mineshima, Etsuko Ohta, Kyoko Nakano-Ito [2017-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), which is widely used in various industrial products, is known for adverse effects on the reproductive system in adult rats. However, the effects of EGME on reproductive development in juvenile rats have not been demonstrated. In order to investigate the effects of EGME on the female reproductive system and pubertal development in juvenile rats, EGME was administered to female Sprague Dawley rats from postnatal day 21 to 41 at a dose level of 0, 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg. The animals were examined for general condition, body weight, vaginal opening (VO), estrous cyclicity, and histopathology of reproductive organs. EGME treatment resulted in a prolonged estrous cycle interval characterized by persistent diestrus at 50 mg/kg without effects on body weight, timing of VO, or histology of the reproductive organs. EGME at 100 mg/kg induced decreases in body weight gain, a delay of VO, and irregular estrous cycle with absence of corpora lutea and hypertrophy of uterine epithelium indicating disturbance of the ovulatory process associated with hormonal effect. At 300 mg/kg, there was significant delay of puberty due to severe growth retardation. The present results revealed that irregular estrous cycle is a first indicator of the effects of EGME on the female reproductive system in juvenile rats, with delayed pubertal onset and ovulatory process disturbance at a higher dose. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Bisphenol A and Male Reproductive System.

by Amraje, Fatma F. Mohamed, Köylü, Ayşe, Dizakar, Saadet Özen Akarca, Türkoğlu, İsmail, Ömeroğlu, Suna [2018-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5


Effect of seasonal variations on the haematochemical profile of Cholistani service bulls.

by Farooq, Umer, Ahmad, Nazir, Ahmad, Ijaz, Mahmood, Syed Aamer, Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan, Idris, Musadiq [2017-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

This reported study is of Pakistan's indigenous Cholistani cattle breed, a native of the Cholistan desert where it has been reported as having high production potential for nomadic herders. The aim of the present study was to assess haematochemical profile of adult Cholistani service bulls (n = 16), being reared at the Semen Production Unit Karaniwala, Bahawalpur, Cholistan desert, Pakistan, during various seasons as an indicator of their health status. Keeping in view the prevailing climatic conditions of the study area, four seasons of three months duration each were defined as (i) cool dry winter (November, December, January) (ii) temperate spring (February, March, April) (iii) hot dry summer (May, June, July) and (iv) hot humid summer (August, September, October). Blood specimens were collected fortnightly during the study period for haematochemical analyses (automated). The present study revealed that Cholistani service bulls have a tendency to maintain most of their haematochemical parameters more or less at the same level during various seasons which is suggestive of their adaptability under stressful climates without showing any signs of stress. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Academic Journal

pages 10

Objectives: In Part II of a two-part series, we develop a phenomenological model of a negative outcome of U.S. Army Basic Combat Training that affects a large proportion of trainees. Previous models have been epidemiological in nature and have focused on trainee risk factors such as previous injury, gender, and initial fitness. This approach is limited due to difficulties extrapolating results to other cohorts. In addition, training regimen is often neglected, limiting accuracy when applied to novel scenarios.Methods: The prognostic Training Adaptation Injury Model (TAIM) developed accounts for both individual characteristics as well as regimen by integrating validated submodels of physiological and biomechanical principles known to be important for tibial stress fracture.Results: We find that when used to predict any type of overuse injury, the TAIM is most accurate when the effect of training activities on both overall fitness as well as muscle fatigue during activities is accounted for area under the receiver-operator curve of 0.65. This compares favorably with statistical-based models that do not account for training regimen (area under the receiver-operator curve ≈ 0.56.Conclusions: The TAIM has the potential to both identify trainees at overuse injury risk as well as make recommendations on regimen changes to reduce that risk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]