Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi Population.

by Al-Imam, Ahmed, Al-Zamili, Zaid, Omar, Rawan [2017-02-28]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the p value was found to be


CD72/CD100 and PD-1/PD-L1 markers are increased on T and B cells in HIV-1+ viremic individuals, and CD72/CD100 axis is correlated with T-cell exhaustion.

by Correa-Rocha, Rafael, Lopez-Abente, Jacobo, Gutierrez, Carolina, Pérez-Fernández, Verónica Astrid, Prieto-Sánchez, Adrián, Moreno-Guillen, Santiago, Muñoz-Fernández, María-Ángeles, Pion, Marjorie [2018-08-30]

Academic Journal

pages 18

In our work, we analyzed the role of the CD100/CD72 and PD-1/PD-L1 axes in immune response dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in which high expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were associated with an immunosuppressive state via limitation of the HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. CD100 was demonstrated to play a relevant role in immune responses in various pathological processes and may be responsible for immune dysregulation during HIV-1 infection. We investigated the function of CD72/CD100, and PD-1/PDL-1 axes on T and B cells in HIV-infected individuals and in healthy individuals. We analyzed the frequencies and fluorescence intensities of these four markers on CD4+, CD8+ T and B cells. Marker expressions were increased during active HIV-1 infection. CD100 frequency on T cells was positively associated with the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on T cells from HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. In addition, the frequency of CD72-expressing T cells was associated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. Our data suggest that the CD72/CD100 and PD-1/PD-L1 axes may jointly participate in dysregulation of immunity during HIV-1 infection and could partially explain the immune systems’ hyper-activation and exhaustion. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Comparison of clinical grade human platelet lysates for cultivation of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue.

by Juhl, Morten, Tratwal, Josefine, Follin, Bjarke, Søndergaard, Rebekka H., Kirchhoff, Maria, Ekblond, Annette, Kastrup, Jens, Haack-Sørensen, Mandana, Søndergaard, Rebekka H, Haack-Sørensen, Mandana [2016-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: The utility of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in therapeutic applications for regenerative medicine has gained much attention. Clinical translation of MSC-based approaches requires in vitro culture-expansion to achieve a sufficient number of cells. The ideal cell culture medium should be devoid of any animal derived components. We have evaluated whether human Platelet Lysate (hPL) could be an attractive alternative to animal supplements.Methods: MSCs from bone marrow (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) obtained from three donors were culture expanded in three different commercially available hPL fulfilling good manufacturing practice criteria for clinical use. BMSCs and ASCs cultured in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle-alpha supplemented with 5% PLT-Max (Mill Creek), Stemulate™ PL-S and Stemulate™ PL-SP (COOK General Biotechnology) were compared to standard culture conditions with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell morphology, proliferation, phenotype, genomic stability, and differentiation potential were analyzed.Results: Regardless of manufacturer, BMSCs and ASCs cultured in hPL media showed a significant increase in proliferation capacity compared to FBS medium. In general, the immunophenotype of both BMSCs and ASCs fulfilled International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria after hPL media expansion. Comparative genomic hybridization measurements demonstrated no unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements for BMSCs or ASCs cultured in hPL media or FBS medium. The BMSCs and ASCs could differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, or chondrogenic lineages in all four culture conditions.Conclusion: All three clinically approved commercial human platelet lysates accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and ASCs and the cells meet the ISCT mesenchymal phenotypic requirements without exhibiting chromosomal aberrations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Isolation, differentiation, and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow.

by Baghaei, Kaveh, Hashemi, Seyed Mohmoud, Tokhanbigli, Samaneh, Rad, Ali Asadi, Assadzadeh-Aghdaei, Hamid, Sharifian, Abdolhamid, Zali, Mohammad Reza [2017-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Aim: We describe the minimum requirements and a simplified method for isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow. Background: MSCs are well known adult stem cells present in many tissues such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons. Many isolations and characterization methods have emerged to apply MSCs in the clinical applications, which many of them are expensive and time-consuming. Methods: MSC isolation was carried out from human bone marrow, and cultured in defined medium. Cultures were maintained at 370C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 for 48h. The medium was exchanged every 3-4 days. Adherent cells were characterized according to main criteria defined by ISCT, such as differentiation capability to adipocyte and osteoblast using specific differentiation mediums; also, flow cytometry verified MSC specific markers. Results: Isolated MSCs had a fibroblastic-like appearance with adherent property to the culture plate. Differentiation function was proved with the formation of lipid drops and calcium oxalates on the differentiated MSCs and finally, purified MSCs from bone marrow were positive for cell surface markers, CD73, CD90, and CD105 while being negative for CD34 and CD45. Conclusion: These findings confirm that the represented method is capable of isolating MSCs from bone marrow with proven results according to all minimum criteria defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 8

Electronic cigarettes are advertised as the latest technological gadget--the smoking equivalent of smart phones. I challenge this sense of novelty by tracing their history to the 1960s, when researchers at British American Tobacco first recognized that smokers' brains were dependent on nicotine. This discovery enabled British American Tobacco to develop a novel kind of smoking device under the codename "Ariel" between 1962 and 1967. Whereas filters were meant to eliminate specific harmful constituents of tobacco smoke, Project Ariel tried to reduce smoking to its alkaloid essence: nicotine. By heating instead of burning tobacco, the scientists working on Ariel managed to produce an aerosol smoking device that delivered nicotine with very little tar while retaining the look and feel of a cigarette. However, after receiving two patents for Ariel, British American Tobacco ultimately decided to abandon the project to avoid endangering cigarettes, its main product. Today, as ecigarettes are surging in popularity, it is worth revisiting Ariel because it is not just an episode in the history of aerosol smoking devices but its starting point. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Genetic parameters and quantitative trait loci analysis associated with body size and timing at metamorphosis into glass eels in captive-bred Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica).

by Nomura, Kazuharu, Fujiwara, Atushi, Iwasaki, Yuki, Nishiki, Issei, Matsuura, Aiko, Ozaki, Akiyuki, Sudo, Ryusuke, Tanaka, Hideki [2018-08-29]

Academic Journal

pages 18

The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) is among the most important aquaculture fish species in Eastern Asia. The present study aimed to identify the genetic parameters underlying body size and the timing at metamorphosis from leptocephali to glass eels in captive-bred Japanese eels, with the intent to foster sustainable development. Larvae from a partly factorial cross (14 sires × 11 dams) were reared until the point of metamorphosis into glass eels. In these organisms, we observed moderate heritability and mild genetic correlations among traits related to body size (h2 = 0.16–0.33) and timing at metamorphosis (h2 = 0.36–0.41). In an F1 full-sib family, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for these traits identified one significant (genome-wide P < 0.05) and five suggestive QTLs (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). These results suggest that in the Japanese eel, metamorphic traits exhibit a polygenic genetic structure comprising many QTLs with small effects. In addition, we updated the genetic linkage map for the Japanese eel and integrated it with our newly constructed de novo genome assembly. The information and tools generated from this study will contribute to the development of freshwater eel genetics and genomics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Clinical phenotypes and outcomes of pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease: Role of the pre-capillary component.

by Caravita, Sergio, Faini, Andrea, Carolino D’Araujo, Sandy, Dewachter, Céline, Chomette, Laura, Bondue, Antoine, Naeije, Robert, Parati, Gianfranco, Vachiéry, Jean-Luc [2018-06-19]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Background: In pulmonary hypertension (PH), both wedge pressure elevation (PAWP) and a precapillary component may affect right ventricular (RV) afterload. These changes may contribute to RV failure and prognosis. We aimed at describing the different haemodynamic phenotypes of patients with PH due to left heart disease (LHD) and at characterizing the impact of pulmonary haemodynamics on RV function and outcome PH-LHD. Methods: Patients with PH-LHD were compared with treatment-naïve idiopathic/heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 35). PH-LHD patients were subdivided in Isolated post-capillary PH (IpcPH: diastolic pressure gradient, DPG3 WU, n = 27), and “intermediate” PH-LHD (either DPG


Transcriptional Activity of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

by Balestrieri, Emanuela, Pica, Francesca, Matteucci, Claudia, Zenobi, Rossella, Sorrentino, Roberta, Argaw-Denboba, Ayele, Cipriani, Chiara, Bucci, Ilaria, Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola [2015-02-05]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been implicated in human physiology and in human pathology. A better knowledge of the retroviral transcriptional activity in the general population and during the life span would greatly help the debate on its pathologic potential. The transcriptional activity of four HERV families (H, K, W, and E) was assessed, by qualitative and quantitative PCR, in PBMCs from 261 individuals aged from 1 to 80 years. Our results show that HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W, but not HERV-E, are transcriptionally active in the test population already in the early childhood. In addition, the transcriptional levels of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W change significantly during the life span, albeit with distinct patterns. Our results, reinforce the hypothesis of a physiological correlation between HERVs activity and the different stages of life in humans. Studies aiming at identifying the factors, which are responsible for these changes during the individual’s life, are still needed. Although the observed phenomena are presumably subjected to great variability, the basal transcriptional activity of each individual, also depending on the different ages of life, must be carefully considered in all the studies involving HERVs as causative agents of disease. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Allostatic load as a measure of social embodiment: conceptual and empirical considerations.

by Delpierre, Cyrille, Barbosa-Solis, Cristina, Kelly-Irving, Michelle, Torrisani, Jerome, Darnaudery, Muriel, Bartley, Melanie, Blane, David [2016-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

The article discusses the use of allostatic load to measure the impact of environment on human physiology and biological systems and mentions its use in the field of life course theory, psychosocial and socioeconomic environments.


Comparative analysis of weighted gene co-expression networks in human and mouse.

by Eidsaa, Marius, Stubbs, Lisa, Almaas, Eivind [2017-11-21]

Academic Journal

pages 26

The application of complex network modeling to analyze large co-expression data sets has gained traction during the last decade. In particular, the use of the weighted gene co-expression network analysis framework has allowed an unbiased and systems-level investigation of genotype-phenotype relationships in a wide range of systems. Since mouse is an important model organism for biomedical research on human disease, it is of great interest to identify similarities and differences in the functional roles of human and mouse orthologous genes. Here, we develop a novel network comparison approach which we demonstrate by comparing two gene-expression data sets from a large number of human and mouse tissues. The method uses weighted topological overlap alongside the recently developed network-decomposition method of s-core analysis, which is suitable for making gene-centrality rankings for weighted networks. The aim is to identify globally central genes separately in the human and mouse networks. By comparing the ranked gene lists, we identify genes that display conserved or diverged centrality-characteristics across the networks. This framework only assumes a single threshold value that is chosen from a statistical analysis, and it may be applied to arbitrary network structures and edge-weight distributions, also outside the context of biology. When conducting the comparative network analysis, both within and across the two species, we find a clear pattern of enrichment of transcription factors, for the homeobox domain in particular, among the globally central genes. We also perform gene-ontology term enrichment analysis and look at disease-related genes for the separate networks as well as the network comparisons. We find that gene ontology terms related to regulation and development are generally enriched across the networks. In particular, the genes FOXE3, RHO, RUNX2, ALX3 and RARA, which are disease genes in either human or mouse, are on the top-10 list of globally central genes in the human and mouse networks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Androgens, health and sexuality in women and men.

by Wylie, Kevan, Rees, Margaret, Hackett, Geoff, Anderson, Richard, Bouloux, Pierre-Marc, Cust, Mike, Goldmeier, David, Kell, Philip, Terry, Tim, Trinick, Tom, Wu, Frederick [2010-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 21

The importance of good sexual function for individuals, patients and their general health and well-being is well recognised. Testosterone is contributory to a healthy sexual life for both women and men. The British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) has initiated and led the development of guidelines for the assessment and use of testosterone deficiency in both women and men for use within the UK and beyond. Clinical awareness of the possibility of testosterone deficiency and the impact this may have on an individual's sexual and somatic function and the need to make sufficient enquiry about the sex life of patients attending a broad clinical spectrum is emphasised. The management of testosterone deficiency is outlined in detail for both women and men. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Tongue-controlled robotic rehabilitation: A feasibility study in people with stroke.

by Ostadabbas, Sarah, Housley, Stephen N., Sebkhi, Nordine, Richards, Kimberly, Wu, David, Zhenxuan Zhang, Rodriguez, Maria Garcia, Warthen, Lindsey, Yarbrough, Crystal, Belagaje, Samir, Butler, Andrew J., Ghovanloo, Maysam [2016-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 17

Stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL) impairment face years of therapy to recover function. Robot-assisted therapy (RT) is increasingly used in the field for goal-oriented rehabilitation as a means to improve UL function. To be used effectively for wrist and hand therapy, the current RT systems require the patient to have a minimal active range of movement in the UL, and those that do not have active voluntary movement cannot use these systems. We have overcome this limitation by harnessing tongue motion to allow patients to control a robot using synchronous tongue and hand movement. This novel RT device combines a commercially available UL exoskeleton, the Hand Mentor, and our custom-designed Tongue Drive System as its controller. We conducted a proof-of-concept study on six nondisabled participants to evaluate the system usability and a case series on three participants with movement limitations from poststroke hemiparesis. Data from two stroke survivors indicate that for patients with chronic, moderate UL impairment following stroke, a 15-session training regimen resulted in modest decreases in impairment, with functional improvement and improved quality of life. The improvement met the standard of minimal clinically important difference for activities of daily living, mobility, and strength assessments. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

ARM

Towards germline gene therapy of inherited mitochondrial diseases.

by Tachibana, Masahito, Amato, Paula, Sparman, Michelle, Woodward, Joy, Sanchis, Dario Melguizo, Ma, Hong, Gutierrez, Nuria Marti, Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca, Kang, Eunju, Lee, Hyo-Sang, Ramsey, Cathy, Masterson, Keith, Battaglia, David, Lee, David, Wu, Diana, Jensen, Jeffrey, Patton, Phillip, Gokhale, Sumita, Stouffer, Richard, Mitalipov, Shoukhrat [2013-01-31]

Academic Journal

pages 5

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with severe human diseases and are maternally inherited through the egg's cytoplasm. Here we investigated the feasibility of mtDNA replacement in human oocytes by spindle transfer (ST; also called spindle-chromosomal complex transfer). Of 106 human oocytes donated for research, 65 were subjected to reciprocal ST and 33 served as controls. Fertilization rate in ST oocytes (73%) was similar to controls (75%); however, a significant portion of ST zygotes (52%) showed abnormal fertilization as determined by an irregular number of pronuclei. Among normally fertilized ST zygotes, blastocyst development (62%) and embryonic stem cell isolation (38%) rates were comparable to controls. All embryonic stem cell lines derived from ST zygotes had normal euploid karyotypes and contained exclusively donor mtDNA. The mtDNA can be efficiently replaced in human oocytes. Although some ST oocytes displayed abnormal fertilization, remaining embryos were capable of developing to blastocysts and producing embryonic stem cells similar to controls. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Expression profiling and electrophysiological studies suggest a major role for Orai1 in the store-operated Ca2+ influx pathway of platelets and megakaryocytes.

by Tolhurst, Gwen, Carter, Richard N., Amisten, Stefan, Holdich, Jon P., Erlinge, David, Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P. [2008-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 6

Store-operated Ca2+ influx represents a major route by which cytosolic Ca2+ can be elevated during platelet activation, yet its molecular identity in this cell type remains highly controversial. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis of candidate receptor-operated cation entry pathways in human platelets, we show a >30-fold higher expression of message for the recently discovered Orai1 store-operated Ca2+ channel, and also the store Ca2+ sensor STIM1, when compared to the non-selective cation channels TRPC1, TRPC6 and TRPM2. Orai1 and STIM1 gene transcripts were also detected at higher levels than TRPC1, TRPC6 and TRPM2 in primary murine megakaryocytes and human megakaryocytic cell lines. In direct electrophysiological recordings from murine megakaryocytes, Ca2+ ionophore-induced store depletion stimulated CRAC currents, which are known to require Orai1, and these overlapped with TRPC6-like currents following P2Y receptor activation. Together with recent transgenic studies, these data provide evidence for STIM1:Orai1 as a primary pathway for agonist-evoked Ca2+ influx in the platelet and megakaryocyte. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The electric field near human skin wounds declines with age and provides a noninvasive indicator of wound healing.

by Nuccitelli, Richard, Nuccitelli, Pamela, Li, Changyi, Narsing, Suman, Pariser, David M., Lui, Kaying [2011-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Due to the transepidermal potential of 15-50 mV, inside positive, an injury current is driven out of all human skin wounds. The flow of this current generates a lateral electric field within the epidermis that is more negative at the wound edge than at regions more lateral from the wound edge. Electric fields in this region could be as large as 40 mV/mm, and electric fields of this magnitude have been shown to stimulate human keratinocyte migration toward the wounded region. After flowing out of the wound, the current returns through the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum, generating a lateral field above the epidermis in the opposite direction. Here, we report the results from the first clinical trial designed to measure this lateral electric field adjacent to human skin wounds noninvasively. Using a new instrument, the Dermacorder®, we found that the mean lateral electric field in the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum adjacent to a lancet wound in 18-25-year-olds is 107-148 mV/mm, 48% larger on average than that in 65-80-year-olds. We also conducted extensive measurements of the lateral electric field adjacent to mouse wounds as they healed and compared this field with histological sections through the wound to determine the correlation between the electric field and the rate of epithelial wound closure. Immediately after wounding, the average lateral electric field was 122 ± 9 mV/mm. When the wound is filled in with a thick, disorganized epidermal layer, the mean field falls to 79 ± 4 mV/mm. Once this epidermis forms a compact structure with only three cell layers, the mean field is 59 ± 5 mV/mm. Thus, the peak-to-peak spatial variation in surface potential is largest in fresh wounds and slowly declines as the wound closes. The rate of wound healing is slightly greater when wounds are kept moist as expected, but we could find no correlation between the amplitude of the electric field and the rate of wound healing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Reversion of prion protein conformational changes by synthetic Beta-sheet breaker peptides.

by Soto, Claudio, Kascsak, Richard J., Saborio, Gabriela P., Aucouturier, Pierre, Wisniewski, Thomas, Prelli, Frances, Kascsak, Regina, Mendez, Enrique, Harris, David A., Ironside, James, Tagliavini, Fabrizio, Carp, Richard I., Frangione, Blas [2000-01-15]

Academic Journal

pages 6

SummaryBackgroundTransmissible spongiform encephalopathies are associated with a structural transition in the prion protein that results in the conversion of the physiological PrP[sup C] to pathological PrP[sup Sc]. We investigated whether this conformational transition can be inhibited and reversed by peptides homologous to the PrP fragments implicated in the abnormal folding, which contain specific residues acting as BETA-sheet blockers (BETA-sheet breaker peptides).MethodsWe studied the effect of a 13-residue BETA-sheet breaker peptide (iPrP13) on the reversion of the abnormal structure and properties of PrP[sup Sc] purified from the brains of mice with experimental scrapie and from human beings affected by sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In a cellular model of familial prion disease, we studied the effect of the peptide in the production of the abnormal form of PrP in intact cells. The influence of the peptide on prion infectivity was studied in vivo by incubation time assays in mice with experimental scrapie.FindingsThe BETA-sheet breaker peptide partly reversed in-vitro PrP[sup Sc] to a biochemical and structural state similar to that of PrP[sup C]. The effect of the peptide was also detected in intact cells. Treatment of prion infectious material with iPrP13 delayed the appearance of clinical symptoms and decreased infectivity by 90-95% in mice with experimental scrapie.Interpretation[BETA]-sheet breaker peptides reverse PrP conformational changes implicated in the pathogenesis of spongiform encephalopathies. These peptides or their derivatives provide a useful tool to study the role of PrP conformation and might represent a novel therapeutic approach for prion-related disorders. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Enhanced preservation of the human intestinal microbiota by ridinilazole, a novel Clostridium difficile-targeting antibacterial, compared to vancomycin.

by Thorpe, Cheleste M., Kane, Anne V., Chang, Justin, Tai, Albert, Vickers, Richard J., Snydman, David R. [2018-08-02]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Ridinilazole, a novel targeted antibacterial being developed for the treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI) and prevention of recurrence, was shown in a recent Phase 2 study to be superior to vancomycin with regard to the primary efficacy measure, sustained clinical response (SCR), with the superiority being driven primarily by marked reductions in the rates of CDI recurrence within 30 days. Tolerability of ridinilazole was comparable to that of vancomycin. The current nested cohort study compared the effects of ridinilazole and vancomycin on fecal microbiota during and after treatment among participants in the Phase 2 study. Changes in the microbiota were assessed using qPCR and high-throughput sequencing on participants’ stools collected at multiple time-points (baseline [Day 1], Day 5, end-of-treatment [EOT; Day 10], Day 25, end-of-study [EOS; Day 40], and at CDI recurrence). qPCR analyses showed profound losses of Bacteroides, C. coccoides, C. leptum, and Prevotella groups at EOT with vancomycin treatment, while ridinilazole-treated participants had a modest decrease in C. leptum group levels at EOT, with levels recovering by Day 25. Vancomycin-treated participants had a significant increase in the Enterobacteriaceae group, with this increase persisting beyond EOT. At EOT, alpha diversity decreased with both antibiotics, though to a significantly lesser extent with ridinilazole (p


Academic Journal

pages 12

Objective: To examine the relations of sex, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support with meeting physical activity guidelines (PAGs).Participants: Three hundred ninety-six college students participated in this study in the summer 2013.Methods: Students completed online questionnaires that assessed physical activity behaviors and psychosocial factors (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support). Students' physical activity profile was categorized as meeting no PAGs, meeting aerobic PAGs only, meeting muscle-strengthening PAGs only, or meeting both PAGs.Results: A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students' sex and psychosocial factors significantly affected the odds of meeting any and all PAGs. Sex significantly moderated the relationship between outcome expectancy and meeting aerobic PAGs and between outcome expectancy meeting muscle-strengthening PAGs.Conclusions: Results indicate that interventions designed to increase psychosocial factors may increase the likelihood of students meeting any and all PAGs. Social support may be especially beneficial for increasing muscle-strengthening activity. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Xylem diameter changes during osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing in Pinus sylvestris and Populus tremula.

by Lintunen, Anna, Lindfors, Lauri, Nikinmaa, Eero, Hölttä, Teemu [2017-04-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Trees experience low apoplastic water potential frequently in most environments. Low apoplastic water potential increases the risk of embolism formation in xylem conduits and creates dehydration stress for the living cells. We studied the magnitude and rate of xylem diameter change in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential and the role of living parenchyma cells in it to better understand xylem diameter changes in different environmental conditions. We compared responses of control and heatinjured xylem of Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Populus tremula (L.) branches to decreasing apoplastic water potential created by osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing. It was shown that xylem in control branches shrank more in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential in comparison with the samples that were preheated to damage living xylem parenchyma. By manipulating the osmotic pressure of the xylem sap, we observed xylem shrinkage due to decreasing apoplastic water potential even in the absence of water tension within the conduits. These results indicate that decreasing apoplastic water potential led to withdrawal of intracellular water from the xylem parenchyma, causing tissue shrinkage. The amount of xylem shrinkage per decrease in apoplastic water potential was higher during osmotic stress or desiccation compared with freezing. During desiccation, xylem diameter shrinkage involved both dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma and water tension-induced shrinkage of conduits, whereas dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma was accompanied by swelling of apoplastic ice during freezing. It was also shown that the exchange of water between symplast and apoplast within xylem is clearly faster than previously reported between the phloem and the xylem. Time constant of xylem shrinkage was 40 and 2 times higher during osmotic stress than during freezing stress in P. sylvestris and P. tremula, respectively. Finally, it was concluded that the amount of water stored in the xylem parenchyma is an important reservoir for trees to buffer daily fluctuations in water relations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 16

"The Blackness Within" uses the intersection of color concept, physiology, and race relations in the Early Modern period as a lens to examine the character of Aaron the Moor in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus. Through this examination, the character of Aaron is found to function as an illustration of Early Modern notions of blackness. By tracing such notions to their sources in color concept and humorial discourse (and by examining visual depictions), a psychological framework emerges where-in blackness is linked to a spectrum of negative associations. However, when subjected to scrutiny, the character of Aaron simultaneously serves to reveal a measure of instability present in such a framework. This instability ultimately suggests that Shakespeare's often-trivialized tragedy may in fact offer important challenges to Early Modern characterizations and constructions of blackness. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY.

No author [2006-06-01]

Periodical

pages 6

The article presents a list of anatomy and physiology books including "Anatomy at a Glance," 2d ed., by Omar Faiz and David Moffat, "Physiology of the Heart," 4th ed., by Arnold M. Katz, and "Lipids Rafts and Caveolae," by Christopher J. Fielding.


Academic Journal

pages 28

There were numerous books of physiology and hygiene published in the cultural market of the late Qing Dynasty. Their writing and translating purposes, hygienic concepts and hygienic identification in these books displayed the intellectual elites’ efforts in constructing “hygienic modernity” and establishing a national state. Books of physiology and hygiene published in the late Qing Dynasty were firstly translated and edited by missionaries and it was not until 1894 that many Chinese began to edit, translate, and write books of this kind. About one hundred and thirty varieties of books of physiology and hygiene were published in the late Qing Dynasty, most of them were textbooks widely read by people and commonly accepted as books of “hygiene” or “medical science” together with the then published books of Western medical science and books on how to keep a good health. At that time, hygiene was not only a guideline for people’s life and consumption, but also became an ideology to distinguish civilization and savageness with its significance gradually connected with race and nation.


Nutritional evaluation of Tenebrio molitor meal as fishmeal substitute for tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) diet.

by Sánchez-Muros, MªJ., Haro, C., Sanz, A., Trenzado, C.E., Villareces, S., Barroso, F.G. [2016-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 13

Fishmeal ( FM) and soy meal ( SM) are the most common protein sources used in fish feed, but they are associated with environmental, economic or production problems. Insects could be an interesting alternative source of protein. This work investigates the nutritive value of Tenebrio molitor meal ( TM) and the effect of total replacement of SM by TM ( TM/ FM diet) or partial replacement of FM by TM ( TM/ FM/ SM diet) versus a diet based in SM and FM ( FM/ SM diet) for tilapia. We studied the chitin content in TM, the in vitro protein digestibility, protease activity, oxidative stress and antioxidant defences, growth performance and nutrient utilization. The results indicate that an inclusion up to 500 g kg−1 of TM in the diet did not affect feed intake, in vitro protein digestibility, muscle amino acid composition or biometric indexes. However, their inclusion reduced growth performance and affected the muscle fatty acid profile. The lowest values for protease activity, elevated FRAP in digestive tracts and ROS level in muscle and higher SOD activity were observed in fish fed with SM/ FM diet. The use of TM requires better understanding of the role of chitin in digestion and the study of toxins that might affect fish growth. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Genetic diversity and structure of Iberian Peninsula cowpeas compared to worldwide cowpea accessions using high density SNP markers.

by Carvalho, Márcia, Muñoz-Amatriaín, María, Castro, Isaura, Lino-Neto, Teresa, Matos, Manuela, Egea-Cortines, Marcos, Rosa, Eduardo, Close, Timothy, Carnide, Valdemar [2017-11-21]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume crop due to its high protein content, adaptation to heat and drought and capacity to fix nitrogen. Europe has a deficit of cowpea production. Knowledge of genetic diversity among cowpea landraces is important for the preservation of local varieties and is the basis to obtain improved varieties. The aims of this study were to explore diversity and the genetic structure of a set of Iberian Peninsula cowpea accessions in comparison to a worldwide collection and to infer possible dispersion routes of cultivated cowpea. Results: The Illumina Cowpea iSelect Consortium Array containing 51,128 SNPs was used to genotype 96 cowpea accessions including 43 landraces and cultivars from the Iberian Peninsula, and 53 landraces collected worldwide. Four subpopulations were identified. Most Iberian Peninsula accessions clustered together with those from other southern European and northern African countries. Only one accession belonged to another subpopulation, while two accessions were 'admixed'. A lower genetic diversity level was found in the Iberian Peninsula accessions compared to worldwide cowpeas. Conclusions: The genetic analyses performed in this study brought some insights into worldwide genetic diversity and structure and possible dispersion routes of cultivated cowpea. Also, it provided an in-depth analysis of genetic diversity in Iberian Peninsula cowpeas that will help guide crossing strategies in breeding programs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]