A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice.

by Nilsson, Jessica, Ericsson, Madelene, Motamedi Joibari, Masoumeh, Anderson, Fredrick, Carlsson, Leif, Nilsson, Stefan K., Sjödin, Anna, Burén, Jonas [2016-11-15]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Background: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids. Here we investigated the metabolic and physiological consequences of a diet with a macronutrient composition similar to the Scandinavian LCHF diet and its effects on the organs, tissues, and metabolism of weight stable mice. Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice were iso-energetically pair-fed for 4 weeks with standard chow or a LCHF diet. We measured body composition using echo MRI and the aerobic capacity before and after 2 and 4 weeks on diet. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography before and after 4 weeks on diet. The metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry the fourth week of the diet. Mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the organ weight, triglyceride levels, and blood chemistry were analyzed, and the expression of key ketogenic, metabolic, hormonal, and inflammation genes were measured in the heart, liver, and adipose tissue depots of the mice using real-time PCR. Results: The increase in body weight of mice fed a LCHF diet was similar to that in controls. However, while control mice maintained their body composition throughout the study, LCHF mice gained fat mass at the expense of lean mass after 2 weeks. The LCHF diet increased cardiac triglyceride content, impaired cardiac function, and reduced aerobic capacity. It also induced pronounced alterations in gene expression and substrate metabolism, indicating a unique metabolic state. Conclusions: Pair-fed mice eating LCHF increased their percentage of body fat at the expense of lean mass already after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks the function of the heart deteriorated. These findings highlight the urgent need to investigate the effects of a LCHF diet on health parameters in humans. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Interleukin 1-beta analysis in chronically inflamed and healthy human dental pulp.

by Šubarić, Ljiljana, Mitić, Aleksandar, Matvijenko, Vladimir, Jovanović, Radovan, Živković, Dušan, Perić, Dejan, Vlahović, Zoran [2017-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5


Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy session in patients with LRTI: a pre/post-test study.

by Oliveira, Ana, Pinho, Cátia, Marques, Alda [2017-11-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Introduction The role of respiratory physiotherapy (RP) in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) has been questioned. However, studies have focused on hospitalised patients, and the presence/absence of an underlying disease has been neglected. Objectives To assess the effects of a RP session in community patients with LRTI and to explore the differences between patients with pneumonia (restrictive disease - AR) and those with exacerbations of an obstructive disease (AO). Methods A pre/post-test study was conducted. A RP session was applied to patients with LRTI and crackles, wheezes, dyspnoea, perception of sputum and oxygen saturation were collected pre/post session. Comparisons were performed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests. Results Thirty patients (14 males, 55.23 ± 17.78 years) with pneumonia (AR, n = 12), exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute bronchitis and asthma (AO, n = 18) were enrolled. After treatment, the total sample presented lower wheeze rates at trachea ( P = 0.02; r = −0.54) and less sputum ( P = 0.01; r = −0.47). AR patients presented a decrease in the number of crackles ( P < 0.05; 0.30 < dz < 0.26) and number and rate of wheezes at chest locations ( P < 0.05; −0.56 < r < −0.48). AO patients showed an increase in the number of crackles ( P < 0.05; 0.20 < dz


Dealing with the tension: how residents seek autonomy and participation in the workplace.

by Olmos‐Vega, Francisco M, Dolmans, Diana H J M, Vargas‐Castro, Nicolas, Stalmeijer, Renée E [2017-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

CONTEXT The workplace can be a strenuous setting for residents: although it offers a wealth of learning opportunities, residents find themselves juggling their responsibilities. Even though supervisors regulate what is afforded to residents, the former find it difficult to strike the proper balance between residents' independence and support, which could create tensions. But what tensions do residents experience during clinical supervision and how do they cope with them to maximise their learning opportunities? Understanding how residents act on different affordances in the workplace is of paramount importance, as it influences their learning. METHOD Residents from different levels of training and disciplines participated in three focus groups (n = 19) and 10 semi-structured interviews (n = 10). The authors recruited these trainees using purposive and convenience sampling. Audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and the ensuing scripts were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. RESULTS Residents reported that the autonomy and practice opportunities given by their supervisors were either excessive or too limited, and both were perceived as tensions. When in excess, trainees enlisted the help of their supervisor or peers, depending on how safe they recognised the learning environment to be. When practice opportunities were curtailed, trainees tried to negotiate more if they felt the learning environment was safe. When they did not, trainees became passive observers. Learning from each engagement was subject to the extent of intersubjectivity achieved between the actors involved. CONCLUSIONS Tensions arose when supervisors did not give trainees the desired degree of autonomy and opportunities to participate. Trainees responded in various ways to maximise their learning opportunities. For these different engagement-related responses to enhance workplace learning in specialty training, achieving intersubjectivity between trainee and supervisor seems foundational. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Why do they engage in such hard programs? The search for excellence in youth basketball.

by Gonçalves, Carlos E., e Silva, Manuel J. Coelho, Carvalho, Humberto M., Gonçalves, Ângela [2011-09-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Excellent performance in sport has a strong positive relationship with the accumulated hours of practice. The specialization years are seen as a decisive moment to lift the skill level, athletic readiness and commitment but the selection and orientation of talent has been strongly dependent of biological and motor variables. The purpose of this study is to describe the achievement and motivation variables that can explain the belonging to an elite competitive level of young basketball players. Eightytwo basketball players under 16 years fulfilled the WOFO Questionnaire (Spence and Helmreich, 1983), and an adapted version of the DPMQ (De Bruin, Rikers and Schmidt, 2007). Forty players (mean age 15.8 ± 0.96) were engaged in high performance centres and forty-two (mean age 15.6 ± 1.01) played in national level clubs. A decision tree and a random forest analysis between elite and national level players were performed. The most discriminant variable was Will to Excel, with 85,2% true positives in elite or national level. Mastery and competitiveness did not enter the final model. The will to reach excellence in performance can be considered as a condition to engage in more specialized and demanding practice. The assessment of the path to expertise only through motor variables or through the accumulated hours of deliberate practice is limited and can lead to mistaken identification or orientation of young sport talents. The use of a more comprehensive model is needed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on female reproductive system in juvenile rats.

by Yoshikazu Taketa, Hiroshi Mineshima, Etsuko Ohta, Kyoko Nakano-Ito [2017-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), which is widely used in various industrial products, is known for adverse effects on the reproductive system in adult rats. However, the effects of EGME on reproductive development in juvenile rats have not been demonstrated. In order to investigate the effects of EGME on the female reproductive system and pubertal development in juvenile rats, EGME was administered to female Sprague Dawley rats from postnatal day 21 to 41 at a dose level of 0, 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg. The animals were examined for general condition, body weight, vaginal opening (VO), estrous cyclicity, and histopathology of reproductive organs. EGME treatment resulted in a prolonged estrous cycle interval characterized by persistent diestrus at 50 mg/kg without effects on body weight, timing of VO, or histology of the reproductive organs. EGME at 100 mg/kg induced decreases in body weight gain, a delay of VO, and irregular estrous cycle with absence of corpora lutea and hypertrophy of uterine epithelium indicating disturbance of the ovulatory process associated with hormonal effect. At 300 mg/kg, there was significant delay of puberty due to severe growth retardation. The present results revealed that irregular estrous cycle is a first indicator of the effects of EGME on the female reproductive system in juvenile rats, with delayed pubertal onset and ovulatory process disturbance at a higher dose. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Bisphenol A and Male Reproductive System.

by Amraje, Fatma F. Mohamed, Köylü, Ayşe, Dizakar, Saadet Özen Akarca, Türkoğlu, İsmail, Ömeroğlu, Suna [2018-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5


Effect of seasonal variations on the haematochemical profile of Cholistani service bulls.

by Farooq, Umer, Ahmad, Nazir, Ahmad, Ijaz, Mahmood, Syed Aamer, Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan, Idris, Musadiq [2017-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

This reported study is of Pakistan's indigenous Cholistani cattle breed, a native of the Cholistan desert where it has been reported as having high production potential for nomadic herders. The aim of the present study was to assess haematochemical profile of adult Cholistani service bulls (n = 16), being reared at the Semen Production Unit Karaniwala, Bahawalpur, Cholistan desert, Pakistan, during various seasons as an indicator of their health status. Keeping in view the prevailing climatic conditions of the study area, four seasons of three months duration each were defined as (i) cool dry winter (November, December, January) (ii) temperate spring (February, March, April) (iii) hot dry summer (May, June, July) and (iv) hot humid summer (August, September, October). Blood specimens were collected fortnightly during the study period for haematochemical analyses (automated). The present study revealed that Cholistani service bulls have a tendency to maintain most of their haematochemical parameters more or less at the same level during various seasons which is suggestive of their adaptability under stressful climates without showing any signs of stress. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]


Academic Journal

pages 10

Objectives: In Part II of a two-part series, we develop a phenomenological model of a negative outcome of U.S. Army Basic Combat Training that affects a large proportion of trainees. Previous models have been epidemiological in nature and have focused on trainee risk factors such as previous injury, gender, and initial fitness. This approach is limited due to difficulties extrapolating results to other cohorts. In addition, training regimen is often neglected, limiting accuracy when applied to novel scenarios.Methods: The prognostic Training Adaptation Injury Model (TAIM) developed accounts for both individual characteristics as well as regimen by integrating validated submodels of physiological and biomechanical principles known to be important for tibial stress fracture.Results: We find that when used to predict any type of overuse injury, the TAIM is most accurate when the effect of training activities on both overall fitness as well as muscle fatigue during activities is accounted for area under the receiver-operator curve of 0.65. This compares favorably with statistical-based models that do not account for training regimen (area under the receiver-operator curve ≈ 0.56.Conclusions: The TAIM has the potential to both identify trainees at overuse injury risk as well as make recommendations on regimen changes to reduce that risk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Dual effects of α2-adrenoceptors in modulating myogenic tone in sheep isolated internal anal sphincter.

by Rayment, S. J., Simpson, J. A. D., Eames, T., Acheson, A. G., Dashwood, M. R., Henry, Y., Gruss, H., Scholefield, J. H., Wilson, V. G. [2014-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Background The role of α-adrenoceptors in promoting continence through modulation of sphincter tone has focused primarily on the effects of α1-adrenoceptors. We have used three clinically available agents, which are selective for α2-adrenoceptors, to investigate their role in contractile and neurogenic responses on the internal anal sphincter ( IAS). Methods IAS strips, which had spontaneously generated tone, were used to investigate the contractile effect of lofexidine, brimonidine, and dexmedetomidine on muscle tone in the presence or absence of subtype selective antagonists. The effect of brimonidine on the magnitude and time course of neurogenic responses generated by electrical field stimulation ( EFS) was also examined. The affinity of test compounds at α1- and α2-adrenoceptors was established by competition binding with [3H]-prazosin and [3H]- RX821002. Key Results All agonists caused concentration-dependent contraction of the IAS and lofexidine demonstrated an enantiomeric difference in potency with a 10-fold difference between the (−) and (+) isomers. Responses to lofexidine and dexmedetomidine were inhibited in the presence of the α1-adrenoceptor selective antagonist prazosin, but not in the presence of RX811059 ( α2-adrenoceptor selective antagonist); brimonidine responses were inhibited by RX811059 and, to a lesser extent, by prazosin. Brimonidine affected both magnitude and duration of neurogenic responses, which was reversed in the presence of RX811059. Conclusions & Inferences We conclude that α2-adrenoceptors can mediate contraction of IAS, although this effect is most evident with efficacious imidazoline agonists rather than the most selective ligand. In addition, this receptor subtype can directly inhibit noradrenergic contractile responses to EFS and, indirectly, enhance nitrergic relaxatory responses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Echocardiographic Techniques of Deformation Imaging in the Evaluation of Maternal Cardiovascular System in Patients with Complicated Pregnancies.

by Visentin, Silvia, Palermo, Chiara, Camerin, Martina, Daliento, Luciano, Muraru, Denisa, Cosmi, Erich, Badano, Luigi P. [2017-08-22]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Knowledge of CVD in women is constantly evolving and data are emerging that female-specific risk factors as complications of pregnancy are conditions associated with an increased risk for the long-term development of CVD. Echocardiography is a safe and effective imaging technique indicated in symptomatic or asymptomatic pregnant women with congenital heart diseases who require close monitoring of cardiac function. Deformation imaging is an echocardiographic technique used to assess myocardial function by measuring the actual deformation of the myocardium through the cardiac cycle. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a two-dimensional (2D) technique which has been found to be more accurate than tissue Doppler to assess both left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial function. The use of 2D STE however might present some technical issues due to the tomographic nature of the technique and the motion in the three-dimensional space of the myocardial speckles. This has promoted the use of 3D STE to track the motion of the speckles in the 3D space. This review will focus on the clinical value of the new echocardiographic techniques of deformation imaging used to assess the maternal cardiovascular system in complicated pregnancies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Essential metrics for assessing sex & gender integration in health research proposals involving human participants.

by Day, Suzanne, Mason, Robin, Tannenbaum, Cara, Rochon, Paula A. [2017-08-30]

Academic Journal

pages 13

Integrating sex and gender in health research is essential to produce the best possible evidence to inform health care. Comprehensive integration of sex and gender requires considering these variables from the very beginning of the research process, starting at the proposal stage. To promote excellence in sex and gender integration, we have developed a set of metrics to assess the quality of sex and gender integration in research proposals. These metrics are designed to assist both researchers in developing proposals and reviewers in making funding decisions. We developed this tool through an iterative three-stage method involving 1) review of existing sex and gender integration resources and initial metrics design, 2) expert review and feedback via anonymous online survey (Likert scale and open-ended questions), and 3) analysis of feedback data and collective revision of the metrics. We received feedback on the initial metrics draft from 20 reviewers with expertise in conducting sex- and/or gender-based health research. The majority of reviewers responded positively to questions regarding the utility, clarity and completeness of the metrics, and all reviewers provided responses to open-ended questions about suggestions for improvements. Coding and analysis of responses identified three domains for improvement: clarifying terminology, refining content, and broadening applicability. Based on this analysis we revised the metrics into the Essential Metrics for Assessing Sex and Gender Integration in Health Research Proposals Involving Human Participants, which outlines criteria for excellence within each proposal component and provides illustrative examples to support implementation. By enhancing the quality of sex and gender integration in proposals, the metrics will help to foster comprehensive, meaningful integration of sex and gender throughout each stage of the research process, resulting in better quality evidence to inform health care for all. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ increases enhance mutant glucocerebrosidase proteostasis.

by Ong, Derrick Sek Tong, Ting-Wei Mu, Palmer, Amy E., Kelly, Jeffery W. [2010-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Altering intracellular calcium levels is known to partially restore mutant enzyme homeostasis in several lysosomal storage diseases, but why? We hypothesized that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium increases enhance the folding, trafficking and function of these mutant misfolding- and degradation-prone lysosomal enzymes by increasing chaperone function. Here we report that increasing ER calcium levels by reducing ER calcium efflux through the ryanodine receptor, using antagonists or RNAi, or by promoting ER calcium influx by SERCA2b overexpression enhances mutant glucocerebrosidase (GC) homeostasis in cells derived from individuals with Gaucher's disease. Post-translational regulation of the calnexin folding pathway by an elevated ER calcium concentration seems to enhance the capacity of this chaperone system to fold mutant misfolding-prone enzymes, increasing the folded mutant GC population that can engage the trafficking receptor at the expense of ER-associated degradation, increasing the lysosomal GC concentration and activity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Occurrence of cyanobacteria-diatom symbiosis in the Bay of Bengal: implications in biogeochemistry.

by Kulkarni, Vinayak V., Chitari, Rajath R., Narale, Dhiraj D., Patil, Jagadish S., Anil, Arga Chandrashekar [2010-09-25]

Academic Journal

pages 2

The article focuses on the distribution of the cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis, which account for the nitrogen fixation that affects the biogeochemistry of oligotrophic area in the Bay of Bengal. It mentions that R. intracellularis is associated to host diatoms Rhisolenia and Guinardia which can be viewed with the use of epifluorescence. Meanwhile, the cyanobacterium is responsible for the formation of phytoplankton that releases fixed nitrogen.


Awareness of health effects of aspartame among diabetic patients.

by S. M. Azima Hanin, V. Vishnu Priya, R. Gayathri [2018-07-01]

Academic Journal

pages 4

Aim and Background: The aim of this study was to create awareness about knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the usage of aspartame among diabetic patients. Introduction: Artificial sweeteners like aspartame are becoming popular as an alternative to sugar. Increased incidence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome coupled with heightened consumer awareness has led to a steady shift toward the use of low-calorie artificial sweeteners. There have been claims that diabetics can experience adverse health effects from consuming aspartame. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College outpatient department. It consisted of 102 diabetic subjects of ages between 22 and 50, both males and females. A questionnaire was prepared based on the following: their name, age, and for how long they were diabetic, if they use aspartame and if they do for how many times a day, if aspartame was suggested by their doctor, if they experience any of the side effects (headache, nausea, weight gain, stress, and increase in blood sugar level), and if they are aware of the side effects. The survey was then analyzed using proper statistics and results were concluded. Result: According to this study and its statistics, nearly 85% of the subjects did not experience side effects such as nausea and headaches. Only 30.1% of the subjects noticed a gain in weight after using aspartame. Even though 60.9% of the subject population were already aware of the side effects that aspartame causes, they still continued to use aspartame. More than 60.5% of the patients taken for the study were not aware of the danger in ingesting aspartame with very hot drinks. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that the artificial sweetener aspartame has both beneficial and harmful effects on the regular lifestyle of diabetics who are dependent on it. Patients were educated to get the knowledge about the benefits and harmful side effects of aspartame through this questionnaire awareness. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Allelic variation of vernalization and photoperiod response genes in a diverse set of North American high latitude winter wheat genotypes.

by Whittal, Alexander, Kaviani, Mina, Graf, Robert, Humphreys, Gavin, Navabi, Alireza [2018-08-30]

Academic Journal

pages 17

The major physiological determinants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phenology in a given area are a response to vernalization temperature and day length, which are at least in part, regulated by the allelic variation at the vernalization (VRN) and photoperiod (PPD) loci, respectively. Characterization of the existing genetic variation for plant phenology in winter wheat can assist breeding programs improve adaptation to local environments and to optimize wheat phenology for the changing climate. The objectives of this research were to characterize the allelic variation at the major VRN and PPD loci in a diverse panel of high latitude winter wheat genotypes (n = 203) and to associate the allelic variation with phenologic, agronomic and adaptation traits. The panel was genotyped using allele-specific markers at vernalization (VRN-A1, VRN-B1, VRN-D1 and VRN-B3) and photoperiod (PPD-A1, PPD-B1, and PPD-D1) loci and phenotyped for agronomically-important traits. Though photoperiod sensitivity was more prevalent, most of the variation in the phenology of the winter wheat panel was explained by allelic variation at PPD-D1, PPD-A1, and the interaction between these loci. While a typical high latitude winter wheat genotype is one that carries winter alleles at all major VRN loci and photoperiod sensitive alleles at the major PPD loci, in lower latitudes where winters are milder, the presence of one or two photoperiod insensitive alleles seems to contribute to higher yield and wider adaptation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Auditory midbrain coding of statistical learning that results from discontinuous sensory stimulation.

by Cruces-Solís, Hugo, Jing, Zhizi, Babaev, Olga, Rubin, Jonathan, Gür, Burak, Krueger-Burg, Dilja, Strenzke, Nicola, de Hoz, Livia [2018-07-26]

Academic Journal

pages 35

Detecting regular patterns in the environment, a process known as statistical learning, is essential for survival. Neuronal adaptation is a key mechanism in the detection of patterns that are continuously repeated across short (seconds to minutes) temporal windows. Here, we found in mice that a subcortical structure in the auditory midbrain was sensitive to patterns that were repeated discontinuously, in a temporally sparse manner, across windows of minutes to hours. Using a combination of behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, we found changes in neuronal response gain that varied in mechanism with the degree of sound predictability and resulted in changes in frequency coding. Analysis of population activity (structural tuning) revealed an increase in frequency classification accuracy in the context of increased overlap in responses across frequencies. The increase in accuracy and overlap was paralleled at the behavioral level in an increase in generalization in the absence of diminished discrimination. Gain modulation was accompanied by changes in gene and protein expression, indicative of long-term plasticity. Physiological changes were largely independent of corticofugal feedback, and no changes were seen in upstream cochlear nucleus responses, suggesting a key role of the auditory midbrain in sensory gating. Subsequent behavior demonstrated learning of predictable and random patterns and their importance in auditory conditioning. Using longer timescales than previously explored, the combined data show that the auditory midbrain codes statistical learning of temporally sparse patterns, a process that is critical for the detection of relevant stimuli in the constant soundscape that the animal navigates through. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 11

Clinically, six minute walk test (6MWT) is the most common exercise test. It is used to estimate the level of physical fitness among patients. The aim of this research to measure the beat by beat heart rate slopes instead of depending on the covered distance to predicate and estimate the level of physical fitness during 6MWT. Seventy (70) healthy adult male students aged between 18 to 27 years were recruited randomly from the general Saudi population in Riyadh. 6 MWT using 50 meter corridor was performed according to standardized American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. Mean distance walked in 6 minutes (470.5±64.6 meters) and beat by beat heart rate (HR) was calculated by heart rate monitor. In addition Body mass index (BMI), Body surface area (BSA), Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (BRPE) and Maximum predicted heart rate percentage (MPHRP) was also calculated. A stepwise regression equation was used to predict six minute walk test distance (6MWTD), six minute walk test slope (6MWTS) and recovery slope. There was a significant correlation between 6MWTS and the recovery slope (r= -0.460, p


Academic Journal

pages 7

The field experiment was conducted during 2015-16 to study the effect of biofetilizer inoculation [control, Mesorhizobium only, Mesorhizobium + RB-1 (Pseudomonas argentinensis) and Mesorhizobium + RB-2 (Bacillus aryabhattai)] and four levels of phosphorus (0, 15, 20 and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1) on chickpea growth. RB-1 and RB-2 were the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Biofertilizers could play a crucial role in reducing the dependence on chemical fertilizers by fixing the atmospheric nitrogen for crop and/or by increasing the availability of phosphorus and phytohormones to the crop. The 16 treatment combinations were laid out in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. In biofertilizer treatments, Mesorhizobium + RB-1 proved superior over control and sole inoculation of Mesorhizobium and at par with Mesorhizobium + RB-2 with respect to plant height (cm), number of branches (plant-1), shoot and root dry matter (kg ha-1) which were recorded at 30, 60 90, 120 days after sowing (DAS) and at harvest. Application of 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave the highest values of all the growth attributes viz. plant height (60 cm), number of primary (5.3) and secondary (27.2) branches per plant, shoot dry matter (4000 kg ha-1) and root dry matter (354 kg ha-1) which were significantly higher than that of 0 and 15 kg P2O5 ha-1 and at par with 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Similar results were observed in case of crop growth rate (CGR) whereas relative growth rate (RGR) was not influenced significantly by various biofertilizer and phosphorus treatments. The dual inoculation with PGPR strains along with phosphorus application have a supplementary effect on the growth of chickpea. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 3

The article presents a discussion on the use of the Hierarchy of Needs of Abraham Maslow in planning for care for drug addicts. The Hierarchy has various levels, the bottom being the Physiological Needs while on top is Self Actualization. It is noted that providers of care should work on the physiological needs of drug addicts first before proceeding to higher levels of safety, belonging, esteem and spiritual needs. Treatments in the lowest level include detoxification. It is asserted that the treatment should focus on the goal of maintenance.


Developing the Concept of Organismic Need.

by Kenofer, Bruce [2010-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 17

The emergence and satisfaction of physiological needs such as hunger or thirst in the service of homeostasis has served as the paradigmatic example for organismic self-regulation within Gestalt therapy theory. It is argued that this metaphor is a poor model of organismic self-regulation; it obscures not only differences between separable processes of homeostatic and equilibrative regulation, but also differences between physiological and psychological needs. This, in turn, has led to the failure to recognize the developmental nature of psychological needs. Kegan's model of self-development is presented as an illustration of a developmentally sensitive approach. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A proteomics approach to identify targets of the ubiquitin-like molecule Urm1 in Drosophila melanogaster.

by Khoshnood, Behzad, Dacklin, Ingrid, Grabbe, Caroline [2017-09-27]

Academic Journal

pages 21

By covalently conjugating to target proteins, ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) act as important regulators of target protein localization and activity, thereby playing a critical role in the orchestration of cellular biology. The most ancient and one of the least studied UBLs is Urm1, a dual-function protein that in parallel to performing similar functions as its prokaryotic ancestors in tRNA modification, also has adopted the capacity to conjugate to cellular proteins analogous to ubiquitin and other UBL modifiers. In order to increase the understanding of Urm1 and its role in multicellular organisms, we have used affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to identify putative targets of Urm1 conjugation (urmylation) at three developmental stages of the Drosophila melanogaster lifecycle. Altogether we have recovered 79 Urm1-interacting proteins in Drosophila, which include the already established Urm1 binding partners Prx5 and Uba4, together with 77 candidate urmylation targets that are completely novel in the fly. Among these, the majority was exclusively identified during either embryogenesis, larval stages or in adult flies. We further present biochemical evidence that four of these proteins are covalently conjugated by Urm1, whereas the fifth verified Urm1-binding protein appears to interact with Urm1 via non-covalent means. Besides recapitulating the previously established roles of Urm1 in tRNA modification and during oxidative stress, functional clustering of the newly identified Urm1-associated proteins further positions Urm1 in protein networks that control other types of cellular stress, such as immunological threats and DNA damage. In addition, the functional characteristics of several of the candidate targets strongly match the phenotypes displayed by Urm1n123 null animals, including embryonic lethality, reduced fertility and shortened lifespan. In conclusion, this identification of candidate targets of urmylation significantly increases the knowledge of Urm1 and presents an excellent starting point for unravelling the role of Urm1 in the context of a complex living organism. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Burkholderia pseudomallei Adaptation for Survival in Stressful Conditions.

by Duangurai, Taksaon, Indrawattana, Nitaya, Pumirat, Pornpan [2018-05-27]

Academic Journal

pages 11

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis, which can be fatal in humans. Melioidosis is prevalent in the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Ecological data have shown that this bacterium can survive as a free-living organism in environmental niches, such as soil and water, as well as a parasite living in host organisms, such as ameba, plants, fungi, and animals. This review provides an overview of the survival and adaptation of B. pseudomallei to stressful conditions induced by hostile environmental factors, such as salinity, oxidation, and iron levels. The adaptation of B. pseudomallei in host cells is also reviewed. The adaptive survival mechanisms of this pathogen mainly involve modulation of gene and protein expression, which could cause alterations in the bacteria’s cell membrane, metabolism, and virulence. Understanding the adaptations of this organism to environmental factors provides important insights into the survival and pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei, which may lead to the development of novel strategies for the control, prevention, and treatment of melioidosis in the future. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 9

Background: Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidence-based consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. Results: We included seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference in infection rate between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples. Conclusions: At present, no evidence suggests that sampling technique affects the accuracy of the microbiological diagnosis in non-pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. However, the evidence presented is in-direct and the difference between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples remains to be investigated in a paired design to verify the present findings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]