Volume natriuresis vs. pressure natriuresis.

by Bie, P., Wamberg, S., Kjolby, M. [2004-08-01]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Body fluid regulation depends on regulation of renal excretion. This includes a fast vasopressin-mediated water-retaining mechanism, and slower, complex sodium-retaining systems dominated by the renin–angiotensin aldosterone cascade. The sensory mechanisms of sodium control are not identified; effectors may include renal arterial pressure, renal reflexes, extrarenal hormones and other regulatory factors. Since the pioneering work of Guyton more than three decades ago, pressure natriuresis has been in focus. Dissociations between sodium excretion and blood pressure are explained as conditions where regulatory performance exceeds the precision of the measurements. It is inherent to the concept, however, that sudden transition from low to high sodium intake elicits an arterial pressure increase, which is reversed by the pressure natriuresis mechanism. However, such transitions elicit parallel changes in extracellular fluid volume thereby activating volume receptors. Recently we studied the orchestration of sodium homeostasis by chronic and acute sodium loading in normal humans and trained dogs. Small increases in arterial blood pressure are easily generated by acute sodium loading, and dogs appear more sensitive than humans. However, with suitable loading procedures it is possible – also acutely – to augment renal sodium excretion by at least one order of magnitude without any change in arterial pressure whatsoever. Although pressure natriuresis is a powerful mechanism capable of overriding any other controller, it seems possible that it is not operative under normal conditions. Consequently, it is suggested that physiological control of sodium excretion is neurohumoral based on extracellular volume with neural control of renin system activity as an essential component. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR): A Potential Indicator of Invasion for In Situ Breast Cancer.

by Guyton, Daniel P., Evans, Douglas M., Sloan-Stakleff, Kimberly D. [2000-03-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its cellular receptor (uPAR) are important mediators in the cellular process of cancer invasion and metastasis. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is classified by lack of invasion into the adjacent stroma, yet definitive histologic features have not been identified to indicate the propensity for cellular invasion. Therapy for DCIS remains controversial because of the probability for recurrence. We hypothesized that uPA and uPAR may represent new predictors for recurrence of DCIS. Tissue specimens were obtained from 10 normal, 10 hyperplasia, and 70 patients with DCIS. Representative sections of the regions were mounted and stained by immunohistologic techniques using mouse anti-human uPA and uPAR antibodies. Stain intensities were assessed by densitometry image analysis. Gray scale values for in situ patients were compared to normal averages to determine whether staining intensities were normal or significantly higher (p < 0.05) than normal. DCIS tissues were heterogeneous for stain intensities of uPA and uPAR. Patients with high stain intensities for uPAR (28/70 = 40%) correlated with a higher recurrence rate (15/28 = 54%) than with patients having high stains for uPA (19/70 = 28% with 17/50 = 34% recurrence). In addition, patients with combined high stains for uPA and uPAR (11/19 = 60%) showed a recurrence rate of 55% compared to high uPA/normal uPAR with 0% recurrence. Immunohistologic evaluation of DCIS for uPAR, alone and in combination with uPA, significantly correlates with recurrence of invasive breast carcinoma. Evaluation of uPAR among DCIS lesions may provide a new prognostic indicator for recurrence of breast carcinoma. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Virtual Patients and Sensitivity Analysis of the Guyton Model of Blood Pressure Regulation: Towards Individualized Models of Whole-Body Physiology.

by Moss, Robert, Grosse, Thibault, Marchant, Ivanny, Lassau, Nathalie, Gueyffier, François, Thomas, Randall [2012-06-01]

Academic Journal

pages 16

Mathematical models that integrate multi-scale physiological data can offer insight into physiological and pathophysiological function, and may eventually assist in individualized predictive medicine. We present a methodology for performing systematic analyses of multi-parameter interactions in such complex, multi-scale models. Human physiology models are often based on or inspired by Arthur Guyton's whole-body circulatory regulation model. Despite the significance of this model, it has not been the subject of a systematic and comprehensive sensitivity study. Therefore, we use this model as a case study for our methodology. Our analysis of the Guyton model reveals how the multitude of model parameters combine to affect the model dynamics, and how interesting combinations of parameters may be identified. It also includes a ''virtual population'' from which ''virtual individuals'' can be chosen, on the basis of exhibiting conditions similar to those of a real-world patient. This lays the groundwork for using the Guyton model for in silico exploration of pathophysiological states and treatment strategies. The results presented here illustrate several potential uses for the entire dataset of sensitivity results and the ''virtual individuals'' that we have generated, which are included in the supplementary material. More generally, the presented methodology is applicable to modern, more complex multi-scale physiological models. INSET: Author Summary. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


The Benefits of Residual Hair Cell Function for Speech and Music Perception in Pediatric Bimodal Cochlear Implant Listeners.

by Cheng, Xiaoting, Liu, Yangwenyi, Wang, Bing, Yuan, Yasheng, Galvin, John J., Fu, Qian-Jie, Shu, Yilai, Chen, Bing [2018-04-15]

Academic Journal

pages 10

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of residual hair cell function for speech and music perception in bimodal pediatric Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) listeners. Design. Speech and music performance was measured in 35 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI users for unilateral (CI-only) and bimodal listening. Mandarin speech perception was measured for vowels, consonants, lexical tones, and sentences in quiet. Music perception was measured for melodic contour identification (MCI). Results. Combined electric and acoustic hearing significantly improved MCI and Mandarin tone recognition performance, relative to CI-only performance. For MCI, performance was significantly better with bimodal listening for all semitone spacing conditions (p


Gross Anatomy of the Brachial Plexus in the Giant Anteater ( Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

by Souza, P. R., Cardoso, J. R., Araujo, L. B. M., Moreira, P. C., Cruz, V. S., Araujo, E. G. [2014-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 5

Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Dysregulated ICOS+ proinflammatory and suppressive regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

by HONG-XIA WANG, XIA KANG, SHUAI CHU, HAIXIA LI, XIN LI, XIAOFENG YIN, YU-RONG QIU, WEINAN LAI [2018-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) serve an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by regulating autoimmunity and inflammation. Humans and mice contain inducible T-cell costimulator-positive (ICOS+) Tregs, although their role in RA is unclear. A total of 33 patients with RA and 17 normal control (NC) subjects were examined. The proportion of ICOS+ Tregs in the peripheral blood and intracellular cytokine levels in these cells were assessed using flow cytometry. The percentage of ICOS+ Tregs increased in the cohort of patients with RA compared with the NCs. Such increases were much larger in patients with inactive RA compared with patients with active RA. Additionally, ICOS+ Tregs expressed multiple suppressive cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor-β and IL-35, but expressed low levels of IL-17. Importantly, the expression of suppressive cytokines in ICOS+ Tregs from patients with active RA decreased, but IL-17 expression noticeably increased compared with patients with inactive RA. The present findings suggested that ICOS+ Tregs may perform inflammatory and inhibitory functions, and abnormal ICOS+ Tregs numbers and functions may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Histomorphometrical Study on Regional Variation in Distribution of Sweat Glands in Buffalo Skin.

by Debbarma, Debajit, Uppal, Varinder, Bansal, Neelam, Gupta, Anuradha [2018-08-16]

Academic Journal

pages 7

The study was conducted on skin of 24 buffaloes collected from slaughter house. The skin tissues were collected from dorsal, lateral, and ventral parts of head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and tail regions and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. The tissues were processed for paraffin blocks preparation by acetone benzene schedule. The paraffin sections of 5-6 μm were cut with rotary microtome and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The sweat glands in buffaloes were of saccular and simple coiled tubular type. Most of the sweat glands were associated with hair follicles and consisted of a coiled secretory portion (body) and a straight duct. The secretory portion was made up of glandular tubules, myoepithelium, and basement membrane. The duct portion had a narrow lumen and was lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The glandular epithelium was simple squamous, simple cuboidal, or low columnar type depending upon their stage of secretary activity. Two types of sweat glands were observed, i.e., apocrine and merocrine. Large number of blood vessels and nerve fibers were observed in the vicinity of the sweat glands. In head, neck, and tail regions the maximum number of sweat glands/mm2 was observed in dorsal side which did not vary significantly (p


Academic Journal

pages 8

View Supplementary Videos , , Background Freezing of gait ( FOG) in Parkinson's disease ( PD) is poorly understood; however, with the established understanding of basal ganglia function, its manifestations should be more easily interpretable. This review examines freezing of gait ( FOG) from such a perspective. Methods A search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from the year 2000 onward for review articles, focused on the pathophysiology of FOG, was used to determine current concepts. A previously established model of basal ganglia function was used to determine the concepts' validities. At the core of the model are deficits in motor set maintenance and timing cue production for automatic movement. It includes the shift between attention and automation to the predominant attention control of gait in PD. Results The difficulties of the found concepts to explain FOG stem from failure to characterize different FOG components, from the assumption that all components share a similar pathophysiology, from a failure to separate basic deficits from compensatory mechanisms, and from the assumption that cognitive deficits are the cause of FOG rather than representing an inadequate compensation to FOG. Pragmatic approaches to management use the attention shift, with the provision of visual information about correct amplitude of step to correct initiation deficits, and motor blocks during gait. It also emphasizes the need to prevent step length reduction on turns, environmental situations, and cognitive overload. Conclusion The concept of automatic deficits in set maintenance and cue production best describe FOG manifestations in PD and, with the use of attention, the concept also provides pragmatic strategies for management. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Decreased Plasma COMP and Increased Plasma CTX-II Levels in a Chinese Pseudoachondroplasia Family with Novel COMP Mutation.

by Gu, Chongjuan, Yang, Zhao, Tan, Hao, Zhang, Yingying, Lu, Yilu, Ma, Yongxin [2017-08-27]

Academic Journal

pages 9

Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the gene encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Accurate clinical diagnosis of PSACH is sometimes difficult. Here, we identified a novel COMP mutation (c.1675G>A, p.Glu559Lys) in a Chinese PSACH family. We detected the plasma levels of COMP and type II collagen (CTX-II) in the four affected individuals. The results showed the levels of plasma COMP significantly decreased and plasma CTX-II significantly increased in the three PSACH patients with COMP mutation. However, both plasma levels of COMP and CTX-II were not to have found significant difference between the presymptomatic carrier and the age-matched subjects. In vitro analysis and immunofluorescence displayed wild type COMP homogenously expressed in cytoplasm, but mutant proteins were irregularly accumulated inside the HEK-293 cells. Western blot revealed that the quantity of the mutant COMP was more compared to wild type COMP in cells after transfection for 12 hours and 24 hours. Subsequently, 3D structural analysis showed three changes have taken place in secondary structure of the mutant COMP. In conclusion, the novel mutation of COMP may result in intracellular accumulation of the mutant protein. Decreased plasma COMP and increased plasma CTX-II may potentially serve as diagnostic markers of PSACH but may not be applicable in the presymptomatic carrier. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Review

pages unknown

The article reviews the book "Visual Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology," international edition by Frederic Martini et al. and an accompanying CD-Rom titled "Essentials of Interactive Physiology".


Genetic, structural, and chemical insights into the dual function of GRASP55 in germ cell Golgi remodeling and JAM-C polarized localization during spermatogenesis.

by Cartier-Michaud, Amandine, Bailly, Anne-Laure, Betzi, Stéphane, Shi, Xiaoli, Lissitzky, Jean-Claude, Zarubica, Ana, Sergé, Arnauld, Roche, Philippe, Lugari, Adrien, Hamon, Véronique, Bardin, Florence, Derviaux, Carine, Lembo, Frédérique, Audebert, Stéphane, Marchetto, Sylvie, Durand, Bénédicte, Borg, Jean-Paul, Shi, Ning, Morelli, Xavier, Aurrand-Lions, Michel [2017-06-15]

Academic Journal

pages 28

Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process that is regulated by adhesive interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. Germ cells express the Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C, encoded by Jam3), which localizes to germ/Sertoli cell contacts. JAM-C is involved in germ cell polarity and acrosome formation. Using a proteomic approach, we demonstrated that JAM-C interacted with the Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa (GRASP55, encoded by Gorasp2) in developing germ cells. Generation and study of Gorasp2-/- mice revealed that knock-out mice suffered from spermatogenesis defects. Acrosome formation and polarized localization of JAM-C in spermatids were altered in Gorasp2-/- mice. In addition, Golgi morphology of spermatocytes was disturbed in Gorasp2-/- mice. Crystal structures of GRASP55 in complex with JAM-C or JAM-B revealed that GRASP55 interacted via PDZ-mediated interactions with JAMs and induced a conformational change in GRASP55 with respect of its free conformation. An in silico pharmacophore approach identified a chemical compound called Graspin that inhibited PDZ-mediated interactions of GRASP55 with JAMs. Treatment of mice with Graspin hampered the polarized localization of JAM-C in spermatids, induced the premature release of spermatids and affected the Golgi morphology of meiotic spermatocytes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 17

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is important in plant responses to environmental stresses. We wished to clarify the role of GABA in maintenance of photosynthesis in muskmelon seedlings (Cucumis melo L., cv. Yipintianxia) during saline-alkaline stress. To this end, we assessed the effect of GABA on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in muskmelon seedlings grown under saline-alkaline stress. These stresses in combination reduced net photosynthetic rate, gas-exchange, and inhibited photosystem II (PSII) electron transport as measured by the JIP-test. They also reduced the activity of chloroplast ATPases and disrupted the internal lamellar system of the thylakoids. Exogenous GABA alleviated the stress-induced reduction of net photosynthesis, the activity of chloroplast ATPases, and overcame some of the damaging effects of stress on the chloroplast structure. Based on interpretation of the JIP-test, we conclude that exogenous GABA alleviated stress-related damage on the acceptor side of PSII. It also restored energy distribution, the reaction center status, and enhanced the ability of PSII to repair reaction centers in stressed seedlings. GABA may play a crucial role in protecting the chloroplast structure and function of PSII against the deleterious effects of salinity-alkalinity stress. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Astroglial vesicular network: evolutionary trends, physiology and pathophysiology.

by Zorec, R., Parpura, V., Verkhratsky, A. [2018-02-01]

Academic Journal

pages 18

Abstract: Intracellular organelles, including secretory vesicles, emerged when eukaryotic cells evolved some 3 billion years ago. The primordial organelles that evolved in Archaea were similar to endolysosomes, which developed, arguably, for specific metabolic tasks, including uptake, metabolic processing, storage and disposal of molecules. In comparison with prokaryotes, cell volume of eukaryotes increased by several orders of magnitude and vesicle traffic emerged to allow for communication between distant intracellular locations. Lysosomes, first described in 1955, a prominent intermediate of endo‐ and exocytotic pathways, operate virtually in all eukaryotic cells including astroglia, the most heterogeneous type of homeostatic glia in the central nervous system. Astrocytes support neuronal network activity in particular through elaborated secretion, based on a complex intracellular vesicle network dynamics. Deranged homeostasis underlies disease and astroglial vesicle traffic contributes to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease), neurodevelopmental diseases (intellectual deficiency, Rett's disease) and neuroinfectious (Zika virus) disorders. This review addresses astroglial cell‐autonomous vesicular traffic network, as well as its into primary and secondary vesicular network defects in diseases, and considers this network as a target for developing new therapies for neurological conditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Fine mapping of rice drought QTL and study on combined effect of QTL for their physiological parameters under moisture stress condition.

by Baghyalakshmi, K., Jeyaprakash, P., Ramchander, S., Raveendran, M., Robin, S. [2016-12-01]

Academic Journal

pages 7

The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different yield QTL (DTY2.2, DTY3.1 and DTY8.1) under drought and their physiological response to drought stress. Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) of IR64 (CB-193 and CB-229) along with IR64, APO and the traditional rice variety Norungan were raised in green house condition under water stress and control to evaluate the effect of the QTL on grain yield. The BIL CB-193 recorded higher photosynthetic rate (22.051), transpiration rate (7.152) and Ci/Ca ratio (0.597) whereas the BIL CB-229 recorded high relative water content (80.76%). It was found that the combination of three QTL (CB-229) performed better than the susceptible parent and the line with two QTL (CB-193 Fine-mapping of two QTLs viz., qDTY2.2 and qDTY8.1, for grain yield (GY) were conducted using backcross derived lines. Composite interval mapping analyses resolved the originally identified qDTY2.2 region of 6.7 cM into a segment of 2.1 cM and two sub QTLs at region between RM23132 and RM1578 (75.75 cM-77.66 cM), RM515 and RM1578 (75.11 cM-77.66 cM) were identified in qDTY8.1 region. However this study provides a unique opportunity to breeders to introgress such regions together as a unit into high-yielding drought-susceptible varieties through MAS. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Physiological and morphological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to varying water stress management strategies.

by Davatgar, N., Neishabouri, M.R., Sepaskhah, A. R., Soltani, A. [2009-10-01]

Academic Journal

pages 14

Sustainability of rice production under limited water conditions is threatened by increasing irrigation water scarcity. Therefore, physiological and morphological responses of rice to varying water stress management strategies should be determined. The physiological and morphological responses of a semi dwarf rice (Hashemi cultivar) to water stress intensities (mild and severe, i.e., short-duration of stress with early recovery and long-duration stress with late recovery, respectively) and timing (mid-tillering, booting and 50% of flowering) were studied in a pot experiment. The severe water stress at mid-tillering significantly (P


Cells and cell biochemistry.

by Farley, Alistair, Hendry, Charles, McLafferty, Ella [2012-07-18]

Periodical

pages 6

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, aims to promote understanding of the basic structure and function of cells. It assists healthcare professionals to appreciate the complex anatomy and physiology underpinning the functioning of the human body. Several introductory chemical concepts and terms are outlined. The basic building blocks of all matter, atoms, are examined and the way in which they may interact to form new compounds within the body is discussed. The basic structures and components that make up a typical cell are considered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Periodical

pages 7

This article discusses the anatomy and physiology of the musculoskeletal system and some common presenting complaints. Examination techniques and principles of nursing care are considered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Introduction to the life sciences series and homeostasis.

by Hendry, Charles, Farley, Alistair, McLafferty, Ella [2012-07-04]

Periodical

pages 5

The aim of this series is to examine the life sciences in the context of clinical nursing practice and explore the basic structure and function of the human body. The series will examine different aspects of anatomy and physiology, assisting the reader to make essential links between theory and practice. This article introduces the series, describes some basic anatomical terms and outlines the concept of homeostasis and feedback systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Academic Journal

pages 7

Describes the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord. Information on the spinal cord; Reason behind the presence of more grey matter in the lumbosacral sections; Importance of understanding paths and fibers in comprehending the theory behind the American Spinal Injury Association scoring system.


Effects of Exercise and Enzyme Therapy in Early Occupational Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Preliminary Study.

by Žídková, Věra, Nakládalová, Marie, Štěpánek, Ladislav [2019-01-23]

Academic Journal

pages 7

Objectives. Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) due to upper extremity overuse has in recent years been the most commonly recognized occupational disease in the Czech Republic and its prevalence has steadily increased. This pilot observation aimed to assess the effects of exercise techniques and oral enzyme therapy in automotive plant workers with early CTS. Patients and Methods. The observation comprised automotive plant assembly line workers in whom nerve conduction study revealed incipient CTS. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group practicing exercise techniques (exercising; N=15), a group receiving oral enzyme therapy (N=16), and a group of controls (N=14). Subjects in the control group were only observed without any specific intervention, which is a common procedure in incipient CTS. Throughout 9-week observation, the workers did their jobs. Prior to and after that period, the workers' CTS-related symptoms were ascertained through structured interviews with a physician and the following median nerve parameters were measured: sensory conduction velocity (SCV) and distal motor latency (DML). Results. In both the exercise and enzyme therapy groups, statistically significant decreases in the total score for symptoms were achieved (p


A Strong Impact of Soil Tetracycline on Physiology and Biochemistry of Pea Seedlings.

by Margas, Małgorzata, Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I., Michalczyk, Dariusz J., Głowacka, Katarzyna [2019-01-10]

Academic Journal

pages 14

Antibiotics are a new type of contaminants found in the environment. They are increasingly used in farm animal production systems and may accumulate in crops, limiting the plant growth rate and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tetracycline (TC) on physiological and biochemical properties of pea seedlings. The presence of TC in the soil during 24 hours did not result in any distinct changes of the seedlings. However, after five days (120 h) of soil TC action, the seedling appearance and metabolic activities were significantly affected. Leaves lost their green coloration as a result of a 38% degradation of their chlorophyll. Total protein was isolated from shoots of pea grown for 120 h in TC-supplemented perlite (250 mg × L−1) or perlite with no TC (control plants). The 2D electrophoretic maps of proteins from non-TC shoots contained 326 spots, whereas maps of shoot proteins from TC-treated seedlings contained only 316 spots. The identity of 26 proteins was determined. The intensity of most proteins (62%) increased. This was particularly visible with diphosphate kinase, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], peroxiredoxin, and glutathione S-transferase. A distinctly increased quantity of a protein involved in photosynthesis (photosystem II stability/assembly factor HCF136) was also noted. One protein was detected only in shoots of TC-treated plants (as opposed to controls); however, it could not be identified. Moreover, at the highest concentration of TC (250 mg × L−1 of perlite), a sharp increase in free-radical content was observed along with the amount of callose deposited in vascular bundles of leaves and roots and the occurrence of masses of dead cells in roots. It was found, therefore, that tetracycline which has been known for inhibiting predominantly the attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal acceptor in bacteria can disturb diverse metabolic pathways in plants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Regulation of Immune Function by Polyphenols.

by Ding, Sujuan, Jiang, Hongmei, Fang, Jun [2018-04-12]

Academic Journal

pages 8

Immune dysfunction is caused by various factors, including changes in relevant immune regulators and environmental stress. Immune system imbalance leads to a variety of diseases in humans. Nutrition may play an essential role in immunity by interfering with proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, immune cell regulation, and gene expression. Polyphenols, one of many categories of natural substances, exhibit a range of biological activities. Polyphenols promote immunity to foreign pathogens via various pathways. Different immune cells express multiple types of polyphenol receptors that recognise and allow cellular uptake of polyphenols, which subsequently activate signalling pathways to initiate immune responses. Furthermore, the polyphenols curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate can induce epigenetic changes in cells. In summary, polyphenols can be used to regulate intestinal mucosal immune responses, allergic diseases, and antitumour immunity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica

by von Alvensleben, Nicolas, Stookey, Katherine, Magnusson, Marie, Heimann, Kirsten [2013-05-01]

Academic Journal

pages 12

Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


A novel cadaveric study of the morphometry of the serratus anterior muscle: one part, two parts, three parts, four?

by Webb, Alexandra Louise, O’Sullivan, Elizabeth, Stokes, Maria, Mottram, Sarah [2018-01-01]

Academic Journal

pages 10

The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented. Orientation and size of each fascicle were measured and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) calculated. Three subdivisions of the serratus anterior were identified. A new finding was the discovery of two distinctive fascicles attached to the superior and inferior aspects of rib 2. The rib 2 inferior fascicle had the largest PCSA (mean 1.6 cm) and attached, with the rib 3 fascicle, along the medial border of the scapula to form the middle division. The rib 2 superior and rib 1 fascicles attached to the superior angle of the scapula (upper division). Fascicles from ribs 4-8/9 attached to the inferior angle of the scapula (lower division). Mean fascicle angle relative to a vertical midline reference and PCSA for each division were 29° and 1.3 cm (upper), 90° and 2.2 cm (middle) and 59° and 3.0 cm (lower). This novel study demonstrated the presence of morphologically distinct serratus anterior subdivisions. The results of this study will inform the development of optimal techniques for the assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of this architecturally complex muscle in shoulder and neck pain. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]