by Kuchta, Dorota, Gładysz, Barbara, Skowron, Dorota, Betta, Jan [2017-01-01]
The purpose of this research was to determine and analyse diversity in various features of R& D projects implemented in the science sector in Poland, financed mostly from public funds. More exactly, the following aspects of R& D projects implemented in the science sector in Poland were examined: the relation between the actually achieved and the initially set goal, the project management methodologies and project time management methods used, features of the project team, the relation between the plan and the actual project realisation and management difficulties encountered in practice. These aspects and their diversity were examined in the context of the whole country, of various fields of science and various research units implementing pure research (the ' R' area) or applied research and experimental development (the ' D' area). The research was conducted by means of survey methodology covering a sample of participants of R& D projects in the science sector in Poland. The results were analysed by means of statistical methods (which constitutes a clear novelty with respect to the existing literature on R& D projects) and statistically significant phenomena gave rise to several important conclusions on how R& D projects implemented in the science sector are managed and what their realisation looks like in various fields of science and various institutions, in a relatively new EU members state and a former communist country like Poland. These conclusions may be the basis for important hypotheses (which require further research) on the project management quality in the science sector in Poland and in similar countries, which is closely linked to the problem of public money allocation, its efficient spending and control. Also, practical suggestions on improvement measures in the science sector with respect to R& D projects, limited not only to countries like Poland, but of a more general nature, are formulated. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Burnett, A.D. [1979-07-01]
This work is primarily concerned in its two parts, firstly with the product, and secondly with the process, documentation and preservation of communication in science rather than with its substance and genesis, although the findings of science are usefully noted where appropriate so as to illuminate the consideration of the published and other forms in which these appear. In its treatment, moreover, the work is likewise dimorphic, since in the first part the text is primarily a narrative while in the second it is an exposition. This, however, is not that stern and soulless handmaid of scholarship, the plain and unannotated catalogue of innumerable printed and other items (though such is also provided as an appendix to the whole); on the contrary, it is a clearly written and helpful vademecum to the field, since it is both enumerative and descriptive, a guide to the literature which not only lists but also describes, correlates and selects. Admittedly, the text, which forms the substance of the work and holds, as it were in suspension, a bibliography within it, is in consequence a somewhat indigestibly dense pottage of clotted facts and references; but it is nourishing and it does offer the facility for both connected study and browsing, for continuous reading and reference. It is, moreover, complemented by a bibliography of secondary items discussed and by a thorough index of items, titles, subjects, persons and institutions referred to. Indeed, the whole is a marvel of compression and orderly discipline which is also manifested in its neat and soldierly presentation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Avitabile, Pete [2007-09-01]
The author outlines the problem presented by the lack of integration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) material in engineering courses. The lack of integration across different courses means that students fail to see the relevance of what they are being taught. To address this problem, a multi-semester interwoven dynamic systems project was developed that integrates material from differential equations, mathematical methods, laboratory measurements, and dynamics systems, offering the student a better understanding of the relationship of basic STEM material to an ongoing problem.
by McDonald, Lisa [2007-09-01]
An essay is presented on the relationship of humanities and sciences. It offers information on the science of cellular regeneration and its conflict with humanities. The author relates science which leads to a passion for creating a new possibility and not towards the sense of power which comes with discovery.
by Hui-Zhen Fu, Yuh-Shan Ho [2018-08-10]
Collaboration has strongly intensified recently and its characteristics are attractive and multidimensional. This study explored the trends, characteristics and citation impact of collaboration as well as collaboration networks for the macrolevel of country, the mesolevel of institution and the microlevel of author, using highly cited articles in environmental engineering (EE) category of the Science Citation Index Expanded. A data visualization and manipulation software, Gephi 0.9.1 was used to visualize the relationships of collaboration among authors, institutions and countries. Although collaboration in general is known to be beneficial in many research areas, collaboration is not beneficial for highly cited research in the EE field. Single author, single country and single institution articles were more visible than articles involving international collaboration, inter-institutional collaboration and individual collaboration. There were certain group collaborations, which played an important role in publishing highly cited articles in the EE field. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Reitsma, René, Marshall, Byron, Chart, Trevor [2012-09-01]
We explore the feasibility of intermediary-based crosswalking and alignment of K-12 science education standards. With the increasing availability of K-12 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ( STEM) digital library content, alignment of that content with educational standards is a significant and continuous challenge. Whereas direct, one-to-one alignment of standards is preferable but currently unsustainable in its resource demands, less resource-intensive intermediary-based alignment offers an interesting alternative. But will it work? We present the results from an experiment in which the machine-based Standard Alignment Tool ( SAT)-incorporated in the National Science Digital Library ( NSDL)-was used to collect over half a million direct alignments between standards from different standard-authoring bodies. These were then used to compute intermediary-based alignments derived from the well-known AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks and NSES standards. The results show strong variation among authoring bodies in their success at crosswalking, with the best results for those who modeled their standards on the intermediaries. The results furthermore show a strong inverse relationship between recall and precision when both intermediates were involved in the crosswalking. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Christianson, E.H. [1986-11-01]
Reviews the book 'Historical Writing on American Science,' edited by Sally Gregory Kohlstedt and Margaret W. Rossiter.
No author [2015-03-01]
This section offers news briefs on the library and information science industry as of March to April 2015. The U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) established in 1861 has changed its name to Government Publishing Office retaining the same acronym. ProQuest has released the initial 2 million pages of the digitized Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) in Paris, France. Amy Ryan will assume the chairmanship of the Digital Public Library of America in July 2015 for a two year term.
by Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M, Chaudhary, Zarah, Woods, Nicole, Dore, Kelly, Neville, Alan, Norman, Geoffrey [2017-02-01]
Context Transfer of basic science aids novices in the development of clinical reasoning. The literature suggests that although transfer is often difficult for novices, it can be optimised by two complementary strategies: (i) focusing learners on conceptual knowledge of basic science or (ii) exposing learners to multiple contexts in which the basic science concepts may apply. The relative efficacy of each strategy as well as the mechanisms that facilitate transfer are unknown. In two sequential experiments, we compared both strategies and explored mechanistic changes in how learners address new transfer problems. Methods Experiment 1 was a 2 × 3 design in which participants were randomised to learn three physiology concepts with or without emphasis on the conceptual structure of basic science via illustrative analogies and by means of one, two or three contexts during practice (operationalised as organ systems). Transfer of these concepts to explain pathologies in familiar organ systems (near transfer) and unfamiliar organ systems (far transfer) was evaluated during immediate and delayed testing. Experiment 2 examined whether exposure to conceptual analogies and multiple contexts changed how learners classified new problems. Results Experiment 1 showed that increasing context variation significantly improved far transfer performance but there was no difference between two and three contexts during practice. Similarly, the increased conceptual analogies led to higher performance for far transfer. Both interventions had independent but additive effects on overall performance. Experiment 2 showed that such analogies and context variation caused learners to shift to using structural characteristics to classify new problems even when there was superficial similarity to previous examples. Conclusions Understanding problems based on conceptual structural characteristics is necessary for successful transfer. Transfer of basic science can be optimised by using multiple strategies that collectively emphasise conceptual structure. This means teaching must focus on conserved basic science knowledge and de-emphasise superficial features. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Bhatia, A. L. [2009-11-01]
It should be mandatory to observe social responsibility in science and technology with respect to societal developmental. Consequent problems of limits, restraints and control relating to this mighty force require wide ranging awareness and a critical dialogue to meet the challenges. The logics based upon the adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations may be a proposed strategic and premeditated theory on ethical education on the use of technology. Author proposes strategy with an emphasis on educational policy right from light learning activities in the classroom to a short term but long-lasting impact for the young children through certain planned ways which could make a brain-etching luminous pathways as ethics is not taught but it is caught; it makes an imprint in brain and impression in the subconscious minds that are the result of prolonged exposure of stimuli to brain through receptor organs in various manners. The concept of 7 Es called as "ethics circle", explains 'exposure' to 'experiences' and 'education' will not 'enrich' the knowledge but will also 'eliminate' the fear which will lead to 'engravings' in brain and would prove long last impressions in mind. It will be giving us enlightened citizens and future policy-makers and leaders. Author advocates the inclusion of certain lessons in curriculum whereby children should cultivate rationality of the use of science and eliminate prejudices against technology. This would enable us to permeate the right learning leading to the development of their right mindsets and associate behaviour. The author also discusses the related regulatory mechanism and with their torch bearers with an intention to tap the energy of adolescents to national building and technological development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by John Stringer 
Pupit Book The Heinemonn Explore Science 6 Pupil Book explains science concepts to children through fun and engoging tasks, supported by high quality, colourful images. Presented in context to make science relevant, investigations encourage children to apply their knowledge and skills
by Curie, Marie [2007-09-01]
The article highlights issues and topics discussed at a workshop sponsored by Sigma Xi which was held in Arlington, Virginia in September 2006. Workshop participants discussed the implications of globalization for the nation's scientists and engineers and offered specific recommendations for assuring that the workforce of the future will be able to adapt to the requirements of a global economy. Workshop participants offered a number of different approaches to meeting the challenges posed by globalization and one of them is to develop a culture within the U.S. science and engineering community that embraces international engagement and that sees global competence as a fundamental part of the training of a successful scientist or engineer.
by Ashworth, William J. [2008-09-01]
The article offers information on economic historian Walt W. Rostow and his contributions to the historiography of industrialization and economic growth. He was born in 1916 and educated at Yale University. Three of his essential features of economic growth were, the propensity to develop fundamental science, the propensity to apply science to economic ends, and the propensity to accept innovations. Moreover, Rostow identified Great Britain as the first and subsequent model of industrial change. In addition, several arguments on the role of science, technology and industry are also offered.
by Stern, Barbara B. [2006-03-01]
This article addresses the meaning of the term brand means by presenting a method of historical analysis and construct definition based on information in the Oxford English Dictionary. The method's use is demonstrated in an analysis of the original meanings that underlie the term's usage both as a single word and in compounds such as brand competition, brand personality, brand reputation, and so forth. Literal (denotative) definitions and metaphoric (connotative) associations are examined to explain the use of brand to refer to a physical entity and/or a mental representation. The method is also theoretically grounded in the disciplines of philology (the history of words), poetics, rhetoric, and the philosophy of science. The historical-analysis method is applied to the meanings of brand, starting with its original usage about 1,500 years ago and culminating with the definitions used by authors in this special issue. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Chapman, Mollie [2005-11-01]
The purposes of this article are twofold. One is to make recommendations on a possible course of action for a small town in Costa Rica. The other is to examine the relationship between policy and values, in search of a method of integrating values into policy decisions that can be more broadly applied. The method uses narratives to define common values and science and economics to apply these values most efficiently. The process of defining values through narratives uses a relation-based organizing framework through which trust can be built and empowerment attained. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Weingarten, Fred W., McCarthy, John, Hoffman, Lance J., Friedman, T. D. [1975-02-01]
The article presents a discussion on the relation between computer science and public policy. There is a need for computer science community to improve the quality of technical input in issues related to public decision making, which are affected by the use of computer. For the development of public policy by the computer science community, some general problems of science and government should be looked into. Any scientific or technical discipline can affect social policy in a number of ways. The development of a particular technology can be controlled by legislation. Technological developments can be helpful in providing a solution to serious social problems, like shortage of energy and food. There can be an interaction between society and science in a number of ways, and this can help scientists in policy formulation. Scientific input is required in many aspects of public policy. There are many formal ways of scientific participation in government policy making, like the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering.
by Townsen Hicks, Michael, Schaffer, Jonathan [2017-06-01]
Orthodoxy has it that only metaphysically elite properties can be invoked in scientifically elite laws. We argue that this claim does not fit scientific practice. An examination of candidate scientifically elite laws like Newton's F=ma reveals properties invoked that are irreversibly defined and thus metaphysically non-elite by the lights of the surrounding theory: Newtonian acceleration is irreversibly defined as the second derivative of position, and Newtonian resultant force is irreversibly defined as the sum of the component forces.Wethink that scientists are happy to invoke metaphysically non-elite properties in scientifically elite laws for reasons of convenience, such as to simplify the equations and to make them more modular. On this basis, we draw a deflationary moral about laws themselves, as being merely convenient summaries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Teich, Elke, Degaetano ‐ Ortlieb, Stefania, Fankhauser, Peter, Kermes, Hannah, Lapshinova ‐ Koltunski, Ekaterina [2016-07-01]
We analyze the linguistic evolution of selected scientific disciplines over a 30-year time span (1970s to 2000s). Our focus is on four highly specialized disciplines at the boundaries of computer science that emerged during that time: computational linguistics, bioinformatics, digital construction, and microelectronics. Our analysis is driven by the question whether these disciplines develop a distinctive language use-both individually and collectively-over the given time period. The data set is the English Scientific Text Corpus ( scitex), which includes texts from the 1970s/1980s and early 2000s. Our theoretical basis is register theory. In terms of methods, we combine corpus-based methods of feature extraction (various aggregated features [part-of-speech based], n-grams, lexico-grammatical patterns) and automatic text classification. The results of our research are directly relevant to the study of linguistic variation and languages for specific purposes ( LSP) and have implications for various natural language processing ( NLP) tasks, for example, authorship attribution, text mining, or training NLP tools. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Vlasova, S. [2014-11-01]
The approaches of different authors to the determination of the purpose of science are discussed in this work. Author considers definitions of science based on different values. Author explores the correlation between science and value of control over natural objects, as well as cognitive values. Groups of cognitive values available in the literature are given as examples. The definition of science based on the understanding that science is unique complex self-organizing system is suggested. The historical aspect of the problem of motivation scientific activity is considered. Attention to one of the most important values associated with science, the ability to ensure control over nature, is attracted. The provision that the motivation of scientific activity is not related to the value of control over natural objects is proved. It is shown that the leading motivation of the man of science -- the need for knowledge of nature. This requirement is a manifestation of the evolutionary mechanism of survival of the species Homo Sapiens. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by COLEMAN, MARY SUE [2018-09-01]
The article presents a speech by Association of American Universities president Mary Sue Coleman, delivered at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Forum on Science & Technology Policy in Washington, D.C. on June 21, 2018. Topics included science policy in the U.S., the cooperation between research universities and the federal government on science, and their efforts to oppose the proposed cuts on research funding.
by Leary, David E. [1995-06-01]
This article provides some forms and habitations of the phenomenon of metaphorical thinking in science. All knowledge is ultimately rooted in metaphorical modes of perception and thought. By extension, metaphor necessarily plays a fundamental role in every domain of knowledge, including the domain of science. Although this is a very large claim, it has the backing of theorists of markedly different persuasions. Max Müller, the great comparative linguist, noted that no advance was possible in the intellectual life of man without metaphor. Fritz Mauthner, the writer and philosopher, averred that without exception every word in its individual usage is metaphorical and that people have learnt to understand metaphor as the term for the phenomenon which others call the growth or the development of language.
by Stenning, Keith, Gresalfi, Melissa [2006-06-01]
Conceptual learning in mathematics and science involves learning to coordinate multiple representation systems into smoothly functioning heterogeneous reasoning systems composed of sub-languages, graphics, mathematical representations, etc. In these heterogeneous systems information can be transformed from one representation to another by inference rules, and learning coordination is learning how and when to apply these rules. The study of heterogeneous representations in learning has had the benefit of focusing attention on the reality of representation in the ‘wild’. We propose that the concept of heterogeneity of representation should be extended from multimodal (e.g. diagrammatic plus language) systems to multiply interpreted systems, even when those systems are apparently homogeneously linguistic. We proceed by analysing, from the perspective of the heterogeneity of reasoning, three learning incidents which happened in groups of students engaged in learning the mathematics and biology involved in modelling biological populations. We observe both learning successes and failures that cannot be understood without understanding the integrations of heterogeneous systems of representation involved and the inference rules and operations required to get from one to another. The purpose of presenting real incidents in some of their undomesticated detail is that they show what phenomena a homogeneous theory of reasoning would really have to account for. We argue that this type of rich naturalistic data makes implausible the instrumentality of any reconstruction in terms of a pre-existing fully interpreted homogeneous interlingua. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Holbrook, Morris B., Brown, Stephen, Patterson, Anthony [2001-02-01]
This chapter presents the opinion of the author on whether marketing falls under the discipline of science or art. Many scholars concluded that if not a science, marketing must be an art. Others might suspect that marketing would not qualify as an art any more than it can pass for a science, but rather that it has all the earmarks of a practised craft. But for those who argue for the artistic stature of marketing would contend that what is written about the discipline constitutes a body of literature. I believe that almost any alliterative sequence of words is worth appreciating merely because it is assonant, consonant, or otherwise sonorous. And speaking of Romy, Michele, and their reunion adventures, I also believe that the world should take note of the remarkable circumstance-indistinguishable from a felicitous concatenation of marketing triumphs-by which at least four of my cohorts from a graduating high school class of only twenty-five students at the Milwaukee Country Day School (MCDS) have reached national and indeed international prominence.
by Lee, John [2010-05-01]
The article analyzes the obsession of China on the nature of U.S. leadership, values and society in order to create countermeasures against them. China perceives that the U.S. has an edge in areas including social and civil society, science and technology, and economy and has continually talked about managing the peaceful decline of the U.S. The country has shown a continuous interest in the U.S. which is apparent in the funding increases for U.S. studies and debates on U.S. foreign policy.