by Vasconcelos, Sonia, Roig, Miguel [2015-10-01]
We discuss prior publication and redundancy in contemporary science in the context of changing perceptions of originality in the communication of research results. These perceptions have been changing in the publication realm, particularly in the last 15 years. Presenting a brief overview of the literature, we address some of the conflicts that are likely to arise between authors and editors. We illustrate our approach with conference presentations that are later published as journal articles and focus on a recent retraction of an article that had been previously published as a conference proceedings. Although we do not make definitive pronouncements on the matter-as many concepts are evolving-we do argue that conference papers that contain sufficient details for others to attempt a replication and are indexed in scientific databases such as PubMed, challenge some currently held assumptions of prior publication and originality in the sciences. Our view is that these important issues are in need of further clarification and harmonization within the science publishing community. This need is more evident when we consider current notions of research integrity when it comes to communication to peers. Revisiting long-standing views about what constitutes prior publication and developing a clearer set of guidelines for authors and editors to follow should reduce conflicts in the research environment, which already exerts considerable pressure, especially on newcomers in academia. However, while clearer guidelines are timely, developing them is only part of the challenge. The present times seem to call for deeper changes in the research and publication systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Pertile, Solange de L., Moreira, Viviane P., Rosso, Paolo [2016-10-01]
The vast amount of scientific publications available online makes it easier for students and researchers to reuse text from other authors and makes it harder for checking the originality of a given text. Reusing text without crediting the original authors is considered plagiarism. A number of studies have reported the prevalence of plagiarism in academia. As a consequence, numerous institutions and researchers are dedicated to devising systems to automate the process of checking for plagiarism. This work focuses on the problem of detecting text reuse in scientific papers. The contributions of this paper are twofold: (a) we survey the existing approaches for plagiarism detection based on content, based on content and structure, and based on citations and references; and (b) we compare content and citation-based approaches with the goal of evaluating whether they are complementary and if their combination can improve the quality of the detection. We carry out experiments with real data sets of scientific papers and concluded that a combination of the methods can be beneficial. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Rotman, Dana, Procita, Kezia, Hansen, Derek, Sims Parr, Cynthia, Preece, Jennifer [2012-06-01]
This article explores the opportunities and challenges of creating and sustaining large-scale 'content curation communities' through an in-depth case study of the Encyclopedia of Life ( EOL). Content curation communities are large-scale crowdsourcing endeavors that aim to curate existing content into a single repository, making these communities different from content creation communities such as Wikipedia. In this article, we define content curation communities and provide examples of this increasingly important genre. We then follow by presenting EOL, a compelling example of a content curation community, and describe a case study of EOL based on analysis of interviews, online discussions, and survey data. Our findings are characterized into two broad categories: information integration and social integration. Information integration challenges at EOL include the need to (a) accommodate and validate multiple sources and (b) integrate traditional peer reviewed sources with user-generated, nonpeer-reviewed content. Social integration challenges at EOL include the need to (a) establish the credibility of open-access resources within the scientific community and (b) facilitate collaboration between experts and novices. After identifying the challenges, we discuss the potential strategies EOL and other content curation communities can use to address them, and provide technical, content, and social design recommendations for overcoming them. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Shema, Hadas, Bar‐Ilan, Judit, Thelwall, Mike [2015-06-01]
Blogs that cite academic articles have emerged as a potential source of alternative impact metrics for the visibility of the blogged articles. Nevertheless, to evaluate more fully the value of blog citations, it is necessary to investigate whether research blogs focus on particular types of articles or give new perspectives on scientific discourse. Therefore, we studied the characteristics of peer-reviewed references in blogs and the typical content of blog posts to gain insight into bloggers' motivations. The sample consisted of 391 blog posts from 2010 to 2012 in Researchblogging.org's health category. The bloggers mostly cited recent research articles or reviews from top multidisciplinary and general medical journals. Using content analysis methods, we created a general classification scheme for blog post content with 10 major topic categories, each with several subcategories. The results suggest that health research bloggers rarely self-cite and that the vast majority of their blog posts (90%) include a general discussion of the issue covered in the article, with more than one quarter providing health-related advice based on the article(s) covered. These factors suggest a genuine attempt to engage with a wider, nonacademic audience. Nevertheless, almost 30% of the posts included some criticism of the issues being discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by KULKARNI, PRAJWAL [2013-09-01]
The article offers information related to science and engineering journals. It is noted that just over 1.1 million peer-reviewed articles related to science and engineering were published in 2012 in 8,411 in science journals. It also offers information on various types of scientists including geophysicists, soil scientists, environmental science etc. and discusses diversity in scientific research.
by Samson, Patricia L. [2015-06-01]
Practice wisdom is the foundation for effective practice and encompasses both theartandscienceof social work. The divide between practice and theory has existed since the profession emerged and practice wisdom is the bridge to this gap. The epistemology and ontology of practice wisdom highlights its importance for research, education and practice for the next generation of social workers. The work of Howard Goldstein is critical in the examination of the artistry of practice wisdom, which can be taught and measured by supporting the development of critical thinking and reflection skills of students. Capturing the essence of practice wisdom lays the foundation for developing a pedagogy that promotes its development in social work students. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Islam, Rafiqul, Alam, Mohammad Khursheed, Shahid, Fazal, Khamis, Mohd Fadhli [2019-01-01]
Background: The aim of the present study was to do an overview of the arch dimension for various populations. Also, to evaluate the various type of measurement methods and sexual disparities. Two reviewers independently performed the selection process and the quality of studies was assessed. Method: Studies published form January 2000 until October 2015 were identified in electronic databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Science direct, Web of Science, Medpilot and Medline using keywords. Criteria used included: observational studies, Arch size measured, Permanent dentition, Arch dimension investigated via plaster and digital dental models, measurement via calipers and computers software's. Result: The forest plots showed the continuous trend for the greater arch dimension for male in relation to female. The current overview showed the arch dimension and its disparities for various populations. Conclusion: The various methods to assess arch dimension should be carefully considered and well conducted as part of the clinical assessment of orthodontic treatment, since arch dimension could influence the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontist. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
No author [2016-08-02]
This section presents a message from the Chairman of Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation for science and scientific technologies, Academician of the Russian Academy of sciences. He talks about the underestimation of the contribution of the basic science to the development of innovative medical technologies and the problem of the pathology of osteoarticular apparatus. The program of Moscow International Forum of Bones and Joints Disorders on April 18-21, 2016 is also presented.
by White Jr., Lynn [1978-04-01]
Debates the likelihood and intensity of changes from modern scientific technology. Importance of life after death; Effect of the Black Death plague on Europe; Effects of the marriage of science and technology in the 19th century.
by Molella, Arthur P. [1977-01-01]
Reviews the books 'Science, Technology, and Culture,' edited by Henry John Steffens and H.N. Muller III and 'Scientific Technology and Social Change. Readings From Scientific American,' compiled by Gene I. Rochlin.
by Cheung, Tobias [2006-02-01]
In eighteenth-century French natural history, the notion of preformation was not only a model for a small preexisting embryo that gradually extended its shape through the influx of particles, but also for an order that coordinated the dynamic relation between organic parts. Preformation depended therefore also on a hidden order behind the continuity of visible forms. Louis Bourguet, Charles Bonnet, and Georges Cuvier distinguished three organizational levels: First, the synchronic or functional order of organic systems; second, the diachronic order of the initiation of mechanical processes; and third, the hierarchical order that regulates the interaction of organic parts. In this essay, I reconstruct and compare the three organizational levels in the writings of Bourguet, Bonnet and Cuvier, relate their models of organic unity to the principle of perfection, and contrast these models with Georges Buffon's critique of system theories. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Peterson, James C. [2012-09-01]
The author discusses effective writing for the journal at the highest level while considering interdisciplinary subjects. He agrees that writing articles for an understanding of how science and Christian faith interact would require knowledgeable discussion among theologians and cosmologists as well as social historians with Biblical scholars. An overview of the review process of articles in the journal is given. The author avers the importance of team work in building insightful synergism.
by Huerta, Deborah, McMillan, Victoria [2004-03-01]
Examines the philosophy behind development of two team-taught courses in scientific writing: one for first-year students, the second for advanced students preparing for graduate and professional careers in science. Using student self-evaluations, course evaluations, and anecdotal evidence, chronicles some strengths and weaknesses of our ten-year experience with collaborative instruction and elaborates on both successful and unsuccessful pedagogies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Strzalkowski, Adam [2004-09-01]
I provide a guided tour of historical and modern sites related to the history of physics in Cracow. These include the Jagellonian University, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, and the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques of the AGH-University of Science and Technology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Navarro, Jaume [2006-12-01]
Exploring the nature of the disciplinary boundaries in the physical sciences in late 19th-century Cambridge, U.K., the writer focuses on the early career of physicist Joseph John Thomson and his role in the sciences. Thomson is usually depicted as a modern physicist, but he is better portrayed as a practitioner of the physical sciences in the Whewellian sense—that is, a designation that includes both modern physics and chemistry. Three aspects of his work are significant to this assertion: his philosophical ideas on the organization of the sciences, his work in physics and chemistry, and his institutional role within Cambridge as head of the Cavendish Laboratory. Thomson was more active in creating strategy at the Cavendish Laboratory than is usually stated. Among his objectives was to push chemistry closer to physics, both philosophically and institutionally, in order to make chemistry a real part of the physical sciences.
by Walls, William H., Strimel, Greg J. [2018-03-01]
The article offers tips on how to involve science students in laboratory maintenance and make laboratories safer. It notes that Engineering/Technology Education (ETE) teachers, in collaboration with building administrators and school system supervisors, are required to ensure that the equipment in their laboratories is working properly. It describes how preventative maintenance aims to inspect and service machines at scheduled intervals to detect.
by Schauber, Stefan K, Hecht, Martin, M Nouns, Zineb, Dettmer, Susanne [2013-12-01]
Context Basic science teaching in undergraduate medical education faces several challenges. One prominent discussion is focused on the relevance of biomedical knowledge to the development and integration of clinical knowledge. Although the value of basic science knowledge is generally emphasised, theoretical positions on the relative role of this knowledge and the optimal approach to its instruction differ. The present paper addresses whether and to what extent biomedical knowledge is related to the development of clinical knowledge. Methods We analysed repeated-measures data for performances on basic science and clinical knowledge assessments. A sample of 598 medical students on a traditional curriculum participated in the study. The entire study covered a developmental phase of 2 years of medical education. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the temporal relationship between biomedical knowledge and the acquisition of clinical knowledge. Results At the point at which formal basic science education ends and clinical training begins, students show the highest levels of biomedical knowledge. The present data suggest a decline in basic science knowledge that is complemented by a growth in clinical knowledge. Statistical comparison of several structural equation models revealed that the model to best explain the data specified unidirectional relationships between earlier states of biomedical knowledge and subsequent changes in clinical knowledge. However, the parameter estimates indicate that this association is negative. Discussion Our analysis suggests a negative relationship between earlier levels of basic science knowledge and subsequent gains in clinical knowledge. We discuss the limitations of the present study, such as the educational context in which it was conducted and its non-experimental nature. Although the present results do not necessarily contradict the relevance of basic sciences, we speculate on mechanisms that might be related to our findings. We conclude that our results hint at possibly critical issues in basic science education that have been rarely addressed thus far. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Calhoun, Craig [1997-12-01]
The article presents information on sociology. The sociology of knowledge has been surprisingly underrepresented in the recent boom of studies in the sociology of culture. Even when attention has turned to science, it has seldom drawn much on the classical tradition in the sociology of knowledge. This is a pity, partly because better use of the sociology of knowledge might have furthered the integration of sociology of culture with general sociological theory. The article will draw students into thinking about knowledge as culture and into asking some of the hard but important questions this entails. One set of such questions is today commonly discussed under the heading "reflexivity." To what extent and in what ways is knowledge dependent on or improved by knowers' understanding of the conditions of the production and dissemination of that knowledge? What obligations do theories and researchers have to turn their analytic lends back on themselves? What difference does it make that the social life we study is one already interpreted by its protagonists, and that what we say and write becomes part of that process of interpretation-potentially for everyone, not just for sociologists? The article seeks not only to show that knowledge is culture, but that because knowledge is culture the sociology of knowledge is not well practiced or understood as a demarcated sub-field of sociology. It is necessarily an interrogation of all the knowledge produced by sociologists and has developed in close relationship to the core traditions of classical sociological theory.
by Whitley, Richard D. [1978-03-01]
The article discusses the organization of scientific work in configurational and restricted sciences. Organizational arrangements that do not recognize the distinctive characteristics of the science being worked on are less likely to be successful than those that do. Strategies appropriate to research in parts of physics may well be highly inappropriate in certain biomedical sciences. This article further discusses the results of a study of research laboratories in a number of different sciences, like high energy physics, geology, cancer research, and other biomedical fields. It focus on how differences in the ways scientific work was organized in relation to stated and implicit organizational goals can be understood in terms of differences in intellectual structures and the consequences of these differences for research training. The particular ways in which these sciences vary have major repercussions on the nature of higher education for neophyte sciences and hence on the type of skills and expertise they acquire and bring to research organizations. This in turn affects organizational recruitment policies and, thus, together with institutional goals and the structure of the science, the organization of the laboratory.
by Woody, Andrea I. [2004-01-01]
This essay addresses issues concerning explanation by exploring how explanatory structures function within contemporary chemistry. Three examples are discussed: explanations of the behavior of gases using the ideal gas law, explanations of trends in chemical properties using the periodic table, and explanations of molecular geometry using diagrammatic orbital schemes. In each case, the general explanatory structure, rather than particular explanations, occupies center stage in the analysis. It is argued that this quasi-empirical investigation may be more fruitful than previous analyses that attempt to isolate the essential features of individual explanations. There are two reasons for this conclusion, each discussed in some detail. First, the traditional analyses rely on highly precarious reasoning. Second, empirically grounded investigations provide a more natural connection to the core aim of analyses of explanation, namely to provide a rationale for the widely expressed preference for explanatory theories in science. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by CHILDERS, CHRISTOPHER, HUFFMAN, CYNTHIA [2015-03-01]
A case study is presented on the relationship between mathematics and history through examining the mathematician and French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt from 1798 to 1801, including in regard to expedition's role in conducting studies on Egypt. An overview of the role that the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier played in the French scientific expedition to Egypt is provided.
by Tahir, Shahnawaz, Awan, Riaz Hussain, Nayab, Seema, Awan, Khadim Hussain [2018-12-01]
Objectives: To determine the frequency & histopathological type of gastric pathology in individuals presenting with epigastric pain. Period: Six months from July to Dec 2017. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Department of Gastroenterology, Liaquat National Hospital Institute for Postgraduate Medical Studies and Health Sciences, Karachi. Patients and Methods: The total of 333 patients had history of epigastric pain were included in this study. The specimen for mucosal biopsy was taken during endoscopy and sent to the clinical laboratory for histopathology examination for the classification. All the information was entered and saved on the annexed / proforma. Results: The mean ±SD of age for all the patients was 41.31±7.89 years. Frequency of gastric pathology in patient presenting with epigastric pain was 51.35% (171/333) cases. There were 171 histopatholocal diagnoses, non- Noeplastic lesion was confirmed in 99.42% (170/177) and one case had Noeplastic lesion. Regarding the type of gastric pathology, 25.73% (44/171) had gastric ulcer, 48.54 (83/171) was H. pylori gastric and 25.15% (43/171) had chronic gastritis. Conclusion: The study frequency of gastric pathology in patient presenting with epigastric pain was high. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]