Repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) as a genetic tool to study interspecific diversity in Euphorbiaceae family.
by Rampadarath, Sillma, Puchooa, Daneshwar, Bal, Subhasisa [2015-11-15]
Background: The classification of diversity in germplasm collections is important for plant breeding. The repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) technique was used to investigate inter-specific diversity within 17 species from the Euphorbiaceae family using REP and BOX primers. Results: The agglomerative cluster analysiswas used to evaluate the scoring data. BOX and REP gave amplification with polymorphism of 98.84% and 100% respectively. REP marker demarcated between the subgenus peltatae. Both markers confirmed Jatropha tanjorensis as a natural hybrid between Jatropha gossypifolia and Jatropha curcas. Five random sequences from the rep-PCR gels were chosen, cloned and sequenced. The blast results demonstrated that the amplified products were from the mitochondrial genomes. Conclusion: The rep-PCR molecular tool can be used to characterize diversity in plants as they are suitable for distinguishing eukaryotic genomes effectively. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.
by Martínez, Eliana, Rös, Matthias, Bonilla, María Argenis, Dirzo, Rodolfo [2015-07-21]
The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by PHOLHIAMHAN, Rapeeporn, SAENSOUK, Surapon, SAENSOUK, Piyaporn [2018-10-01]
The present study aimed to study the diversity of plants used by Phu Thai ethnic groups in Nakhon Phanom province, and to find out the correlation between genders, age, and indigenous knowledge of the Phu Thai groups. The data were analyzed by using independent-samples t-test, one way ANOVA, cultural importance index (CI), informant consensus factor (ICF), and fidelity level (FL %). The results showed that there were 329 plant species from 89 families used in the daily life by the Phu Thai. The largest number of plant species were from Fabaceae (42 species, 12.77 %), followed by Zingiberaceae (20 species, 6.07 %), and Poaceae (15 species, 4.56 %). One hundred and ninety nine species were edible and used for consumption, 176 species for medicine, 56 species for cultural purposes, and 79 for other uses. The highest informant consensus factor (ICF) of medicinal plants were calculated for injuries (ICF = 0.961) indicating the highest degree of agreement among the informants knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat disorders in this category. The highest fidelity level (FL %) values were calculated for Crinum asiaticum L. var. asiaticum (93.62%), showing the conformity of knowledge regarding use of this plant to heal ankle sprains and postpartum women. The CI values were calculated for Oryza sativa L. (CI = 2.74), followed by Saccharum officinarum L. (CI = 2.64), and Cocos nucifera L. (CI = 2.57), respectively. The most frequently used parts of the plant were leaves (82 species; 21.20 %) followed by fruits (70 species; 17.99 %), and stems (46 species; 11.85 %). Tree was the most common plant habit (77 species; 26.50 %), followed by the herb (72 species; 22.90 %), and climber (34 species; 9.20 %). The plants were gathered from cultivated fields more than from the forest. The ethnobotanical knowledge listed by males and females did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The older informants had significantly more knowledge of medicinal plant uses than younger informants (p < 0.05). The Phu Thai ethnic group used Oryza sativa L. to make glutinous fermented liquors called "U". It contains a variety of plants such as Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd., Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh., Albizia myriophylla Benth., Paederia linearis Hook. f. var. linearis, Saccharum officinarum L., Streptocaulon juventas (Lour.) Merr., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz, Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr., and Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Plant and insect diversity along an experimental gradient of larch-birch mixtures in Chinese boreal forests.
by Jing Li, Juan Shi, Youqing Luo, Heliövaara, Kari [2012-04-01]
Maintaining and increasing biodiversity level especially in pure plantations is one important way to improve the resistance of forests to pests in Chinese boreal forests. The present study tested the hypothesis that the increased degree of tree species mixture (quantified by the stem proportion of Betula platyphylla Suk. and Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) can affect the species richness and diversity of understory and insects. Twenty-one plots, ranging from pure larch stand to pure birch stand, were sampled in several thinned forests in a Chinese boreal forest area. Data of environmental factors, understory plant species and insect assemblage were collected from the field and connected with historical records, and analyzed using, e.g., multivariate methods and de-trended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA). The results showed that the variation of plant and insect species was mainly influenced by birch mixture and light conditions in the forest. Species richness and diversity of plants and insects increased with the increasing mixture of birch, and finally declined after passing the peak point in 30% or 50% of birch mixture. The study gives tools to improve the integrated pest management (IPM) especially in man-made pure plantations of boreal forests in China. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Diversity of ABC transporter genes across the plant kingdom and their potential utility in biotechnology.
by Lane, Thomas S., Rempe, Caroline S., Davitt, Jack, Staton, Margaret E., Yanhui Peng, Soltis, Douglas Edward, Melkonian, Michael, Deyholos, Michael, Leebens-Mack, James H., Chase, Mark, Rothfels, Carl J., Stevenson, Dennis, Graham, Sean W., Jun Yu, Tao Liu, Pires, J. Chris, Edger, Patrick P., Yong Zhang, Yinlong Xie, Ying Zhu [2016-05-31]
Background: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is ubiquitous among extant organisms and prominently represented in plants. ABC transporters act to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Thus, the applicability to biotechnology is vast, including cancer resistance in humans, drug resistance among vertebrates, and herbicide and other xenobiotic resistance in plants. In addition, plants appear to harbor the highest diversity of ABC transporter genes compared with any other group of organisms. This study applied transcriptome analysis to survey the kingdom-wide ABC transporter diversity in plants and suggest biotechnology applications of this diversity. Results: We utilized sequence similarity-based informatics techniques to infer the identity of ABC transporter gene candidates from 1295 phylogenetically-diverse plant transcriptomes. A total of 97,149 putative (approximately 25 % were full-length) ABC transporter gene members were identified; each RNA-Seq library (plant sample) had 88 ± 30 gene members. As expected, simpler organisms, such as algae, had fewer unique members than vascular land plants. Differences were also noted in the richness of certain ABC transporter subfamilies. Land plants had more unique ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter gene members on average (p < 0.005), and green algae, red algae, and bryophytes had significantly more ABCF transporter gene members (p < 0.005). Ferns had significantly fewer ABCA transporter gene members than all other plant groups (p < 0.005). Conclusions: We present a transcriptomic overview of ABC transporter gene members across all major plant groups. An increase in the number of gene family members present in the ABCB, ABCC, and ABCD transporter subfamilies may indicate an expansion of the ABC transporter superfamily among green land plants, which include all crop species. The striking difference between the number of ABCA subfamily transporter gene members between ferns and other plant taxa is surprising and merits further investigation. Discussed is the potential exploitation of ABC transporters in plant biotechnology, with an emphasis on crops. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Contrasting Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Diversity Responses to Forest Modifications: Comparisons of Taxa and Successive Plant Life Stages in South African Scarp Forest.
by Grass, Ingo, Brandl, Roland, Botzat, Alexandra, Neuschulz, Eike Lena, Farwig, Nina [2015-02-01]
The degradation of natural forests to modified forests threatens subtropical and tropical biodiversity worldwide. Yet, species responses to forest modification vary considerably. Furthermore, effects of forest modification can differ, whether with respect to diversity components (taxonomic or phylogenetic) or to local (α-diversity) and regional (β-diversity) spatial scales. This real-world complexity has so far hampered our understanding of subtropical and tropical biodiversity patterns in human-modified forest landscapes. In a subtropical South African forest landscape, we studied the responses of three successive plant life stages (adult trees, saplings, seedlings) and of birds to five different types of forest modification distinguished by the degree of within-forest disturbance and forest loss. Responses of the two taxa differed markedly. Thus, the taxonomic α-diversity of birds was negatively correlated with the diversity of all plant life stages and, contrary to plant diversity, increased with forest disturbance. Conversely, forest disturbance reduced the phylogenetic α-diversity of all plant life stages but not that of birds. Forest loss neither affected taxonomic nor phylogenetic diversity of any taxon. On the regional scale, taxonomic but not phylogenetic β-diversity of both taxa was well predicted by variation in forest disturbance and forest loss. In contrast to adult trees, the phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings showed signs of contemporary environmental filtering. In conclusion, forest modification in this subtropical landscape strongly shaped both local and regional biodiversity but with contrasting outcomes. Phylogenetic diversity of plants may be more threatened than that of mobile species such as birds. The reduced phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings suggests losses in biodiversity that are not visible in adult trees, potentially indicating time-lags and contemporary shifts in forest regeneration. The different responses of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity to forest modifications imply that biodiversity conservation in this subtropical landscape requires the preservation of natural and modified forests. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Grauda, D., Žagata, K., Lanka, G., Strazdina, V., Fetere, V., Lisina, N., Krasnevska, N., Fokina, O., Mikelsone, A., Ornicans, R., Belogrudova, I., Rashal, I. [2016-08-01]
by Kalendar, R., Flavell, A. J., Ellis, T. H. N., Sjakste, T., Moisy, C., Schulman, A. H. [2011-04-01]
Retrotransposons are both major generators of genetic diversity and tools for detecting the genomic changes associated with their activity because they create large and stable insertions in the genome. After the demonstration that retrotransposons are ubiquitous, active and abundant in plant genomes, various marker systems were developed to exploit polymorphisms in retrotransposon insertion patterns. These have found applications ranging from the mapping of genes responsible for particular traits and the management of backcrossing programs to analysis of population structure and diversity of wild species. This review provides an insight into the spectrum of retrotransposon-based marker systems developed for plant species and evaluates the contributions of retrotransposon markers to the analysis of population diversity in plants. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Transforming plant biology to translational research applications - National Botanical Research Institute.
by Nair, K. N., Mishra, Aradhana, Suseela, M. R., Trivedi, Prabodh K., Sawant, Samir V., Nautiyal, C. S. [2015-03-25]
Understanding the structural and functional fabric of plant life is a major facet of plant science research. In the face of several unprecedented challenges, including the impending issues of climate change, environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, genetic erosion, malnutrition and diseases, plant science demands a synthetic and systems approach to find affordable solutions to the above challenges. The challenge before plant biologists is, therefore, not limited only to discovering and documenting the diversity in plants, fungi and microbes, but also in identifying the useful properties in them. A premier plant science research centre under the patronage of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Lucknow-based National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI) is known for its excellence in enriching the knowledge base on plant diversity of India and its systematic documentation, conservation and sustainable utilization through traditional and advanced biotechnological approaches. CSIR-NBRI has a wholesome expertise in plant biodiversity, biotechnology and bioinformatics. The Institute has developed technologies and knowhow for the preparation of a number of value-added herbal products as well as microbial technologies for the development of biofertilzers, bioinoculants and biopesticides. Its translational research on microbial consortia-based bio-inoculants, executed along with the Directorate of Agricultural Research, Govt of Uttar Pradesh won the prestigious CSIR S&T Award for Rural Development for the year 2011. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Patterns of Trophic-level Diversity Associated with Herbaceous Dune Vegetation Across a Primary Successional Gradient.
by Emery, Sarah M., Masters, Jeffery A., Benanti, Sam, Gottshall, C. Bradford [2015-04-01]
While ecologists have studied succession for well over 100 y, there has been little characterization of diversity patterns in nonplant organisms or their interactions across successional gradients. In this study we examined herbaceous vertical vegetation structure and diversity in plants, arthropods, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in three Great Lakes sand dune chronosequences. Plant species richness increased linearly across the primary successional gradients at the three sampling sites, while plant vertical structure remained constant. Total arthropod abundance and species richness were positively associated with plant vertical cover, while AMF spore abundance and morpho-type richness were positively associated with plant species richness. Carnivore and herbivore functional groups of arthropods responded differently to plant vertical cover and species richness. Diversity across early primary successional gradients does not consistently increase among different trophic levels, and the vertical structure of vegetation can be important in explaining richness and abundance in other trophic levels across a successional gradient. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by PIEKARSKA-BONIECKA, Hanna, ZYPRYCH-WALCZAK, Jolanta, SIATKOWSKI, Idzi, DOLAŃSKA-NIEDBAŁA, Ewa, TRZCIŃSKI, Paweł, RZAŃSKA-WIECZOREK, Marta, Duong TRAN DINH [2018-05-01]
Plant communities made up by trees and shrubberies, which grow in the vicinity of orchards, constitute important elements of ecological infrastructure enriching these agrocenoses. The study was conducted in an orchard environment composed of apple orchards and their edges, such as agricultural fields, shrubberies and a road lined with trees and shrubs. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of diversity level of edge plants of an apple orchard on the quantitative and qualitative structure of parasitoid communities of the Pimplinae subfamily in the orchards. It was found that in an orchard environment composed of an apple orchard and well-developed edge plants a species diversity and abundance of parasitoids were higher than in an orchard environment composed of an orchard and neighbouring agricultural areas. It was established that the apple orchard edge, which was characterised by the highest species diversity of plants (road), influenced mainly the qualitative structure of parasitoids of the Pimplinae subfamily occurring in the orchard. It was found that the road as the orchard edge was the most attractive habitat for parasitoids. To sum up: the presence of edge plant communities which are well-developed and highly diversified in species favours species richness and the abundance of the parasitoids of the Pimplinae subfamily of the orchard environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Molecular mechanisms of autophagy in plants: Role of ATG8 proteins in formation and functioning of autophagosomes.
by Ryabovol, V., Minibayeva, F. [2016-04-01]
Autophagy is an efficient way of degradation and removal of unwanted or damaged intracellular components in plant cells. It plays an important role in recycling of intracellular structures (during starvation, removal of cell components formed during plant development or damaged by various stress factors) and in programmed cell death. Morphologically, autophagy is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which are essential for the isolation and degradation of cytoplasmic components. Among autophagic (ATG) proteins, ATG8 from the ubiquitinlike protein family plays a key role in autophagosome formation. ATG8 is also involved in selective autophagy, fusion of autophagosome with the vacuole, and some other intracellular processes not associated with autophagy. In contrast to yeasts that carry a single ATG8 gene, plants have multigene ATG8 families. The reason for such great ATG8 diversity in plants remains unclear. It is also unknown whether all members of the ATG8 family are involved in the formation and functioning of autophagosomes. To answer these questions, the identification of the structure and the possible functions of plant proteins from ATG8 family is required. In this review, we analyze the structures of ATG8 proteins from plants and their homologs from yeast and animal cells, interactions of ATG8 proteins with functional ligands, and involvement of ATG8 proteins in different metabolic processes in eukaryotes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Norfolk, Olivia, Eichhorn, Markus P., Gilbert, Francis S., Traveset, Anna [2015-04-01]
Aim Biogeographers typically assess patterns of diversity across landscapes. As interacting groups often exhibit contrasting trends, this leads to variation in the structure of interaction networks and thereby influences ecosystem processes. Here we aim to disentangle how patterns of diversity differ between species (plants, pollinators) and their interactions across an agricultural landscape. The region is known for its irrigated gardens which appear as high-diversity islands in the mountainous habitat. We are interested in whether this local enhancement was (a) increasing landscape heterogeneity by supporting novel species or (b) increasing local diversity by supporting higher densities of species that also occur in the unmanaged habitat. Location South Sinai, Egypt. Methods We compared alpha diversity of plants, pollinators and interactions in agricultural gardens and plots of unmanaged habitat in two altitudinal categories, high and low mountains, with high and low habitat quality in the matrix respectively. We then used similarity analyses involving the CqN measure to compare levels of turnover across the landscape. Results The impact of the gardens differed with respect to the landscape context; in the low mountains, gardens enhanced the abundance and diversity of plants, pollinators and interactions, but in the high mountains, they had no effect. Plants exhibited high levels of turnover, with gardens increasing heterogeneity by supporting novel crop species. In contrast, pollinators exhibited low levels of turnover, with gardens and unmanaged habitat supporting similar species. The diversity of interactions was influenced by the composition of the plant community and showed extremely high levels of turnover. Main conclusions Plants, pollinators and their interactions can display contrasting patterns of turnover across a shared landscape. Although the enhancement of local habitat can boost pollinator diversity, the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity may also be required if you aim to conserve the diversity of interactions between plants and pollinators. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by GELLENS, MARTHA [2018-09-01]
The article offers information on the Wave Hill, a cultural center and public garden in the Palisades and Hudson River section in Bronx, New York City. Topics discussed include the diversity of plants and gardens that can be seen in the place, the alpine trough and the mini pond, and the species of native plants in the place like the Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias Tuberosa), the Shooting Star (Dodecatheon), and the Virginia Bluebells (Mertensia Virginica).
A novel framework for linking functional diversity of plants with other trophic levels for the quantification of ecosystem services.
by Lavorel, Sandra, Storkey, Jonathan, Bardgett, Richard D., Bello, Francesco, Berg, Matty P., Roux, Xavier, Moretti, Marco, Mulder, Christian, Pakeman, Robin J., Díaz, Sandra, Harrington, Richard, Mason, Norman [2013-09-01]
A novel conceptual framework is presented that proposes to apply trait-based approaches to predicting the impact of environmental change on ecosystem service delivery by multi-trophic systems. Development of the framework was based on an extension of the response-effect trait approach to capture functional relationships that drive trophic interactions. The framework was populated with worked examples to demonstrate its flexibility and value for linking disparate data sources, identifying knowledge gaps and generating hypotheses for quantitative models. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
On the structural and species diversity effects of bark beetle disturbance in forests during initial and advanced early-seral stages at different scales.
by Winter, Maria-Barbara, Bässler, Claus, Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus, Krah, Franz-Sebastian, Schaefer, Hanno, Seibold, Sebastian, Müller, Jörg [2017-04-01]
Following disturbances, early-seral stages of forests provide a variety of structures. Whether this variety is a short-term phenomenon or influences forest succession for several decades or even longer is not known. We tested the hypotheses that after spruce dieback caused by bark beetles, a high spatial heterogeneity of stand structures will persist within stands and among stands even in advanced early-seral stages and that species taxonomical and functional diversity measures will reflect this heterogeneity. We used a chronosequence of unmanaged forests in the Berchtesgaden National Park (Germany) consisting of mature undisturbed spruce stands (control), stands belonging to an initial early-seral stage (~3 years after disturbance) and stands in an advanced early-seral stage (~20 years after disturbance). We analysed diversity and heterogeneity of these forest stands including stand structure, species density, species composition and functional-phylogenetic diversity of vascular plants, wood-inhabiting fungi and saproxylic beetles within plots, among plots of the same successional stage and among stages. Stands of the advanced early-seral stage were characterized by a high spatial heterogeneity of structural attributes, such as crown cover, regeneration density and spatial distribution of trees. Among-plot taxonomic beta diversity was highest in the advanced early-seral stage for beetles, but lowest for fungi, while beta diversity of plants among plots remained unchanged during succession. The mosaic of successional stages initiated by bark beetles increased the gamma diversity of the study area, especially for fungi and beetles. Our findings support the hypothesis that structural heterogeneity continues for at least two decades at stand and landscape scales and that species turnover among successional stages is a major mechanism for gamma diversity in forests after bark beetle disturbance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Multiple and asymmetrical origin of polyploid dog rose hybrids (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser.) involving unreduced gametes.
by Herklotz, V., Ritz, C. M. [2017-08-01]
Background and Aims Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses (Rosa sect. Caninae) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4x) and haploid sperm cells (1x). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5x) producing 6x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1x) sperm cells. We tested whether hybrids arose by independent multiple events or via a single or few incidences followed by a subsequent spread of hybrids. Methods Population genetics of 45 mixed stands of dog roses across central and south-eastern Europe were analysed using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry. Hybrids were recognized by the presence of diagnostic alleles and multivariate statistics were used to display the relationships between parental species and hybrids. Key Results Among plants classified to subsect. Rubigineae, 32% hybridogenic individuals were detected but only 8% hybrids were found in plants assigned to subsect. Caninae. This bias between reciprocal crossings was accompanied by a higher ploidy level in Rubigineae hybrids, which originated more frequently by unreduced egg cells. Genetic patterns of hybrids were strongly geographically structured, supporting their independent origin. Conclusions The biased crossing barriers between subsections are explained by the facilitated production of unreduced gametes in subsect. Rubigineae. Unreduced egg cells probably provide the highly homologous chromosome sets required for correct chromosome pairing in hybrids. Furthermore, the higher frequency of Rubigineae hybrids is probably influenced by abundance effects because the plants of subsect. Caninae are much more abundant and thus provide large quantities of pollen. Hybrids are formed spontaneously, leading to highly diverse mixed stands, which are insufficiently characterized by the actual taxonomy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by MOHLENBROCK, ROBERT H. [2017-06-01]
The article presents information on the Ouachita Mountains region and the Arkansas Valley region near Little Rock in Arkansas. Topics discussed include diversity of plants in drier areas; prairie species such as big bluestem, little bluestem, switch grass, and prairie three-awn; and a groundwater-fed swamp surrounded by sandy areas of the coastal plain and an upland forest of pines.
by LI Zhuang, XIN Ben-Hua, YANG Hua, LIU Chen, TIAN Meng-Liang [2014-05-01]
Gene resources and development prospects of plants in Paris were evaluated. Applied researches in genetic diversity of plant in Paris were carried out based on SCOT markers. Genomic DNA polymorphic analysis in total forty individuls of nine species in Paris were performed by the approach of start codon targeted polymorphism(SCOT). The genetic diversity of the nine species in Paris was high in Sichuan Province. Clustering analysis could be used to study the classification of Paris,which indicated that forty individuls were clustered 4 classes. P. polyphylla var. stenophylla was clustered alonely. P. fargesii,P. delavayi var. petiolata,P. delavayi var. delavayi,P. polyphylla var. yunnaensis were clustered. P. thibetica and P. polyphylla var. chinesis were clustered. P. axiparis var. axialis and P. mairei were clustered. In conclusion,plant in Paris was identified accuracily in molecular by SCOT markers and molecular evidences were provided on the taxonomic status of species and interspecific. It is helpful to further study on gene mapping of P. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Harrison, Susan, Viers, Joshua H., Quinn, James F. [2000-05-01]
The insular distribution of distinctive substrates, such as outcrops of serpentine rock, may either promote plant diversity by enhancing opportunities for speciation or reduce diversity by increasing rates of extinction. To examine the relationship between diversity and the spatial structure of habitats, we studied large-scale patterns of diversity in the flora of serpentine in California. We used multiple linear regressions on geographical information system (GIS)-derived data for 85 subregions of the state to analyse the climatic and spatial correlates of plant species richness. The diversity of plants endemic to serpentine declined from north to south and from the coast inland, in association with decreasing rainfall; the same trends were seen in the total flora, but the trends were stronger in serpentine endemics. Diversity of serpentine endemics increased with the area of serpentine and decreased with the mean isolation of serpentine patches in a subregion. The diversity of endemics was not correlated with the number of serpentine patches or their mean perimeter-to-area ratio. We conclude that patchiness in this terrestrial habitat does not appear to promote diversity, even at the large spatial scale associated with speciation and endemism. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
THE DIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS TRADED BY GUARANI COMMUNITIES OF MISIONES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA.
by KELLER, HÉCTOR A., CLIFFORD, VICTORIA, ARAUJO, JORGE J. [2010-12-01]