INTERREGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATION INCOMES IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD.
by Litvintseva, Galina P., Glinskiy, Vladimir V., Stukalenko, Elena A.
The present study was aimed to quantitatively investigate the income differentiation of the population using a new quantitative model proposed by the authors based on the different purchasing power of Rouble in the Russian regions. The main approach in this model is dividing the populations of the target region into needy and wealthy groups. All populations of Russia were rearranged from regional quintile groups into the all-Russian groups. The authors have compared the obtained results with the corresponding data of official statistics by the Gini coefficient and other statistical indicators. We have developed our model which is based on the division of the population of country into needy and wealthy groups in our previous studies and now it was used in this study for the real financial data. The calculations and recommendations on the redistributive overcoming of poverty at the expense of increase of the rate of surtax on the incomes of wealthy group are developed. The models of Pen, Lorenz, modified by the authors of the article, were applied in the research. The calculations were carried out for all subjects of the Russian Federation on the Russian State Statistical Service figures for the period of 2008-2013 years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A simple method for calculating minimum estimates of previous population sizes of wildlife from hunting records.
by Agetsuma, Naoki
Hunting records have proven useful for examining the historical status of wildlife populations. The number of animals harvested can provide information on past population sizes that would have been required to support harvest yields. Therefore, when statistical data on annual harvests are available, a minimum estimate of past population sizes can be calculated. A very simple method for estimating the sizes of historic wildlife populations using only annual hunting records and the maximum annual population increase rate is presented in this study. This method was applied to estimate past population sizes for Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido Island, Japan, using hunting records from 1873 to 1882, and assuming 15% and 35% population increase rates. The annual number of deer harvested during 1873 to 1882 ranged from 15,000 to 129,000. The minimum population size in 1873 was estimated as 349,000–473,000. This method was validated by applying it to the eastern population of Hokkaido Island in 1993 when the population size was approximately 260,000, and population sizes estimated by this method were 0.50–1.17 times the nominal population size. Thus, the population estimates from this method were approximately equal to or less than the expected population sizes, and this method can be used to obtain minimum estimates of wildlife populations. Because shorter durations of hunting records result in population size underestimates, it would be better to use hunting record of 10 years or longer in this method. In addition, the degree of underestimation may change with hunting pressure intensity on the populations, other causes of mortality, and maximum annual increase rates of the species. The method can be applied to any wildlife species for which records of annual harvest and maximum annual population increase rates of the species are available. The estimates obtained can provide benchmarks for the population size required for ecosystem conservation, and can be useful for wildlife management as they indicate the lowest limit to maintain the population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Calka, Beata, Da Costa, Joanna Nowak, Bielecka, Elzbieta
Population density is one of the key parameters for assessing the magnitude of population exposed to risk, and the better quality data we have, the better the assessment of risk. The aim of this study is to elaborate a high-resolution spatially distributed population density grid, which estimates population at the commune scale with a reliability of over 90%. The novelty of the approach is population density estimation in a regular European grid, based on buildings vector data collected in the national topographic database. Using abductive reasoning in combination with statistics and spatial analysis, the authors extract approximate information about a population from the large-scale topographic data. Moreover, linking the obtained population data with the cadastral data - by unique building identifier - allows for regular, quick and census surveyindependent updates of the population surface. A shortcoming of the approach is the issue of the possible existence of two houses per family, which leads to an overestimation of population. However, in the study area it affected only two of the total 14 communes by 7%-9%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Harith, Mohd Nasarudin, Md Desa, Muhammad Hasanol Isyraf, Ilias, Zaidnuddin
Holothuria leucospilota or locally known as “Patola” is currently considered the most abundant sea cucumber species in Malaysia. This coral reef-dwelling species is not in danger of extinction in comparison to commercial sea cucumbers such as “gamat.” However, overfishing activities in addition to lack of fishing regulations in Malaysia could put this species at risk of extinction in the future. It is important to conduct research on the sea cucumber community in Sarawak because the data can be used as reliable information for future research. Therefore, this study is carried out to quantify and estimate the Holothuria leucospilota population from an intertidal area of Satang Besar Island, Sarawak, Malaysia. Ten stations surrounding the island were selected as the location for this study. A total number of 203 individuals of Holothuria leucospilota were recorded and estimation of the population that inhabits the island’s intertidal area was 609 individuals. RELATE test showed relationships between species population and water parameters, namely, temperature, salinity, and pH. Results from this study are important as a baseline data that might contribute to the sustainable management of Sarawak, Malaysia’s sea cucumber in the future. Future work suggestions include addition of subtidal samples and other factors, namely, seawater nutrients and feeding environment, that should be done to better understand the population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Variations in osteoporosis medication utilization. A population-based ecological cross-sectional study in the region of Valencia, Spain.
by Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel, Juliá-Sanchis, María-Lirios, Librero, Julián, Peiró, Salvador, García-Sempere, Aníbal
Little is known about the contextual variability in osteoporosis medication utilization. Our aims were 1) to describe variations in utilization and spending on osteoporotic medication between the Primary Care Health Zones (PHZ) of the Valencia region, Spain, 2) to analyze observed variations using Small Area Variation Analysis methods, and 3) to quantify the influence of the specialized care level on variations in utilization. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional ecological study of expenditure and utilization of five therapeutic groups marketed as osteoporosis treatments in Spain in 2009. The unit of analysis was the PHZ (in total 240) nested in the 23 Hospital Healthcare Departments (HHD) of the region of Valencia, covering a population of about 4.9 million inhabitants. Drug utilization was measured by dispensed Defined Daily Dose per 1000 women aged 50 years old and over and day (DID) per PHZ and cost was measured by the annual osteoporosis drug cost per woman aged 50 and older as well as the average price of DDD (Defined Daily Dose) in each PHZ. We calculated Indirect Standardized Drug Utilization Ratios (ISR) and we used Spearman’s correlation to analyze associations between the ISRs of the different therapies. The average osteoporosis drug consumption was 119.1 DID, ranging from 77.6 to 171.3 DID (2.2 times higher) between PHZs in the 5th and 95th percentiles. Annual expenditure also showed a two-fold variation among PHZs. Average prices of the DDD by therapeutic group showed very low or no variation, although they differed substantially among therapeutic groups. Regarding the standardized consumption of osteoporotic drugs, HHDs explained a substantial part (39%) of the variance among PHZs. In conclusion, there is considerable variability in the volume and choice of anti-osteoporotic treatments between PHZs. with HHDs explaining an important proportion of the variation in utilization. Interventions aimed at reducing variation to improve appropriate care should take into account both the PHZ and HHD levels of care. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Patterns in distribution, population density and uses of medicinal plants along the altitudinal gradient in Dhauladhar mountain range of Indian Himalayas.
by Sharma, Natasha, Kala, Chandra Prakash
We studied the patterns in distribution, population density and uses of medicinal plant species in Dhauladhar mountain range of Himachal Pradesh in Indian Himalayas. The study area was stratified into three zones on the basis of forest types and altitudes. In each zone, quadrats were laid down for sampling of plant species, and the local people were interviewed for gathering information on medicinal uses of plants. A total of 184 plant species were encountered in the sampling plots, of which 86% had medicinal uses. Among woody plant species, the use of bark was highest, whereas in herbaceous species the use of leaf and root was highest for treatment of over 32 groups of diseases. In terms of density, Pinus roxburghii was the most dominant tree species in subtropical forests, which declined in temperate regions and was absent in subalpine forests. Rhododendron arboreum was the most dominant tree species in temperate region whereas in subalpine forests it was replaced by Abies pindrow, in terms of density. Berberis asiatica and Vitex negundo were the most dominant shrubs in subtropical forests besides Lantana camera, whereas Berberis lycium dominated the temperate and Juniperus indica dominated the subalpine forests. The heavy infestation of Lantana camera in sub-tropical forests has degraded the habitats of native medicinal plant species. Spearman’s correlation indicates positive correlation between local uses and density of respective medicinal plant species (P < 0.05). The results are further discussed in light of medicinal plants conservation in this part of the Indian Himalayas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Deer game, a key factor affecting population of European yew in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, Slovakia.
by Sedmáková, Denisa, Kýpeťová, Mariana, Saniga, Milan, Pittner, Ján, Vencurik, Jaroslav, Kucbel, Stanislav, Jaloviar, Peter
Browsing and bark peeling by ungulates is known to affect biodiversity and may constitute the main driving factor of single tree population dynamics. In Slovakia, European yew (Taxus baccata L.) is a threatened species protected by law and present in many protected areas. In the study, we emphasize that protecting land and individual plants may not be sufficient for maintaining of yew populations, unless controlling over damage by deer game is also undertaken. Our results show that in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, browsing and bark peeling constitute the main negative factor affecting yew seedling-sapling ingrowth transition, and the mortality and vitality loss of adult yew trees. We argue that ungulates may have a larger effect on biodiversity conservation than currently realized. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Density and population estimates of Rose-bellied Bunting ( Passerina rositae), Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow ( Peucaea sumichrasti), and Orange-breasted Bunting ( Passerina lechlancherii) in the Sierra Tolistoque, Oaxaca, Mexico.
by Monroy-Ojeda, Alan, Grosselet, Manuel, Panjabi, Arvind, Pool, Duane, White, Chris, Ruiz-Michael, Georgita
Population dynamics and secondary production of Darina solenoides (Bivalvia: Mactridae) in the Río Gallegos Estuary, southern Patagonia.
by Lizarralde, Zulma, Pittaluga, Susana, Albarracín, Tamara, Perroni, Mario
The biology and ecology of Darina solenoides, an abundant bivalve of sandy sediments along Patagonian coasts, is poorly known. Here, we investigated the population dynamics and secondary production of this species in Río Gallegos Estuary (Southern Patagonia, Argentina, 51°35'S, 69°01'W). Sampling was conducted monthly, from April 2014 to June 2015, by collecting 10 samples from the intertidal fringe using a core of 10 cm inner diameter. The sediment was mainly composed of fine and very fine (77.5%) sand; total organic matter content was 1.8%. The average population density was 779.4 ± 56.4 ind m-2 the population was composed of four modal groups. The settlement of a new cohort occurred in April-May each year. The von Bertalanffy growth function was L∞ = 49.4 mm; K = 0.5; the calculated lifespan was 4.2 years. Population somatic production was 80.6 g dry mass m-2 yr-1 and the production-to-biomass (P/B) ratio was 0.96. The observed high production supports the hypothesis that D. solenoides is an important resource for many marine species. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Towards the Development of a More Accurate Monitoring Procedure for Invertebrate Populations, in the Presence of an Unknown Spatial Pattern of Population Distribution in the Field.
by Petrovskaya, Natalia B., Forbes, Emily, Petrovskii, Sergei V., Walters, Keith F. A.
Studies addressing many ecological problems require accurate evaluation of the total population size. In this paper, we revisit a sampling procedure used for the evaluation of the abundance of an invertebrate population from assessment data collected on a spatial grid of sampling locations. We first discuss how insufficient information about the spatial population density obtained on a coarse sampling grid may affect the accuracy of an evaluation of total population size. Such information deficit in field data can arise because of inadequate spatial resolution of the population distribution (spatially variable population density) when coarse grids are used, which is especially true when a strongly heterogeneous spatial population density is sampled. We then argue that the average trap count (the quantity routinely used to quantify abundance), if obtained from a sampling grid that is too coarse, is a random variable because of the uncertainty in sampling spatial data. Finally, we show that a probabilistic approach similar to bootstrapping techniques can be an efficient tool to quantify the uncertainty in the evaluation procedure in the presence of a spatial pattern reflecting a patchy distribution of invertebrates within the sampling grid. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Bushnaq, Samia, Ali, Sajjad, Shah, Kamal, Arif, Muhammad
In this paper, optimal homotopy asymptotic method has been extended to seek out the exact solution of fractional generalized biological population models. The time fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. It optimal homotopy asymptotic method is a new approach for fractional models. The proposed approach presents a procedure by that we have transferred the model to a series of simpler problems which are solvable by hand work applying the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator and obtained exact solution of fractional the generalized biological population by adding the solutions of first three simple problems of the series of simpler problems. The new approach provides exact solution in the way of smoothly convergent series. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Effects of plant population density and root-induced cytokinin on the corn compensatory growth during post-drought rewatering.
by Wang, Xiao-Ling, Qin, Rong-Rong, Sun, Run-Hong, Hou, Xiao-Gai, Qi, Lin, Shi, Jiang
The effect of plant population density (PPD) and root-induced leaf cytokinin on the compensatory growth of potted corn seedlings during post-drought rewatering was investigated. The study design comprised four treatments: (1) wetness with low PPD, (2) wetness with high PPD, (3) rewatering with low PPD, and (4) rewatering with high PPD. Results showed that drought stress restrained the growth of corns. By contrast, rewatering enhanced the net photosynthetic rate and growth of corns. During the 8 days of rewatering, compensatory growth during post-drought rewatering occurred in corns with high PPD; however, such compensatory growth did not occur in corns with low PPD. Zeatin riboside concentrations in leaves and xylem saps were significantly higher under rewatering treatment than those under wet treatment. High leaf cytokinin concentration accelerated corn growth. The coefficients of variation and Gini-coefficient of wet treatment were significantly higher than those of rewatering treatment under high PPD, demonstrating that intense intraspecific competition occurred in the wet treatment. Extreme intraspecific competition negatively affected net photosynthetic rate. In brief, the interactions between root-induced leaf cytokinin and weak intraspecific competition promoted the compensatory growth under high PPD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Changes in Population Sizes of Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Asian Shore Crab) and Resident Crab Species in Southeastern New England (2010-2016).
by O'Connor, Nancy J.
The invasion of Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Asian Shore Crab) has been of concern in northeastern North America since the late 1980s. A relatively long-term record (1998-2011) of density estimates in southern New England showed displacement of resident crab species at 3 locations in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. In 2016, I visited the same locations to estimate current crab densities. The springtime Asian Shore Crab density decreased at a coastal location, but increased at an estuarine location to >300 crabs/m2. Resident crabs Carcinus maenas (European Green Crab) and Mud Crabs in the family Panopeidae increased in abundance at all 3 locations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Combining Data Sources to Understand Drivers of Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) Population Abundance.
by DAVIS, COURTNEY L., TEITSWORTH, ERIC W., MILLER, DAVID A. W.
Robust methods for estimating abundance of wetland-breeding amphibian species, such as mark--recapture, are often resource intensive. This limits our ability to study the processes that influence species abundance. Alternatively, more efficient sampling methods, such as indices based on visual encounter surveys (VES) (e.g., egg masses), may be biased by variability in detection probabilities and species biology (e.g., no. of egg masses per female). We combine data sources (i.e., VES and capture--mark--recapture) to provide an efficient technique for monitoring wetland-breeding amphibians. Our study focuses on understanding factors that determine local abundance of Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum, in Pennsylvania.We first estimated abundance for a subset of wetlands using single-season, capture--mark--recapture data and then verified egg-mass counts collected from a wider network of wetlands as an unbiased index of abundance. We found a strong correlation between estimated adult abundance and estimated egg-mass abundance with an estimated ratio of one egg mass per adult per breeding effort. We next determined the factors that best explained variation in estimated A. maculatum egg-mass abundance and consequently, adult abundance among sites. Our "best-fit" model included effects for wetland hydroperiod and quadratic effects of mean water temperature. We also report positive, but weak, association with two cooccurring amphibian species, Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum and Wood Frogs, Lithobates sylvaticus. We demonstrate how combining sampling approaches can provide efficient abundance estimates in wetland ecosystems. In particular, positive co-occurrence among species indicates shared habitat preferences that may enable us to predict the presence of difficult-to-detect species using only VES. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Sekiguchi, Takuya, Tamura, Kohei, Masuda, Naoki
Population dynamics in urban and rural areas are different. Understanding factors that contribute to local population changes has various socioeconomic and political implications. In the present study, we use population census data in Japan to examine contributors to the population growth of residential clusters between years 2005 and 2010. The data set covers the entirety of Japan and has a high spatial resolution of 500 × 500 m2, enabling us to examine population dynamics in various parts of the country (urban and rural) using statistical analysis. We found that, in addition to the area, population density, and age, the shape of the cluster and the spatial distribution of inhabitants within the cluster are significantly related to the population growth rate of a residential cluster. Specifically, the population tends to grow if the cluster is "round" shaped (given the area) and the population is concentrated near the center rather than periphery of the cluster. Combination of the present results and analysis framework with other factors that have been omitted in the present study, such as migration, terrain, and transportation infrastructure, will be fruitful. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Muzzio, Marina, Motti, Josefina M. B., Paz Sepulveda, Paula B., Yee, Muh-ching, Cooke, Thomas, Santos, María R., Ramallo, Virginia, Alfaro, Emma L., Dipierri, Jose E., Bailliet, Graciela, Bravi, Claudio M., Bustamante, Carlos D., Kenny, Eimear E.
We analyzed 391 samples from 12 Argentinian populations from the Center-West, East and North-West regions with the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip v1.0 (HumanExome-12v1-A). We did Principal Components analysis to infer patterns of populational divergence and migrations. We identified proportions and patterns of European, African and Native American ancestry and found a correlation between distance to Buenos Aires and proportion of Native American ancestry, where the highest proportion corresponds to the Northernmost populations, which is also the furthest from the Argentinian capital. Most of the European sources are from a South European origin, matching historical records, and we see two different Native American components, one that spreads all over Argentina and another specifically Andean. The highest percentages of African ancestry were in the Center West of Argentina, where the old trade routes took the slaves from Buenos Aires to Chile and Peru. Subcontinentaly, sources of this African component are represented by both West Africa and groups influenced by the Bantu expansion, the second slightly higher than the first, unlike North America and the Caribbean, where the main source is West Africa. This is reasonable, considering that a large proportion of the ships arriving at the Southern Hemisphere came from Mozambique, Loango and Angola. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Population Dynamics of the Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Common Bean, Phaseolus Vulgaris in Relation to Cultivar, Temperature and Humidity.
by Safe, Amal I., Naiem, EL-Saied A., Abdel-Whab, Horia. A., El-Gendy, Kamal M.
The objectives of this study were to find the correlation between population dynamics of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars, temperature and humidity during the summer and winter growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. The three P. vulgaris cultivars screened were Copy, Polesta and Manga. In 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, the population densities of B. tabaci gradually increased from the 3rd week of March until the 4th week of April. For, the population density increased and reached a peak from the 1st week of May, and then the population density decreased gradually from the 4th week of May until the 3rd week of June in 2013 and 1st of June in 2014. Densities of this pest typically increased as the growing season progressed and reached a peak in November and started to decrease from 1st of December until the end of them. In 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, the population densities gradually increased from the 2nd week of October until the 4th week of October. Furthermore, the population density reached a peak from the 1st week of November, and then decreased gradually from the 4th week of November until the 4th week of December in 2013 and 2014. In 2013 summer cropping season, the cultivars Copy and Polesta were the most infested varieties. A similar trend was observed during 2014 summer growing season. In 2013 winter cropping season, the cultivars Copy and Manga were more susceptible to white fly infestation than Polesta cultivar. A similar picture was obtained during the winter cropping season of 2014. The most infested varieties were Copy and Manga respectively. Whereas Polesta variety was the least infested. B. tabaci population density was positively affected by temperature in 2013 and 2014 summer growing seasons, where the correlation coefficient were 0.64 and 0.6, respectively. In contrast, in 2013 and 2014 winter cropping season the relationship between B. tabaci population and temperature was insignificant and/or significant and negative with a correlation coefficient of -0.14 and -0.61 respectively. The results revealed that the relative humidity showed nonsignificant positive association with B, tabaci abundance in 2013 summer growing season with correlation coefficient of 0.08. On the other hand, B. tabaci density showed nonsignificant negative association with relative humidity in 2014summer season and 2013 winter seasons and significant negative association in 2014 winter season with correlation coefficients of 0.18, 0.73 and 0.32 respectively. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Genetic structure of wild pea (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius) populations in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent reflects moderate cross-pollination and strong effect of geographic but not environmental distance.
by Smýkal, Petr, Trněný, Oldřich, Brus, Jan, Hanáček, Pavel, Rathore, Abhishek, Roma, Rani Das, Pechanec, Vilém, Duchoslav, Martin, Bhattacharyya, Debjyoti, Bariotakis, Michalis, Pirintsos, Stergios, Berger, Jens, Toker, Cengiz
Knowledge of current genetic diversity and mating systems of crop wild relatives (CWR) in the Fertile Crescent is important in crop genetic improvement, because western agriculture began in the area after the cold-dry period known as Younger Dryas about 12,000 years ago and these species are also wild genepools of the world’s most important food crops. Wild pea (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius) is an important source of genetic diversity for further pea crop improvement harbouring traits useful in climate change context. The genetic structure was assessed on 187 individuals of Pisum sativum subsp. elatius from fourteen populations collected in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent using 18,397 genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism DARTseq markers. AMOVA showed that 63% of the allelic variation was distributed between populations and 19% between individuals within populations. Four populations were found to contain admixed individuals. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.99 to 6.26% with estimated self-pollination rate between 47 to 90%. Genetic distances of wild pea populations were correlated with geographic but not environmental (climatic) distances and support a mixed mating system with predominant self-pollination. Niche modelling with future climatic projections showed a local decline in habitats suitable for wild pea, making a strong case for further collection and ex situ conservation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Life in a rock pool: Radiation and population genetics of myxozoan parasites in hosts inhabiting restricted spaces.
by Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla, Lövy, Alena, Reed, Cecile C., Lisnerová, Martina, Tomková, Tereza, Holzer, Astrid S., Fiala, Ivan
Introduction: Intertidal rock pools where fish and invertebrates are in constant close contact due to limited space and water level fluctuations represent ideal conditions to promote life cycles in parasites using these two alternate hosts and to study speciation processes that could contribute to understanding the roles of parasitic species in such ecosystems. Material and methods: Gall bladder and liver samples from five clinid fish species (Blenniiformes: Clinidae) were morphologically and molecularly examined to determine the diversity, prevalence, distribution and host specificity of Ceratomyxa parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) in intertidal habitats along the coast of South Africa. Phylogenetic relationships of clinid ceratomyxids based on the SSU rDNA, LSU rDNA and ITS regions were assessed additionally to the investigation of population genetic structure of Ceratomyxa cottoidii and subsequent comparison with the data known from type fish host Clinus cottoides. Results and discussion: Seven Ceratomyxa species including previously described Ceratomyxa dehoopi and C. cottoidii were recognized in clinids. They represent a diverse group of rapidly evolving, closely related species with a remarkably high prevalence in their hosts, little host specificity and frequent concurrent infections, most probably as a result of parasite radiation after multiple speciation events triggered by limited host dispersal within restricted spaces. C. cottoidii represents the most common clinid parasite with a population structure characterized by young expanding populations in the south west and south east coast and by older populations in equilibrium on the west coast of its distribution. Parasite and fish host population structures show overlapping patterns and are very likely affected by similar oceanographic barriers possibly due to reduced host dispersal enhancing parasite community differentiation. While fish host specificity had little impact on parasite population structure, the habitat preference of the alternate invertebrate host as well as tidal water exchange may be additional crucial variables affecting the dispersal and associated population structure of C. cottoidii. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Patient and physician characteristics affect adherence to screening mammography: A population-based cohort study.
by Katz, Daniela, Tengekyon, Angela J., Kahan, Natan R., Calderon-Margalit, Ronit
Background: Screening mammograms are widely recommended biennially for women between the ages of 50 and 74. Despite the benefits of screening mammograms, full adherence to recommendations falls below 75% in most developed countries. Many studies have identified individual (obesity, smoking, socio-economic status, and co-morbid conditions) and primary-care physician parameters (physician age, gender, clinic size and cost) that influence adherence, but little data exists from large population studies regarding the interaction of these individual factors. Methods: We performed a historical cohort study of 44,318 Israeli women age 56–74 using data captured from electronic medical records of a large Israeli health maintenance organization. Univariate analysis was used to examine the association between each factor and adherence (none, partial or full) with screening recommendations between 2008–2014. Multivariate analysis was used to examine the significance of these factors in combination, using binary and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among 44,318 women, 42%, 43% and 15% were fully, partially and non-adherent to screening recommendations, respectively. Factors associated with inferior adherence identified in our population included: smoking, obesity, low body weight, low socio-economic status, depression, diabetes mellitus and infrequent physician visits, while, women with ischemic heart disease, female physicians, physicians between the ages of 40 and 60, and medium-sized clinics were associated with higher screening rates. Most factors remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Both individual and primary-care physician factors contribute to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. Strategies to improve adherence and address disparities in mammography utilization will need to address these factors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Evans, Simon Robin
It was recently proposed that long-term population studies be exempted from the expectation that authors publicly archive the primary data underlying published articles. Such studies are valuable to many areas of ecological and evolutionary biological research, and multiple risks to their viability were anticipated as a result of public data archiving (PDA), ultimately all stemming from independent reuse of archived data. However, empirical assessment was missing, making it difficult to determine whether such fears are realistic. I addressed this by surveying data packages from long-term population studies archived in the Dryad Digital Repository. I found no evidence that PDA results in reuse of data by independent parties, suggesting the purported costs of PDA for long-term population studies have been overstated. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The complete chloroplast genome of Primulina and two novel strategies for development of high polymorphic loci for population genetic and phylogenetic studies.
by Chao Feng, Meizhen Xu, Chen Feng, von Wettberg, Eric J. B., Ming Kang
Background: Primulina Hance is an emerging model for studying evolutionary divergence, adaptation and speciation of the karst flora. However, phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been resolved due to low variation detected in the cpDNA regions. Chloroplast genomes can provide important information for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques greatly facilitate sequencing whole chloroplast genomes for multiple individuals. Consequently, novel strategies for development of highly polymorphic loci for population genetic and phylogenetic studies based on NGS data are needed. Methods: For development of high polymorphic loci for population genetic and phylogenetic studies, two novel strategies are proposed here. The first protocol develops lineage-specific highly variable markers from the true high variation regions (Con_Seas) across whole cp genomes, instead of traditional noncoding regions. The pipeline has been integrated into a single perl script, and named "Con_Sea_Identification_and_PIC_Calculation". The second method assembles chloroplast fragments (poTs) and sub-super-marker (CpContigs) through our "SACRing" pipeline. This approach can fundamentally alter the strategies used in phylogenetic and population genetic studies based on cp markers, facilitating a transition from traditional Sanger sequencing to RAD-Seq. Both of these scripts are available at https://github.com/scbgfengchao/. Results: Three complete Primulina chloroplast genomes were assembled from genome survey data, and then two novel strategies were developed to yield highly polymorphic markers. For experimental evaluation of the first protocol, a set of Primulina species were used for PCR amplification. The results showed that these newly developed markers are more variable than traditional ones, and seem to be a better choice for phylogenetic and population studies in Primulina. The second method was also successfully applied in population genetic studies of 21 individuals from three natural populations of Primulina. Conclusions: These two novel strategies may provide a pathway for similar research in other non-model species. The newly developed high polymorphic loci in this study will promote further the phylogenetic and population genetic studies in Primulina and other genera of the family Gesneriaceae. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Gagete, Elaine, dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari, de Pontes, Leticia Gomes, Castro, Fábio Morato
Background: The incidence of anaphylaxis is increasing in several parts of the world; thus, determining the prevalence of the disease in a given region is important to understand the factors involved and to promote measures to avoid this type of allergic reaction. Aiming this objective, we validated an instrument for a populationbasedstudy that assesses the prevalence of anaphylaxis in the Brazilian population. Methods: A questionnaire was generated in two variants - one for subjects seven years old or above (Group A) and another for children who were up to six years, 11 months and 29 days (Group B). The instrument was administered to patients with and without anaphylaxis. By allocating points, a score was calculated to differentiate subjects with and without the disease. After validation, the questionnaire was applied in the city of Botucatu (São Paulo state, Brazil), by randomly selecting houses and inviting residents to answer the questionnaire. Results: The questionnaire was reliable for identifying subjects with and without anaphylaxis in both groups, with a specificity and sensitivity above 90%. The prevalence of anaphylaxis in the pilot survey was 6.2% in Group A, however the evaluation was compromised in Group B by the low number of children below seven years of age due to random sampling of residences. Discussion: The prevalence of anaphylaxis in our pilot test (6.2%) was similar to major epidemiological surveys from several parts of the world, showing that anaphylaxis is not a rare disease. The instrument of the present work was suitable for this epidemiological survey and might be a good option for studying anaphylaxis in other populations.Conclusion: This instrument might be of particular value in places where researchers cannot access medical records to conduct similar epidemiological studies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ukeles, Jacob
The article offers the author's perspective on Jewish community population studies based on his 35-year experiences since 1989 when he undertook the first scientific study of the Jewish population in New York. Topics include the challenges to the quality of these studies, the need to list separately community studies that do not use a probability sample on the Berman Jewish Databank site, and the need for a greater investment on the use of these studies in community decision-making.
Prevalence of sarcopenia in the world: a systematic review and meta- analysis of general population studies.
by Shafiee, Gita, Keshtkar, Abbasali, Soltani, Akbar, Ahadi, Zeinab, Larijani, Bagher, Heshmat, Ramin
Background: Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in muscle mass and function, is one of the most important health problems in elderly with a high rate of adverse outcomes. However, several studies have investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in the world, the results have been inconsistent. The current systematic review and meta- analysis study was conducted to estimate the overall prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders in different regions of the world. Methods: Electronic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS and Web of Science were searched between January 2009 and December 2016. The population- based studies that reported the prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy adults aged ≥ 60 years using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS) and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definitions, were selected. According to these consensual definitions, sarcopenia was defined by presence of low muscle mass (adjusted appendicular muscle mass for height) and muscle strength (handgrip strength) or physical performance (the usual gait speed). The random effect model was used for estimation the prevalence of sarcopenia. The sex-specific prevalence of sarcopenia and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the Binomial Exact Method. Heterogeneity was assessed by subgroup analysis. Results: Thirty- five articles met our inclusion criteria, with a total of 58404 individuals. The overall estimates of prevalence was 10% (95% CI: 8-12%) in men and 10% (95% CI: 8-13%) in women, respectively. The prevalence was higher among non- Asian than Asian individuals in both genders especially, when the Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) was used to measure muscle mass (19% vs 10% in men; 20% vs 11% in women). Conclusion: Despite the differences encountered between the studies, regarding diagnostic tools used to measure of muscle mass and different regions of the world for estimating parameters of sarcopenia, present systematic review revealed that a substantial proportion of the old people has sarcopenia, even in healthy populations. However, sarcopenia is as a consequence of the aging progress, early diagnosis can prevent some adverse outcomes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]