by BROOKS, RICHARD R., LU YU, YU FU, HAMBOLU, OLUWAKEMI, GAYNARD, JOHN, OWONO, JULIE, YEPMOU, ARCHIPPE, BLANC, FELIX
The article discusses an Internet freedom project sponsored by the U.S. State Department's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in West Africa. Topics include the use of Internet censorship by repressive governments in West Africa, the development of peer-to-peer proxies by the project, and the significance of domain naming systems (DNS) names for the proxy access system.
by Ogunlesi, Ayodeji Opeyemi, Bokana, Koye Gerry
This study empirically examined the long- and short-run dynamics of agricultural productivity in 37 selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 1990 and 2016 employing the recent Panel Auto Regressive Distributed Lag model. The model estimate revealed a cointegrating but no short-run significant relationship between agricultural output and the independent variables. The Cobb-Douglass production function thus supports long-run but not short-run estimation of agricultural production in this region during the reviewed period. The study found that labour and the real exchange rate have a positive and significant long-run influence on agricultural productivity while capital, degree of openness and per-capita income exhibit a negative but significant relationship with such productivity. The negative and significant Error Correction Term value showed that all the variables move towards long-run stability at a slow annual speed of adjustment of 29.2%; the influence of the independent variables thus enhances agricultural productivity in the long run. Based on these findings, the formulation and implementation of effective macroeconomic policies are recommended to stabilize the exchange rate, encourage exports, optimally utilize capital, and enhance infrastructure provision with a view to boosting agricultural productivity to stimulate economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Senadza, Bernardin, Fiagbe, Agbemavor Korsi, Quartey, Peter
Purpose: This paper examines the effect of external debt on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in view of an upsurge in the level of external debt in many countries on the continent. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses annual data for 39 SSA countries from 1990 to 2013 and employs the System Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM) estimation technique. Findings: The paper finds that external debt negatively affects economic growth in SSA. Categorization of countries based on per capita income however does not affect the external debt-growth nexus, neither does there exist a non-linear relationship between external debt and economic growth. Research limitations/implications: The finding of a negative relationship between external debt and growth does not necessarily imply that SSA countries should cut back on foreign borrowing in other to boost growth. Rather, given the huge savings gaps in some of the countries, what governments in SSA must do is to ensure that the foreign loans are invested in projects that would eventually generate enough returns to amortize the debt. Originality/value: Not only does the present paper extend to more recent data but we also apply one of the frontier econometric techniques - the system GMM approach - to unravel the external debt-economic growth dynamics in SSA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Oluwatayo, Isaac B., Ojo, Ayodeji O.
Economic growth and poverty reduction now take the centre stage in most global policy discourse. This is coming at a time that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are fast gaining global relevance. Africa has witnessed the highest but non-inclusive level of growth in the last decade because the continent still grapples with high unemployment rate especially among the youths. This paper therefore examines some drivers of and constraints to growth and poverty reduction in Africa. The paper focused on Africa by using secondary data sourced from different such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Transparency International (TI), Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) reports and Annual Abstract of Statistics. Analytical methods employed were mainly descriptive statistics and comparative statistics. Findings showed that economic growth recorded in the continent is a 'jobless' one advancing inequality and poverty. More so, 75 percent of countries with low human development are in Africa with the continent's consistent economic growth imparting insignificantly on the livelihoods of the people. In fact, 27 out of 54 African countries were reported to have GDP of less than $USD 2000 per capita. GDP growth in sub-Saharan Africa was estimated at 4.9 percent in 2013 and this increased to 5.3 percent in 2014 and further estimated to rise to 5.5 percent in 2015. The fight against inequality, poverty and unemployment is tantamount to aiming a moving target. Youth unemployment remains a component of Africa's growth owing to persistent low productivity and underemployment in the informal sector. The resultant implication of this is manifested through persistent inequality, poverty, armed conflict and unchecked migration of young people to industrialised nations in search of the non-existing livelihood opportunities. This paper therefore recommends increased and monitored investments in critical infrastructural facilities. There is a need for multilevel and multinational partnership in the fight against corruption and social conflict to attract foreign direct investment. Investment in social security programmes will also assist the poor and vulnerable people in the continent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by De Wet, Nicole, Somefun, Oluwaseyi, Rambau, Ndivhuwo
Background: Crime and violence causes massive disruptions to the health, survival and development of populations. In South Africa, incredibly high rates of crime and violence are noted. The country also has a very large youth population whose health, survival and development are key to economic growth. Among other efforts to encourage healthy youth development and the promotion of social activities such as sports, youth groups, choirs and so forth. This study examines the relationship between perceived community safety and the uptake of social activities among youth in South Africa. Data and methods: This paper uses data from the National Youth Lifestyle Survey (2008) with an unweighted sample of 4,391 youth (age12-22 years old). Using chi-square and logistic regression analysis the association between perceived community safety and social activity participation are tested. Findings: The results indicate that youth participation in social activities in South Africa is high (55% of males and 45% of females). Among males, the most prominent activity is sports (51.8%), while for females there is high participation in choir and singing groups (55.68%). More than 50% of males perceive their communities as risky while less than half of females feel the same. Male youth are more likely to participate in social activities if they perceive their communities as risky (OR = 1.04). Females (OR = 0.83), youth have a negative view of their future (OR = 0.43) are less likely to participate in social activities. Conclusions: There exists an association between youth’s perception of community safety and their participation in social activities. Whether sports and groups are protective or enabling environments for youth from unsafe communities is moot. More in-depth research is needed on why youth participate in these clubs and groups to truly understand the role of social activities in South African societies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Dodo, Mahamat K.
The majority of African countries have passed the threshold of fifty years of Independence. Yet, the majority of them, save the Republic of South Africa, and a few ones here and there, are still struggling to develop the basic social and physical structures and infrastructures that can put them on the path of development and modernity. Against this backdrop, countless development theories and arguments have been proposed about why Africa is not developed and still is poor despite being the second largest continent and by far one of the richest ones there is. As a result, development has become an elusive quest and challenge for generations of African leaders and their frustrated populations. This paper is set to explore why Africa is not developing and shed light on other arguments that are overlooked when analyzing or debating why African countries are lagging behind in their socio-economic development quest. The paper intends to answer those questions in an interdisciplinary manner and touches upon social, cultural, religious, political, economical, and international relations factors. For, to understand Africa's economic problems, one has got to go beyond the mere economic indicators such as the GDP and GNP and bring to the fore other non-economic factors that are hampering Africa's development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Childhood traumas as a risk factor for HIV-risk behaviours amongst young women and men living in urban informal settlements in South Africa: A cross-sectional study.
by Gibbs, Andrew, Dunkle, Kristin, Washington, Laura, Willan, Samantha, Shai, Nwabisa, Jewkes, Rachel
Childhood traumas, in the form of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect, are globally widespread and highly prevalent, and associated with a range of subsequent poor health outcomes. This study sought to understand the relationship between physical, sexual and emotional childhood abuse and subsequent HIV-risk behaviours amongst young people (18–30) living in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa. Data came from self-completed questionnaires amongst 680 women and 677 men comprising the baseline of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention trial. Men and women were analysed separately. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between six HIV-risk behaviours and four measures of trauma: the form of trauma, the severity of each trauma, the range of traumas, and overall severity of childhood trauma. Childhood traumas were incredibly prevalent in this population. All childhood traumas were associated with a range of HIV-risk behaviours. This was for the ever/never trauma, as well as the severity of each type of trauma, the range of trauma, and overall severity of childhood trauma. Despite the wider harsh contexts of urban informal settlements, childhood traumas still play a significant role in shaping subsequent HIV-risk behaviours amongst young people. Interventions to reduce childhood traumas for populations in informal settlements need to be developed. In addition, trauma focused therapies need to be considered as part of wider HIV-prevention interventions for young adults. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Morgan, Pippa
Conventional studies of Chinese aid to Africa typically neglect China's six decades of donor experience, and de-emphasize the distinct historical relationships that China holds with African countries and the ideological and geopolitical contexts in which these relations were built. Applying the framework of relationality that highlights the role of social relationships in defining rational actions, I provide an alternative perspective on Chinese aid by analyzing the ideological and Cold War dynamics that shaped China's early Mao era aid allocation and the impact of these initial ties on contemporary Chinese policymakers' choices about where to direct Chinese aid. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Assessing Nature Conservation and Tourism Development Effectiveness towards Local Economic Development in South Africa: Nuanced by the Perceptions of Local Communities?
by Ezeuduji, Ikechukwu .O., Mdiniso, Joyce M., Nzama, Antonia Thandi
Tourism development around protected areas is perceived a major development opportunity for rural sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted in South Africa to investigate how local communities living around a nature reserve, uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park (a World Heritage Site) in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, evaluate the effectiveness of nature conservation and tourism development towards their local economy. Quantitative data were collected using a structured respondent-completed questionnaire from simple-randomly selected respondents. Descriptive and bivariate data analyses yielded information used to address research objective. Local community members who were surveyed declare that the 'development strategy' seems to be the main issue adversely affecting community participation in conservation practices and tourism development around uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park. It is therefore recommended that nature conservation and tourism development strategies in rural South Africa align with the sustainable rural development critical success factors outlined in this paper. This will support optimising local economic development successes, especially in rural sub-Saharan Africa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Mongale, Itumeleng Pleasure, Mashamaite, Tumelo, Khoza, Nyiko
The South African economy is characterised by low levels of household savings which play a very crucial role in stimulating sustained economic growth. At the same time consumers borrow in order to consume. The paper intends to investigate the impact of household savings and financing on economic growth in South Africa. The study is envisaged to assist monetary authorities and policy makers to mitigate this problem. An annual time series data covering the period from 1980 to 2014 is analysed by means of the Vector Error Correction Model approach. The Johansen Cointegration test results confirmed the existence of a long run relationship amongst variables under investigations. Moreover, the results suggest that financing, namely; credit extensions and leasing finance have positive relationships with the country's economic growth while household savings indicate a negative relationship with growth. That being the case, the recommendation is that since it has been established by other studies that a rapid increase in credit is not commonly perceived to be one of the leading indicators of financial instability, policymakers are advised to consider imposing stringent credit control measures so that the demand for financing can be kept under control. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND ITS EFFECT ON HOUSEHOLD POVERTY IN EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.
by Ebenezer, Megbowon, Abbyssinia, Mushunje
The recently adopted 2030 SDGs shows the commitment of government of countries to reducing all forms of poverty among its citizens. Livelihoods and livelihood diversification have been identified as a tool in fighting poverty. However, relevance of livelihood diversification is an environment with robust social security programme like South Africa is unknown. The study utilized information obtained from the annual General Household Survey of South Africa carried out in 2014. Information which include demographic characteristics of households and individuals, education, health, access to public assets, ownership of private assets, household welfare, and household livelihoods among others were obtained using a structured questionnaire. A total number of 3033 households sampled from the province using a multi-stage design with probability proportionate to size was used in the study. Data were analysed using a modified Multidimensional Poverty Index which is the most recent approach to poverty assessment, descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. The result of descriptive statistics shows that households in the province are not diversified (diversification is proxy by having other income sources), only 5.41 percent of the households have more than one sources of income. About 53 percent of diversified households are located in the urban area of the province. The descriptive statistics result also show that majority of households who are considered poor or severely poor have heads with low educational attainment and they are located in the rural area of the province. The result of Tobit regression shows that livelihood diversification is not significant in influencing household poverty in the Province. Other socioeconomic characteristics significant in influencing poverty are characteristics of head which include gender, education and employment status, access to electricity, engagement in agriculture, total income, asset score and geographical location. This study suggest among others things the need for the provincial government to initiate policies that will stimulate household economic investment, like further linking of government transfers to household investment grant. Also, there is a need for the provincial government to strengthen policies that promote affordable and accessible education, access to electricity for the poor, asset accumulation, engagement in home stead agriculture, and intensification of poverty reduction programmes in the rural areas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Nkem, Linus, Tengeh, Robertson K.
While immigrants are at liberty to start self-help financial associations (referred to as stokvels in South Africa) to cater for their unfufilled need for capital, the benefits of this laudable effort are seldom maximised due to a number of shortcomings. Aim: This paper seeks to ascertain the operational obstacles that immigrant-run stokvels face and to suggest solutions accordingly. Method: Aiming to complement each other, quantitative and qualitative research approaches were utilised to conduct this study. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and one-on-one in-depth interviews. Purposive sampling technique was employed to reach the 123 participants who responded to the survey questionnaire and the 10 that took part in oneon- one in-depth interviews. Results: The typical immigrant African entrepreneur who participates in a stokvel, is a married male between ages of 30 and 46, and is fairly educated. While most of the respondents conceded that their stokvels faced operational problems, they also noted that the default on loan repayment and unskilled personnel on the loan management team were the issues of a greater concern. Hence, providing training and practical management skills becomes paramount to the smooth functioning of these stokvels. Uniqueness and implications: Though presumed to be a possible source of finance for immigrant-owned businesses, most studies have not explored the operational challenges that stokvels in South Africa face. The lessons drawn from this study may be of benefit to the respondents, policy-makers and academics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The Impact of High Performance Work Practices on Project Performance. A Case Study of Construction Companies in South Africa.
by Chapano, Munodani, Iwu, Chux Gervase, Twum-Darko, Michael
A vast amount of research advocates that a tight link exits between high performance work practices (HPWPs) and organisational performance. Nonetheless, a detailed study indicating which of these practices offers significant performance in relation to multi-project environments is still lacking. Importantly, project performance is a measure of success in multi-project environments evident in construction firms. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of HPWPs' bundles namely: recruitment and selection (RS), training and development (TD), performance appraisal (PA) and compensation system (CS) on project performance in the construction multi-project companies in Cape Town, South Africa. In this study, perceptual data was obtained using a questionnaire survey of 63 participants working as project team members and administrative staff respectively in select construction companies in Cape Town, South Africa. Stratified and convenience sampling techniques were used to selected the participants. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of SPSS, version 24.The statistical results show that out of the four HPWPs, only CS has a significant association with project performance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Jury, Mark R.
Observed and simulated climate trends across South Africa in the period 1980-2014 are studied. Observed CRU3/CAMS (Climate Research Unit v3 / Climate Analysis and Monitoring System) air temperatures have increased by 0.02°C·yr-1 while NOAA/SODA sea temperatures have risen by 0.03°C·yr-1 in the Agulhas Current. A poleward expansion of the South Atlantic high in NCEP2/MERRA (National Center for Environmental Prediction v2 / Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) has produced a trend toward south-easterly flow which contributes to a moist-east/dry-west pattern. Observed CHIRPS2 rainfall and NDVI vegetation fraction show no appreciable trend except near Cape Town where drier conditions in the period 1980-2014 correspond with enhanced coastal upwelling. CMIP5 model projections for rainfall up to 2050 reflect drying, except in the eastern coastal plains. While inter-annual fluctuations of South African rainfall overshadow linear trends, temperature increases account for 32% of observed variance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Democratic Consolidation and Good Governance in Africa: Assessing the Incidences of Poverty and Corruption in Four African States.
by Azeez, Ademola
There are exciting - yet daunting - times to assess democratic countries in Africa. After years of democratic experiment and its familiar contours, the democratic revolutions of the last decades have challenged observers to think anew about the conditions creating and sustaining democracy. Paradoxically, even as countries that have been ruled for over a decade with democratic institutions, the political-economic challenges epitomized by poverty and corruption has put their democracy on the radii of assess ment. Rather than being assuaged, it has accentuated disloyalty, disunity and insurgency against the states. With countries like Zambia, Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria in focus, the democratization in Africa has been illusory than fundamental. The transition had been more of patrimonialism and confrontational than the promise of abasement of poverty and institutional corruption. With extensive review of secondary data and statistical reports from international organizations, the paper assesses the incidences of corruption and poverty in these countries through a Simple Discriminant Analysis (with Linear Regression, Correlation Co-efficient and co-efficient of determination). It helps to appreciate the sensibility of the people to their democratic institutions and framework of representative participation in governance. The paper concludes that the rising incidences of militancy and insurgency against the state are not unconnected to democratically induced poverty and public sector corruption in African countries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Phylodynamics and evolutionary epidemiology of African swine fever p72-CVR genes in Eurasia and Africa.
by Alkhamis, Moh A., Gallardo, Carmina, Jurado, Cristina, Soler, Alejandro, Arias, Marisa, Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M.
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex infectious disease of swine that constitutes devastating impacts on animal health and the world economy. Here, we investigated the evolutionary epidemiology of ASF virus (ASFV) in Eurasia and Africa using the concatenated gene sequences of the viral protein 72 and the central variable region of isolates collected between 1960 and 2015. We used Bayesian phylodynamic models to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus, to identify virus population demographics and to quantify dispersal patterns between host species. Results suggest that ASFV exhibited a significantly high evolutionary rate and population growth through time since its divergence in the 18th century from East Africa, with no signs of decline till recent years. This increase corresponds to the growing pig trade activities between continents during the 19th century, and may be attributed to an evolutionary drift that resulted from either continuous circulation or maintenance of the virus within Africa and Eurasia. Furthermore, results implicate wild suids as the ancestral host species (root state posterior probability = 0.87) for ASFV in the early 1700s in Africa. Moreover, results indicate the transmission cycle between wild suids and pigs is an important cycle for ASFV spread and maintenance in pig populations, while ticks are an important natural reservoir that can facilitate ASFV spread and maintenance in wild swine populations. We illustrated the prospects of phylodynamic methods in improving risk-based surveillance, support of effective animal health policies, and epidemic preparedness in countries at high risk of ASFV incursion. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Fotso‐Nguemo, Thierry C., Chamani, Roméo, Yepdo, Zéphirin D., Sonkoué, Denis, Matsaguim, Cédric N., Vondou, Derbetini A., Tanessong, Roméo S.
In this study, the projections of daily rainfall from an ensemble mean of 20 global climate models (GCMs) are used to examine projected trends in heavy rainfall distribution over Central Africa (CA), under the representative concentration pathway 8.5. For this purpose, two analyses periods of 40‐years have been selected (2006–2045 and 2056–2095) to compute trends in the 90th and 99th percentiles of the daily rainfall distributions. We found that large increase trend is mostly found in the 99th percentile of rainfall events, over southern Chad, northern Cameroon, northern Zambia, and in the Great Lakes Area. This can be attributed to the increase of moisture convergence intensified by the presence of the Congo Basin rainforest. It is also shown that the largest number of GCMs with a trend of the same sign as the average trend is observed over the above regions. It is thus clear that the projected increase trends in heavy rainfall events may further worse floods which are real problems in the CA countries. Therefore, strong subregional policies are needed to help design effective adaptation and mitigation measures for the region's countries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Edwin, Ahwoareno Eterigho
Democratic development and legitimacy crises in Africa have become persistent, endemic and cyclical. In fact, the failure of the colonialists to merge the different ethnic nationalities in Africa into a united political entity no doubt accounts for the fragile and muddy foundations of political and social failure facing the African continent in the process of nation-building and democratic consolidation. Indeed, Africa has remained a violent ridden continent in the pyscho-political map of the world in the sense that the continent is stereotypically perceived as synonymous with every political negativity known in the world. Also, in real terms, poverty, diseases, civil disturbances, revolt, insurgence, guerrilla warfare, domestic rebellion and more recently, terrorism have been defining features of Africa and these have been exacerbated by the crisis of legitimacy and of nation-building. regretfully, the wave of democracy which was expected to neutralise the above features has not been able to do so. Rather, the wave of democracy has brought with it rising tide of crisis characterised by electoral violence in various magnitudes as witnessed in Congo 2006; Nigeria 2007, 2011; Kenya 2008; Ivory Coast 2012; among others. It is against this backdrop that this paper examines the major explanations for legitimacy crises in Africa, and argues that the failure of most African states to establish democratic societies through free, fair, and credible election and party politics resulted in the resurgence in primordial allegiance, conflict, rebellion, terrorism, insurgency and legitimacy crises across the African continent. The article therefore, concludes that various attempt at nation building in Africa through democratic consolidation have not achieved the desired result. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by HALL, SHANNON
The article offers information on the breakup of African continent. Topics discussed include the effort of geoscientist Ellen Knappe to collect data from global positioning system (GPS) antenna on crust movement, the East African Rift System, and geological understanding of how rifts broke Pangaea. Comments from geophysicist Katie Keranen are also presented.
by Cameron, Edwin
This is the text of the High Court of Australia's annual lecture delivered at the High Court of Australia on 11 October 2017. The lecture critiques ‘legalism’, the denial of personal choice or value judgment in adjudication. It discusses the impact of legalism in apartheid South Africa and Australia, and the break with legalism effected by South Africa's new Constitution. The lecture is reproduced here with the kind permission of its organiser, Justice James Edelman. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by MacWilliam, Scott
This essay examines the proposition that development, which has stalled since Independence in many African countries, can be restarted by the restoration of colonial governance. This form of rule, in place from the end of the 19th until the middle of the last century, was supposedly responsible for major improvements in a range of living conditions for colonial populations. The end of colonial governance, it is alleged, led to corruption and impoverishment for many people. Here it is argued that, as offensive as many may find the claim that colonial rule was beneficial for subject peoples, the purpose of the proposition should receive attention. The call for the return of colonial governance is placed within a wider, more influential series of proposals for how to bring development at a moment of uncertainty through a range of governance reforms. These proposals struggle with the politics of capitalist development, particularly the fraught relationship between development and democracy. The virtue of the call for the return of colonial governance is that it at least makes clear the increasingly prevalent assertion that democracy should be a lower priority than development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Potts, Richard, Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Tyler Faith, J., Tryon, Christian A., Brooks, Alison S., Yellen, John E., Deino, Alan L., Kinyanjui, Rahab, Clark, Jennifer B., Haradon, Catherine M., Levin, Naomi E., Meijer, Hanneke J. M., Veatch, Elizabeth G., Bernhart Owen, R., Renaut, Robin W.
Development of the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) before 300,000 years ago raises the question of how environmental change influenced the evolution of behaviors characteristic of early Homo sapiens. We used temporally well-constrained sedimentological and paleoenvironmental data to investigate environmental dynamics before and after the appearance of the early MSA in the Olorgesailie basin, Kenya. In contrast to the Acheulean archeological record in the same basin, MSA sites are associated with a markedly different faunal community, more pronounced erosion-deposition cycles, tectonic activity, and enhanced wet-dry variability. Aspects of Acheulean technology in this region imply that, as early as 615,000 years ago, greater stone material selectivity and wider resource procurement coincided with an increased pace of land-lake fluctuation, potentially anticipating the adaptability of MSA hominins. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Kintoki, Alain Nzuzi
Despite the growing interest in e-agriculture research in South Africa, academic studies have not sufficiently and deeply investigated the current e-agriculture research trends in the South African context. It is unclear how primary e-agriculture research in South Africa will aid both current and future generations to create new and better ways to transform agricultural development using this modern technology. This study sought to determine the current status of e-agriculture research in the South African context. A systematic literature review was used to gather and analyze data. The results indicate that 17 papers (26.5%) were published during the first two years (2010-2011) and 28 papers (43.7%) during the last two years (2014-2015). The results of the study further indicate that the use of satellite enhancing agriculture (14 papers, 21.8%) was the most prominent e-agriculture research area in South Africa (27 papers, 23.6%). The results of this study show that information mapping was the most used research method by researchers in their studies (30 papers, 46.8%). The results of the study helped to understand the importance of enhancing research capability and socio-economic transformation of farmworkers and farmers through enhanced communication of agriculture research knowledge in the area of agricultural informatics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ncanywa, Thobeka, Mongale, Itumeleng P., Mphela, Miglas P.
Investment activities can promote technical progress through the introduction of new technology and can reduce poverty by creating increased rates of employment. In the long run, through the production process, investment activities can create new capital goods. Investment ensures growing capital stock in the country because investing in fixed capital stock can accelerate the economic growth. Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) is commonly known as the net investment, refers to the total fixed amount of capital accumulated. This paper seeks to examine the determinants of investment activity in South Africa. It uses the Johansen Cointegration and Vector Error Correction model; and, it finds the long- and short-run relationship on the time series data. It establishes that there is positive relationship between economic growth, interest rate, inflation and investment. However, taxation and investment are negatively related. This indicates that investment activity can be explained by tax, economic growth, interest rates and inflation. The paper recommends low taxation, growing economy, increasing availability of credit to boost investment activity in South Africa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]