Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the Veterans Administration population: development and validation of an algorithm for NAFLD using automated data.
by Husain, N., Blais, P., Kramer, J., Kowalkowski, M., Richardson, P., El‐Serag, H. B., Kanwal, F.
Background In practice, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is diagnosed based on elevated liver enzymes and confirmatory liver biopsy or abdominal imaging. Neither method is feasible in identifying individuals with NAFLD in a large-scale healthcare system. Aim To develop and validate an algorithm to identify patients with NAFLD using automated data. Methods Using the Veterans Administration Corporate Data Warehouse, we identified patients who had persistent ALT elevation (≥2 values ≥40 IU/mL ≥6 months apart) and did not have evidence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C or excessive alcohol use. We conducted a structured chart review of 450 patients classified as NAFLD and 150 patients who were classified as non-NAFLD by the database algorithm, and subsequently refined the database algorithm. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) for the initial database definition of NAFLD were 78.4% (95% CI: 70.0-86.8%), 74.5% (95% CI: 68.1-80.9%), 64.1% (95% CI: 56.4-71.7%) and 85.6% (95% CI: 79.4-91.8%), respectively. Reclassifying patients as having NAFLD if they had two elevated ALTs that were at least 6 months apart but within 2 years of each other, increased the specificity and PPV of the algorithm to 92.4% (95% CI: 88.8-96.0%) and 80.8% (95% CI: 72.5-89.0%), respectively. However, the sensitivity and NPV decreased to 55.0% (95% CI: 46.1-63.9%) and 78.0% (95% CI: 72.1-83.8%), respectively. Conclusions Predictive algorithms using automated data can be used to identify patients with NAFLD, determine prevalence of NAFLD at the system-wide level, and may help select a target population for future clinical studies in veterans with NAFLD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Egharevba, Matthew
The treatise on demography, democratic governance and development issue is an inclusive one that emphasizes the need to create a social world for promoting people's quality of life. Today, the measurement of development as succinctly depicted by the 2000 to 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Human Development Index (HDI) goes beyond the use of economic growth, per capita income, to include how the benefits of that growth and income is widely distributed to expand the people's choice and capability to raise levels of living and enhance material well-being. The paper opines that the challenge of development in Nigeria is not its population size and/or resource endowments, but poor resource management and politicization of development agendas by the 'leadership' and its inability to holistically incorporate population issues and dynamics such as reproductive healthcare, education and employment creation in its development strategies targeted at poverty reduction. As an exploratory study, the paper utilized secondary sources of data collection which include materials from international development institutions such as the UNDP, World Bank, government reports, journals and textbooks in gathering information for the study. The data was examined using the political economy theory of development, the elite theory and content analysis tool to establish the connection among population, development and democratic governance. The paper's discussion and findings indicate that the political leaders and policy makers have consistently failed to generate and adopt valid/reliable demographic data upon which appropriate policy interventions are framed to address human centred development objectives. The paper showed that Nigeria's socioeconommic development policies are not all inclusive, just, equitable, pro-poor, and one that empower the people with human centred rights to access basic life sustaining goods such as food, shelter, protection, health, and better education that will enhance their material well-being and self esteem. The paper conclude with the statement that the leadership must exercise the political will to invest massively in human capital development for Nigeria to achieve the status of a democratic developmental state and deliver the benefits of demographic dividend. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Desarrollo poblacional de Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) en cultivos de manzano de San Carlos, Mendoza, Argentina.
by Lopez Garcia, Guillermo P.
The front cover of the journal is presented along with the issue's editors and information on subscriptions and table of contents which mentions topics such as family planning, child health in rural India and infectious diseases.
Lokálny demografický vývoj na Slovensku: percepcia, spoloĉenské implikácie a interdisciplinárne výzvy.
by Bleha, Branislav
Local Population Development in Slovakia: Perception, Social Implications and Interdisciplinary Prospects. Rapid demographical changes and ageing belong to the essential features of the transformation in post-communist countries. This issue was analysed by plenty of studies and publications characterised by a general as well as detail character. Thus, we know quite enough about the demographic essence of these changes, however, the social, macro-economical and social consequences and other wider aspects have been rarely analysed in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic as well as in other Central European countries. There is a scarcity of research on wide public perception of population development. Moreover, we have not found any study about the perception of population development by local authorities and central governments in these countries. Our study tries to fill this gap. It represents a pilot research on how the Slovak local selfgovernment authorities (mayors) perceive demographical changes. They have been asked if they understand population ageing, if they realize what factors influence it, what social consequences the demographical development brings, and if they have any population strategies and forecasts for their own municipalities. Since the spatial differentiation is very peculiar with regard to the demographic processes, we tried to select different answers of mayors by linking them with several delimited regional types of municipalities and settlements. In addition to this geographical view, we discuss the need for a comprehensive approach in this field linking together demographical, geographical and sociological methods. Sociológia 2011, Vol. 43 (No. 4: 362-390) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Cassen, Robert
Robert Cassen, professor at the Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics, seeks in this paper to explain the role of population growth in economic development and environmental change. Professor Cassen argues that the role of population is best understood as a long-term underlying factor which influences the scale and composition of demand for goods, services and resources, as well as the supply of labor. How demands are met, and how useful more labor is, are functions of innumerable influences, including the economy, technology, markets (or lack of markets), social structure and social conditions, property rights, politics, law and institutions. One can point to aspects of development that are strongly population driven, and disentangle others which are not, but where population has a significant influence. Professor Cassen concentrates on such an approach, illustrating the general case from the Indian experience. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article discusses the population, development, and human rights issues at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to ensure a person's healthy and dignified life. It states that the program increased sexual and reproductive health and reduced gender gaps in education which led to improved living standards and opportunities, and improved well-being and health of people. It also notes the significance of the program on poverty reduction and economic development.
by Peng Xizhe, Guo Xiuyun, Han Xuehui
This study analyses the future goals of population development in Shanghai from the viewpoint of population carrying capacity and ecological footprint. The population carrying capacity is one of the fundamental factors researchers and policy-makers need to take into account in managing and planning the development of a country or a region. This study focuses on the case of Shanghai, based on previous ecological footprint analysis, and builds a comprehensive index evaluation model. By applying basic principles of multi-goal decision-making analysis and operating methods of system dynamics, it calculates population carrying capacity corresponding to different standards that resource-economic factors can support. It further explores issues related to population change in the metropolis and relevant policy measures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Presents an overview of a population-development program implementation in Malaysia. Extent of the influence of integrational and community-support variables on the efficacy of the program; Overview of family planning and other socioeconomic services; Factors influencing the development of the program; Policy implications for population development.
Application of Fuzzy Borda Combination Evaluation in Subjective and Objective Evaluation Methods in Comprehensive Evaluation of Population Development.
by Jiajia Yu, Hongqi Ma, Yuqi Han
by Yang Xuefeng, Chu Maoguang
The characteristic of the population is grey in nature. Through the establishment of dynamic GM(1,1) model for the next decade, the paper has carried out the prediction of the total population, male and female population of Hubei, providing a reference for the formulation of corresponding population policy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Utkovski, Zoran, Pradier, Melanie F., Stojkoski, Viktor, Perez-Cruz, Fernando, Kocarev, Ljupco
Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. It resides on the premise of hidden capabilities—fundamental endowments underlying the productive structure. In general, measuring the capabilities behind economic complexity directly is difficult, and indirect measures have been suggested which exploit the fact that the presence of the capabilities is expressed in a country’s mix of products. We complement these studies by introducing a probabilistic framework which leverages Bayesian non-parametric techniques to extract the dominant features behind the comparative advantage in exported products. Based on economic evidence and trade data, we place a restricted Indian Buffet Process on the distribution of countries’ capability endowment, appealing to a culinary metaphor to model the process of capability acquisition. The approach comes with a unique level of interpretability, as it produces a concise and economically plausible description of the instantiated capabilities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by LUCIAN, SALA ADRIAN
Romania's population is undergoing a decline in demographic figures and a shift in the population structure, as older generations tend to retire moving to the top part of the age pyramid. This types of transitions are followed by a decrease in economic growth, as a result of a shrinking workforce, lower productivity levels, a more moderate savings rate, and smaller investments. Looking at the labor market in Romania, it is apparent that it is in decline, with a considerable portion of the population approaching retirement, and a lack of workers to take their place. But this reality has not caught up yet with the Romanian economy that is growing at a constant pace. To better understand this phenomenon, a closer look at the labor force is in order using the employment to population ratio, which helps in explaining how the labor force contributes to constant economic growth. The research method is statistical with the aim of determining the changes over time of the employment to population ratio, in relationship to the total population and GDP growth. The expected results are that economic growth is maintained and encouraged by a steady working group of the population that in time has become more proficient and productive thus leading to a constant increase in GDP. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
INTERREGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATION INCOMES IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD.
by Litvintseva, Galina P., Glinskiy, Vladimir V., Stukalenko, Elena A.
The present study was aimed to quantitatively investigate the income differentiation of the population using a new quantitative model proposed by the authors based on the different purchasing power of Rouble in the Russian regions. The main approach in this model is dividing the populations of the target region into needy and wealthy groups. All populations of Russia were rearranged from regional quintile groups into the all-Russian groups. The authors have compared the obtained results with the corresponding data of official statistics by the Gini coefficient and other statistical indicators. We have developed our model which is based on the division of the population of country into needy and wealthy groups in our previous studies and now it was used in this study for the real financial data. The calculations and recommendations on the redistributive overcoming of poverty at the expense of increase of the rate of surtax on the incomes of wealthy group are developed. The models of Pen, Lorenz, modified by the authors of the article, were applied in the research. The calculations were carried out for all subjects of the Russian Federation on the Russian State Statistical Service figures for the period of 2008-2013 years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Wendel, Monica L., Garney, Whitney R., Castle, Billie F., Ingram, C. Monique
Although community capacity has been prominent in the public health literature for nearly 20 years, the field has only operationalized a few dimensions. An intriguing dimension of capacity is a community's ability to critically reflect. On the basis of previous research as well as theoretical and practical insights from management and organizational learning literature, we offer a process framework for critical reflexivity practice in community. The framework draws on ideas regarding cognition and agency, praxis, as well as the transformative learning model to conceptualize howreflexivity happens as an emergent community process. The implication is that reflexivity is a community-level process of making meaning of experiences that drive a common narrative. Inclusivity and establishing consensus are paramount, and can be difficult in light of power dynamics and consideration of dissenting voices and different experiences; enlightened self-interest and creating conducive spaces for dialogue are key in this process. Strengthening communities' ability to gain and employ collective wisdom from their experience will also build their overall capacity for population health improvement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Clipperton Atoll as a model to study small marine populations: Endemism and the genomic consequences of small population size.
by Crane, Nicole L., Tariel, Juliette, Caselle, Jennifer E., Friedlander, Alan M., Robertson, D. Ross, Bernardi, Giacomo
Estimating population sizes and genetic diversity are key factors to understand and predict population dynamics. Marine species have been a difficult challenge in that respect, due to the difficulty in assessing population sizes and the open nature of such populations. Small, isolated islands with endemic species offer an opportunity to groundtruth population size estimates with empirical data and investigate the genetic consequences of such small populations. Here we focus on two endemic species of reef fish, the Clipperton damselfish, Stegastes baldwini, and the Clipperton angelfish, Holacanthus limbaughi, on Clipperton Atoll, tropical eastern Pacific. Visual surveys, performed over almost two decades and four expeditions, and genetic surveys based on genomic RAD sequences, allowed us to estimate kinship and genetic diversity, as well as to compare population size estimates based on visual surveys with effective population sizes based on genetics. We found that genetic and visual estimates of population numbers were remarkably similar. S. baldwini and H. limbaughi had population sizes of approximately 800,000 and 60,000, respectively. Relatively small population sizes resulted in low genetic diversity and the presence of apparent kinship. This study emphasizes the importance of small isolated islands as models to study population dynamics of marine organisms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Browning, Sharon R., Browning, Brian L., Daviglus, Martha L., Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A., Schneiderman, Neil, Kaplan, Robert C., Laurie, Cathy C.
Populations change in size over time due to factors such as population growth, migration, bottleneck events, natural disasters, and disease. The historical effective size of a population affects the power and resolution of genetic association studies. For admixed populations, it is not only the overall effective population size that is of interest, but also the effective sizes of the component ancestral populations. We use identity by descent and local ancestry inferred from genome-wide genetic data to estimate overall and ancestry-specific effective population size during the past hundred generations for nine admixed American populations from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, and for African-American and European-American populations from two US cities. In these populations, the estimated pre-admixture effective sizes of the ancestral populations vary by sampled population, suggesting that the ancestors of different sampled populations were drawn from different sub-populations. In addition, we estimate that overall effective population sizes dropped substantially in the generations immediately after the commencement of European and African immigration, reaching a minimum around 12 generations ago, but rebounded within a small number of generations afterwards. Of the populations that we considered, the population of individuals originating from Puerto Rico has the smallest bottleneck size of one thousand, while the Pittsburgh African-American population has the largest bottleneck size of two hundred thousand. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A simple method for calculating minimum estimates of previous population sizes of wildlife from hunting records.
by Agetsuma, Naoki
Hunting records have proven useful for examining the historical status of wildlife populations. The number of animals harvested can provide information on past population sizes that would have been required to support harvest yields. Therefore, when statistical data on annual harvests are available, a minimum estimate of past population sizes can be calculated. A very simple method for estimating the sizes of historic wildlife populations using only annual hunting records and the maximum annual population increase rate is presented in this study. This method was applied to estimate past population sizes for Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido Island, Japan, using hunting records from 1873 to 1882, and assuming 15% and 35% population increase rates. The annual number of deer harvested during 1873 to 1882 ranged from 15,000 to 129,000. The minimum population size in 1873 was estimated as 349,000–473,000. This method was validated by applying it to the eastern population of Hokkaido Island in 1993 when the population size was approximately 260,000, and population sizes estimated by this method were 0.50–1.17 times the nominal population size. Thus, the population estimates from this method were approximately equal to or less than the expected population sizes, and this method can be used to obtain minimum estimates of wildlife populations. Because shorter durations of hunting records result in population size underestimates, it would be better to use hunting record of 10 years or longer in this method. In addition, the degree of underestimation may change with hunting pressure intensity on the populations, other causes of mortality, and maximum annual increase rates of the species. The method can be applied to any wildlife species for which records of annual harvest and maximum annual population increase rates of the species are available. The estimates obtained can provide benchmarks for the population size required for ecosystem conservation, and can be useful for wildlife management as they indicate the lowest limit to maintain the population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by ABDULKAREEM, Abdulhamid Khadijah, MUSTAPHA, Toyin Oba, KRISHNAMURTHY, Rama
Genetic diversity was estimated among 13 populations of Dipcadi filamentosum Medik. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) was used to generate data to examine the patterns of genetic differentiation between and within the populations. A total of ten primers used generated 146 amplicon of which 97.9% of loci detected revealed polymorphism. The Shannon's indices (I) and Nei's genetic diversity (h) among the studied populations from the various regions were estimated at 0.6216 (SD = 0.1199) and estimate of gene flow (Nm) in the population was 5.0555. Cluster analysis (neighbor-joining, NJ) revealed that the North-West populations (KAT) are genetically distinct from the North-central populations (SOB, KAB, KAM and KAS). Ordination by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) supported the findings of NJ. The SOB and YOB; MAI and UNI populations clustered as closely related are probably as a result of correlation between the geographical locations and gene flow. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]