by Vera, Dusya, Crossan, Mary [2004-04-01]
Adopting the strategic leadership perspective, we develop a theoretical model of the impact of CEO and top manager leadership styles and practices on organizational learning. We take a fine-grained look at the processes and levels of organizational learning to describe how strategic leaders influence each element of the learning system. Researchers have implicitly assumed transformational leadership approaches to organizational learning. We challenge this conventional wisdom by highlighting the value of transactional leadership as well. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Garrity, Rudolph B. [1993-01-01]
It has been argued that Total Quality Management is the language of those committed to individual, organizational, and national excellence and that TQM should be implemented in federal organizations. This was done by looking at what is needed from our private and public sector organizations, considering expert opinion on individual and organizational development, exploring ways to enhance organizational culture and performance, and conceptualizing the federal organization of the future. If this work is at all convincing, let's do it. Better yet, let's do it anyway and become motivated by the results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Di Pietro, Laura, Mugion, RobertaGuglielmetti, Renzi, MariaFrancesca [2013-08-01]
The main aim of this paper is to verify that a mixed approach that integrates Lean principles and customer feedback tools is effective and critical for improving performance. This article draws upon the theory of G. Mazur, which states, ‘Lean without customer satisfaction does not equal success’ (Mazur, 2009, QFD Institute). The current study verifies whether this idea is applicable to the public sector. The study focuses on integrating the waste management proposed by the Lean approach and the customer focus proposed by total quality management. The combination of these practices through the use of suitable tools may represent a key factor in maximising results and optimising performance despite the current economic recession. This paper presents the methodology and results of a Kaizen event in an Italian public office in which both of these tools were adopted. A value stream map depicting current and future states was designed to identify areas of improvement. The citizen relationship office was selected as the context for the Kaizen event. Following this event, Lean tools were implemented to identify and reduce wastes, and customer feedback tools were adopted to analyse citizens' opinions. This study determined that implementing a Kaizen event programme in the public sector requires the adoption of a holistic approach and a consideration of the integration between internal and external aspects of public service functions. Lean and customer feedback tools have to be integrated to be more effective. In accordance with the theories of Dennis [Dennis, P. (2002).Lean production simplified: A plain language guide to the world's most powerful production system. New York, NY: Productivity Press]. and Pettersen [Pettersen, J. (2009). Defining Lean production: Some conceptual and practical issues.The TQM Journal,21(2), 127–142], this study uses a case study in the public sector to investigate the need to integrate customer focus with Lean principles, thus verifying the effectiveness of a mixed approach. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
by Stupak, Ronald J., Garrity, Rudolph B. [1993-01-01]
This article analyzes changes in public sector characteristics which create opportunities for total quality management (TQM) experimentation and implementation in the U.S. Previously Congress has defined outcomes or outputs and quality measures for public sector services. While these services were often in response to a citizen defined need, the customer was rarely involved in determining how the need was satisfied or measured. Special interest groups are demanding expanded services and describing both the form and characteristics of the service. They are also frequently evaluating the quality of the services provided and frequently defining measures of effectiveness that over time have become widely used and accepted. Frustrated with poor services, citizens as well as students are more active and vocal; they expect to be involved in defining the type of service provided and are willing to participate in determining the alternate processes. The public sector is a very political system, so decisions have been made based on political considerations as well as quantitative/qualitative data. While the culture seems comfortable with decisions based on a reasonable approach, efforts to increase analysis in government have only been moderately successful. One reason is that in many areas it is difficult to measure output. In addition, the government provides more services than products which are thought to be easier to measure. It is also the case that the public sector has taken many actions which are contrary to TQM philosophy.
by Rosenhoover, Donald E., Kuhn Jr., Harold W. [1996-01-01]
This article provides the authors' preliminary conclusions concerning the maturity of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the public sector. They define the public sector as all primary employers of Master of Public Administration (MPA) graduates, including non-profit and quasi-public organizations and agencies as well as governmental units. Their long-term research objective is to determine how TOM should be addressed in Master of Public Administration curricula. This exploratory effort to compare and contrast TQM in the public and private sectors demonstrates that the maturity and acceptance is far greater in the private sector. Lack of literature, awards, and academic interest may explain these differences. The authors believe that they have demonstrated that they are tenable explanations. Much more research is needed to establish whether other explanations exist and how to close this gap. Based on results of the surveys of National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) institutions, we see this as a serious deficiency in many public administration programs. But each institution must determine this. This research to date has convinced the authors that each institution must conduct its own needs assessment to determine how TQM should be addressed. It should not be considered a fad that will soon go away as many institutions appear to believe.
by MUSCALU, Emanoil, FALOBA, Viorica, HULPUŞ, Ioana Alexandra [2015-09-15]
The products and services' quality in the public sector is now one of the most important objectives setbyalmost all public and administrative authorities in developed countries. Total quality management, as the main direction in modernizing and optimize the public field, relies on the involvement of all categories of staff, from managers to executive staff, in order to fulfill the organizational objectives. However, for quality management the main objective is to fulfill the customers' needs at a higher level, to identify the citizen's needs and values and even anticipating and exceeding their expectations. All these quality goals cannot be achieved without conferringthe due importance of the organizational communication in the efficiency of the public sector. The human relations inside the organization, the motivation and implication of the employees, harmonizing the personal interests with the organizational objectives, and also the organization's relation with its environment and especially with the citizens to whom are addressed the public services, are regulated by the use of communication through information exchange. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
No author [2004-02-01]
This section presents executive summaries of articles in this issue. Among the articles discussed are: a case study of the pros and cons of taking a company private; the competitive advantage of human capital; the importance of integrating information technologies with other aspects of a company's operations; launching a joint venture; and breaking down the wall between middle and senior management. Other articles in the issue look at why the Masters of Fine Arts is coveted in business; the future of the public company; the effectiveness of leadership development programs; developing countries and trade; and how businesses can leverage social networks.
by Mulgan, Richard [2010-09-01]
The relationship between ministers and public servants has been a longstanding topic among students of Australian public administration. Recent debate has centred on issues of supposed politicisation and excessive responsiveness in the Australian Public Service (APS), caused, in part, by the weakened tenure of department heads (secretaries). The recent Moran report has little to say on this relationship. It endorses changes to the appointment processes for secretaries which are presumably designed to strengthen secretaries' independence from their political masters. It adopts a view of citizen-centred service and strategic leadership that appears to marginalise ministers. Its approach to public sector leadership is taken from international management theory that works well in a business context and in the United States (US) government system. It is less well-suited to Westminster-style systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by THIES, CLIFFORD [2014-09-01]
The article discusses the importance of institutional arrangements to protect private debt. Topics discussed include Mississippi's default on interest payments to several creditors in 1840 as an example of repudiation of debt, the need for continued access to foreign capital as an incentive for countries and states to repay debt, and the development of institutional arrangements to motivate repayment, including independent judiciary.
by WOOLRIDGE, RICHARD W., HALE, DAVID P., HALE, JOANNE E., SHARPE, R. SHANE [2009-07-01]
The article discusses software development in the context of issues related to project management, examining the role that project scoping plays in the success or failure of software development projects. Project scoping is defined by the authors as an activity that defines a project's boundary through the identification of software elements expected to be delivered and problem domains needs to be met. A 1994 report found that only 16% of IT (Information Technology) projects were successful. Also discussed is the use of outcome-based scoping (OBS) to reduce the chance of scoping-caused project failure.
by Fuentes, S., Poblete‐Echeverría, C., Ortega‐Farias, S., Tyerman, S., De Bei, R. [2014-10-01]
Background and Aims Monitoring of canopy vigour is an important tool in vineyard management to obtain balanced vines (vegetative vs reproductive organs). Leaf area index is the main parameter representing canopy vigour. Our aim was to test an automated computational method to obtain leaf area index and canopy vigour parameters from grapevines with digital photography and video analysis using MATLAB programming techniques for rapid data uptake and gap size analysis. Methods and Results The proposed method was tested against allometry at a Chilean experimental site planted with cv. Merlot. A temporal and spatial assessment of the method was also tested in a drought and drought/recovery experiment with cv. Chardonnay in the Riverland, South Australia. These data were geo-referenced and compared to the normalised difference vegetation index extracted from the WorldView-2 satellite images at a 2 m2 per pixel resolution. Conclusions The maximum leaf area index data obtained with cover digital photography and video analysis are an accurate, cost-effective and easy-to-use method to estimate spatial and temporal canopy LAI and structure when compared to standard measurements (allometry and plant canopy analyser). Significance of the Study This study has demonstrated that the method proposed is an accurate and inexpensive tool for application in experiments and by the industry to monitor spatio-temporal distribution of vigour. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by LIŢĂ, STEFAN [2018-01-01]
This paper presents data about the use of the Toxic Leadership Scale - TLS (Schmidt, 2008; Popa et al., 2013) in Romanian military organizations and analyzes its criterion validity. The study involved 243 participants from two military units with different organizational climate (normal vs. tense) who rated their leaders (Head and First Deputy) using the TLS (which consists in 30 items with five subscales and a global score). According to a Bayesian t-test for independent samples, we found compelling evidence that leaders of the high conflict unit received higher scores on the TLS than leaders of the low conflict unit, a fact that supports the criterion validity of the scale. The study provides additional evidence regarding the psychometric characteristics of the scale and indicates that it can be used in real organizational contexts for assessing senior management, even in high-stakes situations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Sukhmani, Gupta, Mohit [2017-09-01]
We tried to fit the model represented by theory of planned behavior on the behavior of agricultural waste processors. We defined the behavior as starting the business or growing the business further. The primary objective of the present study is to determine the fit of the model represented by theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) to the behavior of agricultural waste processors or find the variant of the model if any using path analysis. The secondary aim of the study is to find the statistical significance of the mediation role played by intention in the model or growing the business further. The methodology involved survey of 82 agricultural waste processors and path analysis performed on the collected data to find the suitable model for the responses. Tests determining the statistical significance of the mediatory construct of intention were also applied. The results show that the model including direct path between attitude and behavior is found to be the best one and attitude has a predominant role in explaining the behavior. Also intention plays a statistically significant role as mediating variable. Conclusion: Collected data fits the model of theory of applied behavior but in a slightly modified model. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Armstrong, Craig E., Shimizu, Katsuhiko [2007-12-01]
This study reviews empirical studies of the resource-based view (RBV) and examines methodological issues and new directions that will help to clarify the value and boundaries of the RBV, Through our comprehensive review of the research design and operationalization of resource-based constructs used in 125 empirical studies, we (1) discuss key empirical issues particularly important to RBV research, (2) illustrate how researchers have or have not overcome some of these challenges, and (3) highlight two important approaches that offer promise for sharpening the boundary conditions of the RBV: an integrative framework for RBV research and utilization of nonsignificant results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Lichtenthaler, Ulrich [2011-02-01]
The concept of open innovation has recently gained widespread attention. It is particularly relevant now because many firms are required to implement open innovation, despite the difficulties associated with managing these activities. After providing a definition of open innovation delimiting it from open source, an overview of prior research is given, which identifies the following important topics of earlier open innovation research: technology transactions, user innovation, business models, and innovation markets. In light of current controversial debates about the value of the open innovation framework, we evaluate the literature and assess whether open innovation is a sustainable trend rather than a management fashion. On this basis, we present a conceptual framework that provides the foundation for discussing critical open innovation processes and their implications for managing open innovation at the organizational, project, and individual level. Thus, we assess the multilevel determinants of the make-or-buy, integrate-or-relate, and keep-or-sell decisions in opening up the innovation process. Then, we propose a research agenda based on this conceptual framework with particular emphasis on the organizational antecedents and performance consequences of open innovation and on important research design issues. Finally, we discuss implications for management education and practice, and we provide a conclusion and outlook. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
No author [2000-03-01]
Offers information on several conferences concerning system dynamics to be held from May to November 2005, including the 1st World Conference on Production and Operations Management.
by Bown, Chad P. [2014-02-01]
The commitment to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entails political-economic trade-offs. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the 'flexibilities' that policymakers exercise to get around them is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically based assessment of ways that Turkey exercised trade policy flexibilities during the global economic crisis of 2008-11. First, and despite multilateral and customs union commitments that might limit changes to its applied tariffs, Turkey exercised flexibilities during 2008-11 by making changes to both its applied MFN and preferential tariffs that could affect nearly 9 per cent of its manufacturing imports. Second, Turkey's cumulative application of temporary trade barrier ( TTB) policies - that is, anti-dumping, safeguards and countervailing duties - is estimated to impact an additional 4-6 per cent of Turkey's manufacturing imports by 2011. Other surprising results include Turkey's lengthy extensions to the duration of previously imposed anti-dumping and safeguards beyond expected removal dates, conversion of product coverage from one TTB policy to another, extensive coverage of upstream and downstream segments of important industries and potential deepening of discriminatory preferences already inherent in existing preferential trade agreements. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Gorman, Michael F. [2010-09-01]
Hub Group, a North American intermodal freight rail transportation company, developed an integrated production decision support system to improve its yield management and container allocation. The system combines a suite of analytical tools, including forecasting, error distribution analysis, expected value-based heuristics, and optimization tools to improve the decision making of Hub's frontline employees. It is important to note that the production decision support system was structured to fit within Hub's existing organizational structure, business processes, and information technology systems to reduce project risk, development costs, and operational disruption. In 2008, the system's first full year of use, Hub improved its revenue per load by 3 percent and increased its container velocity by 5 percent. These improvements led to a net return of $11 million in cost savings, which equals 22 times Hub's initial investment during that first year of operation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Schlombs, Corinna [2017-01-01]
This article provides a close study of information processing at Allianz, a West German insurance company, in the two decades following World War II. It contributes an international perspective to the history of information by analyzing corporate information technology decisions outside the United States and by tracing exchanges about information technology between insurance managers in the United States and Germany. The article argues that Allianz managers, claiming that electronic information processing would reduce offi ce operating costs, meticulously sought to document these savings to legitimate their computer acquisition in an otherwise adverse economic and political climate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Mutebi, Aloysius, Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald, Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth, Bua, John, Namusoke Kiwanuka, Suzanne, Nammazi, Gertrude, Paina, Ligia, Tetui, Moses [2017-08-02]
Background: Rural populations in Uganda have limited access to formal financial Institutions, but a growing majority belong to saving groups. These saving groups could have the potential to improve household income and access to health services. Objective:To understand organizational characteristics, benefits and challenges, of savings groups in rural Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. Data on the characteristics of community-based savings groups (CBSGs) were collected from 247 CBSG leaders in the districts of Kamuli, Kibukuand Pallisa using self-administered open-ended questionnaires. To triangulate the findings, we conducted in-depth interviews with seven CBSG leaders. Descriptive quantitative and content analysis for qualitative data was undertaken respectively. Results: Almost a quarter of the savings groups had 5–14 members and slightly more than half of the saving groups had 15–30 members. Ninety-three percent of the CBSGs indicated electing their management committees democratically to select the group leaders and held meetings at least once a week. Eighty-nine percent of the CBSGs had used metallic boxes to keep their money, while 10% of the CBSGs kept their money using mobile money and banks,respectively. The main reasons for the formation of CBSGs were to increase household income, developing the community and saving for emergencies. The most common challenges associated with CBSG management included high illiteracy (35%) among the leaders,irregular attendance of meetings (22%), and lack of training on management and leadership(19%). The qualitative findings agreed with the quantitative findings and served to triangulate the main results. Conclusions: Saving groups in Uganda have the basic required structures; however, challenges exist in relation to training and management of the groups and their assets. The government and development partners should work together to provide technical support to the groups. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
by Agius, Steven, Baron, Rebecca [2008-11-01]
Recent significant changes, including financial threats to educational support, have affected the organisation of continuing professional development (CPD) for general practitioners (GPs) in primary care. A study was commissioned by the United Kingdom Conference of Postgraduate Education Advisors in General Practice (UKCEA) to identify the current state and value of deanery-managed CPD across the four countries of the UK. The aims of the study's qualitative component, which this paper documents, were to explore deanery educators' perceptions of CPD and to propose a generic model for CPD management. We used semi-structured telephone interviews and focus groups to collect qualitative data from deanery CPD and appraisal leads, general practice (GP) tutors, clinical governance and education leads of primary care organisations (PCOs) and national CPD policy-makers. We identified five major thematic categories in the data relating to infrastructure, function, diversity, quality and funding. We found considerable variance in deanery-managed CPD across the UK. Centralised systems of CPD management co-ordinated with appraisal were more apparent in the Celtic countries. Concerns about funding for the structures which supported CPD, and particularly the continuing role of GP tutors, were widely held in the English deaneries. It was evident that many GP tutors had been involved in managing CPD, developing an effective appraisal system and providing education based on PCO priorities. There was evidence of significant diversity and variety amongst English deaneries which may challenge the future development of an effective national revalidation scheme. We also found support across the sample for greater cohesion between deaneries, the Royal College of General Practitioners and PCOs in the management of CPD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Yuan-Duen Lee, Chiu-Chuan Lin, Chen-Fen Huang [2017-05-01]
The aim of this paper is to identify the key issues in the quality of educational management research, based on co-citation and factor analyses, in order to assess the intellectual structure of this body of literature. By analyzing 58,894 citations in 1,643 articles published in SSCI journals in the field of the quality of educational management between 2004 and 2013, this paper identified the most important publications, scholars and journals. The results can help to profile the network of knowledge production in the quality of educational management research, and so provide important insights with implications for current and future research paradigms, and thus are of value to both management scholars and practitioners. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Matsuyama, Kiminori [1990-08-01]
The article focuses on export subsidies that have resulted from management-labor conspiracy. A mercantilistic trade policy is often introduced as a tool to generate more jobs in some key industries. When employment in an export (import) industry is perceived to be low, the government would be tempted to adopt measures of export promotion (import protection) to increase it. By effectively guaranteeing employment, however, these policies would reduce incentives for the private sector to reach efficient labor contracts. This paper constructs simple models to illustrate this point for export subsidies and so it can be viewed as an addition to the literature that aims to bring attention to the pitfalls of the new mercantilism. In the present paper the firm and the labor union choose the form of a labor contract before the government sets a subsidy rate. Two alternatives are considered. Under scenario one they agree to maximize their joint profits, while under scenario two they agree to the contract that will allow the union to set a wage first before the government sets a subsidy rate and the firm to choose employment after government action. First scenario always leads to the same outcome as in case that the government could commit to a subsidy rate. When the government can finance subsidies by lump sum taxes on the rest of the economy, the firm and the union prefer scenario two to scenario one. Export subsidies arise in this model as an outcome of the management-labor conspiracy.
by Doherty, Greg [2016-07-01]
The article examines the common problems and liability insurance requirements in contract agreements. Topics discussed include the occurrence form liability insurance for the lessee, the big retail company's insurance requirements, and strategy how can company avoid contract pitfalls such as not signing in to document that is confusing, and asked the advice of the trusted advisors.