Desarrollo poblacional de Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) en cultivos de manzano de San Carlos, Mendoza, Argentina.
by Lopez Garcia, Guillermo P.
The front cover of the journal is presented along with the issue's editors and information on subscriptions and table of contents which mentions topics such as family planning, child health in rural India and infectious diseases.
Lokálny demografický vývoj na Slovensku: percepcia, spoloĉenské implikácie a interdisciplinárne výzvy.
by Bleha, Branislav
Local Population Development in Slovakia: Perception, Social Implications and Interdisciplinary Prospects. Rapid demographical changes and ageing belong to the essential features of the transformation in post-communist countries. This issue was analysed by plenty of studies and publications characterised by a general as well as detail character. Thus, we know quite enough about the demographic essence of these changes, however, the social, macro-economical and social consequences and other wider aspects have been rarely analysed in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic as well as in other Central European countries. There is a scarcity of research on wide public perception of population development. Moreover, we have not found any study about the perception of population development by local authorities and central governments in these countries. Our study tries to fill this gap. It represents a pilot research on how the Slovak local selfgovernment authorities (mayors) perceive demographical changes. They have been asked if they understand population ageing, if they realize what factors influence it, what social consequences the demographical development brings, and if they have any population strategies and forecasts for their own municipalities. Since the spatial differentiation is very peculiar with regard to the demographic processes, we tried to select different answers of mayors by linking them with several delimited regional types of municipalities and settlements. In addition to this geographical view, we discuss the need for a comprehensive approach in this field linking together demographical, geographical and sociological methods. Sociológia 2011, Vol. 43 (No. 4: 362-390) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Cassen, Robert
Robert Cassen, professor at the Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics, seeks in this paper to explain the role of population growth in economic development and environmental change. Professor Cassen argues that the role of population is best understood as a long-term underlying factor which influences the scale and composition of demand for goods, services and resources, as well as the supply of labor. How demands are met, and how useful more labor is, are functions of innumerable influences, including the economy, technology, markets (or lack of markets), social structure and social conditions, property rights, politics, law and institutions. One can point to aspects of development that are strongly population driven, and disentangle others which are not, but where population has a significant influence. Professor Cassen concentrates on such an approach, illustrating the general case from the Indian experience. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article discusses the population, development, and human rights issues at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to ensure a person's healthy and dignified life. It states that the program increased sexual and reproductive health and reduced gender gaps in education which led to improved living standards and opportunities, and improved well-being and health of people. It also notes the significance of the program on poverty reduction and economic development.
by Peng Xizhe, Guo Xiuyun, Han Xuehui
This study analyses the future goals of population development in Shanghai from the viewpoint of population carrying capacity and ecological footprint. The population carrying capacity is one of the fundamental factors researchers and policy-makers need to take into account in managing and planning the development of a country or a region. This study focuses on the case of Shanghai, based on previous ecological footprint analysis, and builds a comprehensive index evaluation model. By applying basic principles of multi-goal decision-making analysis and operating methods of system dynamics, it calculates population carrying capacity corresponding to different standards that resource-economic factors can support. It further explores issues related to population change in the metropolis and relevant policy measures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Presents an overview of a population-development program implementation in Malaysia. Extent of the influence of integrational and community-support variables on the efficacy of the program; Overview of family planning and other socioeconomic services; Factors influencing the development of the program; Policy implications for population development.
Application of Fuzzy Borda Combination Evaluation in Subjective and Objective Evaluation Methods in Comprehensive Evaluation of Population Development.
by Jiajia Yu, Hongqi Ma, Yuqi Han
by Yang Xuefeng, Chu Maoguang
The characteristic of the population is grey in nature. Through the establishment of dynamic GM(1,1) model for the next decade, the paper has carried out the prediction of the total population, male and female population of Hubei, providing a reference for the formulation of corresponding population policy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Utkovski, Zoran, Pradier, Melanie F., Stojkoski, Viktor, Perez-Cruz, Fernando, Kocarev, Ljupco
Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. It resides on the premise of hidden capabilities—fundamental endowments underlying the productive structure. In general, measuring the capabilities behind economic complexity directly is difficult, and indirect measures have been suggested which exploit the fact that the presence of the capabilities is expressed in a country’s mix of products. We complement these studies by introducing a probabilistic framework which leverages Bayesian non-parametric techniques to extract the dominant features behind the comparative advantage in exported products. Based on economic evidence and trade data, we place a restricted Indian Buffet Process on the distribution of countries’ capability endowment, appealing to a culinary metaphor to model the process of capability acquisition. The approach comes with a unique level of interpretability, as it produces a concise and economically plausible description of the instantiated capabilities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by LUCIAN, SALA ADRIAN
Romania's population is undergoing a decline in demographic figures and a shift in the population structure, as older generations tend to retire moving to the top part of the age pyramid. This types of transitions are followed by a decrease in economic growth, as a result of a shrinking workforce, lower productivity levels, a more moderate savings rate, and smaller investments. Looking at the labor market in Romania, it is apparent that it is in decline, with a considerable portion of the population approaching retirement, and a lack of workers to take their place. But this reality has not caught up yet with the Romanian economy that is growing at a constant pace. To better understand this phenomenon, a closer look at the labor force is in order using the employment to population ratio, which helps in explaining how the labor force contributes to constant economic growth. The research method is statistical with the aim of determining the changes over time of the employment to population ratio, in relationship to the total population and GDP growth. The expected results are that economic growth is maintained and encouraged by a steady working group of the population that in time has become more proficient and productive thus leading to a constant increase in GDP. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
INTERREGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATION INCOMES IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD.
by Litvintseva, Galina P., Glinskiy, Vladimir V., Stukalenko, Elena A.
The present study was aimed to quantitatively investigate the income differentiation of the population using a new quantitative model proposed by the authors based on the different purchasing power of Rouble in the Russian regions. The main approach in this model is dividing the populations of the target region into needy and wealthy groups. All populations of Russia were rearranged from regional quintile groups into the all-Russian groups. The authors have compared the obtained results with the corresponding data of official statistics by the Gini coefficient and other statistical indicators. We have developed our model which is based on the division of the population of country into needy and wealthy groups in our previous studies and now it was used in this study for the real financial data. The calculations and recommendations on the redistributive overcoming of poverty at the expense of increase of the rate of surtax on the incomes of wealthy group are developed. The models of Pen, Lorenz, modified by the authors of the article, were applied in the research. The calculations were carried out for all subjects of the Russian Federation on the Russian State Statistical Service figures for the period of 2008-2013 years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Clipperton Atoll as a model to study small marine populations: Endemism and the genomic consequences of small population size.
by Crane, Nicole L., Tariel, Juliette, Caselle, Jennifer E., Friedlander, Alan M., Robertson, D. Ross, Bernardi, Giacomo
Estimating population sizes and genetic diversity are key factors to understand and predict population dynamics. Marine species have been a difficult challenge in that respect, due to the difficulty in assessing population sizes and the open nature of such populations. Small, isolated islands with endemic species offer an opportunity to groundtruth population size estimates with empirical data and investigate the genetic consequences of such small populations. Here we focus on two endemic species of reef fish, the Clipperton damselfish, Stegastes baldwini, and the Clipperton angelfish, Holacanthus limbaughi, on Clipperton Atoll, tropical eastern Pacific. Visual surveys, performed over almost two decades and four expeditions, and genetic surveys based on genomic RAD sequences, allowed us to estimate kinship and genetic diversity, as well as to compare population size estimates based on visual surveys with effective population sizes based on genetics. We found that genetic and visual estimates of population numbers were remarkably similar. S. baldwini and H. limbaughi had population sizes of approximately 800,000 and 60,000, respectively. Relatively small population sizes resulted in low genetic diversity and the presence of apparent kinship. This study emphasizes the importance of small isolated islands as models to study population dynamics of marine organisms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Browning, Sharon R., Browning, Brian L., Daviglus, Martha L., Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A., Schneiderman, Neil, Kaplan, Robert C., Laurie, Cathy C.
Populations change in size over time due to factors such as population growth, migration, bottleneck events, natural disasters, and disease. The historical effective size of a population affects the power and resolution of genetic association studies. For admixed populations, it is not only the overall effective population size that is of interest, but also the effective sizes of the component ancestral populations. We use identity by descent and local ancestry inferred from genome-wide genetic data to estimate overall and ancestry-specific effective population size during the past hundred generations for nine admixed American populations from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, and for African-American and European-American populations from two US cities. In these populations, the estimated pre-admixture effective sizes of the ancestral populations vary by sampled population, suggesting that the ancestors of different sampled populations were drawn from different sub-populations. In addition, we estimate that overall effective population sizes dropped substantially in the generations immediately after the commencement of European and African immigration, reaching a minimum around 12 generations ago, but rebounded within a small number of generations afterwards. Of the populations that we considered, the population of individuals originating from Puerto Rico has the smallest bottleneck size of one thousand, while the Pittsburgh African-American population has the largest bottleneck size of two hundred thousand. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A simple method for calculating minimum estimates of previous population sizes of wildlife from hunting records.
by Agetsuma, Naoki
Hunting records have proven useful for examining the historical status of wildlife populations. The number of animals harvested can provide information on past population sizes that would have been required to support harvest yields. Therefore, when statistical data on annual harvests are available, a minimum estimate of past population sizes can be calculated. A very simple method for estimating the sizes of historic wildlife populations using only annual hunting records and the maximum annual population increase rate is presented in this study. This method was applied to estimate past population sizes for Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido Island, Japan, using hunting records from 1873 to 1882, and assuming 15% and 35% population increase rates. The annual number of deer harvested during 1873 to 1882 ranged from 15,000 to 129,000. The minimum population size in 1873 was estimated as 349,000–473,000. This method was validated by applying it to the eastern population of Hokkaido Island in 1993 when the population size was approximately 260,000, and population sizes estimated by this method were 0.50–1.17 times the nominal population size. Thus, the population estimates from this method were approximately equal to or less than the expected population sizes, and this method can be used to obtain minimum estimates of wildlife populations. Because shorter durations of hunting records result in population size underestimates, it would be better to use hunting record of 10 years or longer in this method. In addition, the degree of underestimation may change with hunting pressure intensity on the populations, other causes of mortality, and maximum annual increase rates of the species. The method can be applied to any wildlife species for which records of annual harvest and maximum annual population increase rates of the species are available. The estimates obtained can provide benchmarks for the population size required for ecosystem conservation, and can be useful for wildlife management as they indicate the lowest limit to maintain the population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by ABDULKAREEM, Abdulhamid Khadijah, MUSTAPHA, Toyin Oba, KRISHNAMURTHY, Rama
Genetic diversity was estimated among 13 populations of Dipcadi filamentosum Medik. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) was used to generate data to examine the patterns of genetic differentiation between and within the populations. A total of ten primers used generated 146 amplicon of which 97.9% of loci detected revealed polymorphism. The Shannon's indices (I) and Nei's genetic diversity (h) among the studied populations from the various regions were estimated at 0.6216 (SD = 0.1199) and estimate of gene flow (Nm) in the population was 5.0555. Cluster analysis (neighbor-joining, NJ) revealed that the North-West populations (KAT) are genetically distinct from the North-central populations (SOB, KAB, KAM and KAS). Ordination by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) supported the findings of NJ. The SOB and YOB; MAI and UNI populations clustered as closely related are probably as a result of correlation between the geographical locations and gene flow. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN Daemonorops draco (Willd.) Blume (Arecaceae) AMONG WILD AND CULTIVATED POPULATIONS INFERRED BY RAPD MARKERS.
by ASRA, R., SYAMSUARDI, MANSYURDIN, WITONO, J. R.
The genetic diversity of a plant is very important, because genetic variation affects its existence in the natural populations. Analysis of genetic diversity among three wild populations (Bengayoan of 8 accessions, Tebo of 10 accessions, and Sepintun of 8 accessions) and two cultivated populations (Nunusan of 9 accessions and Mandiangin of 8 accessions) of Daemonorops draco (Willd.) Blume were inferred by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Based on the 40 RAPD primers screening, 6 primers showed clear and reproducible bands. The results of the binary character in a data matrix were analyzed by using POPGENE software version 3.2. The results indicated that the genetic diversity in wild populations (H = 0.204) is higher than that of the cultivated populations (H = 0.174). The highest genetic diversity is found in Sepintun population (0.085) which is found in a secondary forest. This population is recommended as a germplasm for the cultivation of D. draco in the future. This study showed that a conservation area such as a national park will not always be a potential source of germplasm as the behavior of indigenous people living in this area greatly affects the genetic diversity of D. draco. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Ioan, Cătălin Angelo
Article shall carry out the analysis of natural movement of Romanian population During 2007-2014. They are thus treated indicators: Live births, Deceased, Natural increase, Marriages, Divorces and Deaths under 1 year. In addition to the regression analysis, are determined the median, quartiles, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation for each indicator. Also the analysis examines dependence aforementioned indicators of regional GDP variation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Calka, Beata, Da Costa, Joanna Nowak, Bielecka, Elzbieta
Population density is one of the key parameters for assessing the magnitude of population exposed to risk, and the better quality data we have, the better the assessment of risk. The aim of this study is to elaborate a high-resolution spatially distributed population density grid, which estimates population at the commune scale with a reliability of over 90%. The novelty of the approach is population density estimation in a regular European grid, based on buildings vector data collected in the national topographic database. Using abductive reasoning in combination with statistics and spatial analysis, the authors extract approximate information about a population from the large-scale topographic data. Moreover, linking the obtained population data with the cadastral data - by unique building identifier - allows for regular, quick and census surveyindependent updates of the population surface. A shortcoming of the approach is the issue of the possible existence of two houses per family, which leads to an overestimation of population. However, in the study area it affected only two of the total 14 communes by 7%-9%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
by Jianhai Chen, Pan Ni, Xinyun Li, Jianlin Han, Jakovlić, Ivan, Chengjun Zhang, Shuhong Zhao
Background: Population genetics theory predicts an important role of differences in the effective population size (Ne) among species on shaping the accumulation of functional mutations by regulating the selection efficiency. However, this correlation has never been tested in domesticated animals. Results: Here, we synthesized 62 whole genome data in eight domesticated species (cat, dog, pig, goat, sheep, chicken, cattle and horse) and compared domesticates with their wild (or ancient) relatives. Genes with significantly different selection pressures (revealed by nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios, Ka/Ks or ω) between domesticated (Dω) and wild animals (Wω) were determined by likelihood-ratio tests. Species-level effective population sizes (Ne) were evaluated by the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent (PSMC) model, and Dω/Wω were calculated for each species to evaluate the changes in accumulation of functional mutations after domestication relative to pre-domestication period. Correlation analysis revealed that the most recent (~ 10. 000 years ago) Ne(s) are positively correlated with Dω/Wω. This result is consistent with the corollary of the nearly neutral theory, that higher Ne could boost the efficiency of positive selection, which might facilitate the overall accumulation of functional mutations. In addition, we also evaluated the accumulation of radical and conservative mutations during the domestication transition as: Dradical/Wradical and Dconservative/Wconservative, respectively. Surprisingly, only Dradical/Wradical ratio exhibited a positive correlation with Ne (p < 0.05), suggesting that domestication process might magnify the accumulation of radical mutations in species with larger Ne. Conclusions: Our results confirm the classical population genetics theory prediction and highlight the important role of species' Ne in shaping the patterns of accumulation of functional mutations, especially radical mutations, in domesticated animals. The results aid our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of functional mutations after domestication, which is critical for understanding the phenotypic diversification associated with this process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]